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Voliime XA^III 




1 8 <> (i . 


The extension of the scope of the National Mnsenin during- recent 
years and the activity of the collectors employed in its interest have 
caused a great increase in the amount of material in its possession. 
Many of the objects gathered are of a novel and important character, 
and serve to throw a new light upon the study of nature and of man. 

The importance to science of prompt publication of descriptions of 
this material led to the establishment, in 1878, of the inesent series 
of publications, entitled " Proceedings of the United States National 
Museum," the distinguishing peculiarity of which is that the articles 
are published m pamphlet form as fast as completed and in advance of 
the bound volume. The present volume constitutes the eighteenth of the 

The articles in this series consist: First, of papers prepared by the 
scientific corps of the National Museum; secondly, of papers by others, 
founded upon the collections in the National Museum; and, finally, 
of facts and memoranda from the correspondence of the Smithsonian 

The Bulletin of the National 31 n scum, the publication of whicii was 
commenced in 1875, consists of elal)orate papers based upon the collec- 
tions of the Museum, reports of expeditions, etc., while the Proceedings 
lacilitate the prompt publication of freshly-acquired facts relating to 
biology, anthropology and geology, descri])tions of restricted groups 
of animals and plants, the discussion of particular questions relative to 
the synonymy of species, and the diaries of minor expeditions. 

Other papers of more general popular interest are printed in the 
Appendix lo the Annual Report. 

Papers intended for publication m the Proceedings and lUilletin of 
the National Museum are referred to the Advisory Committee on Pub- 
lications, composed as follows: Frederick W. True (chairman), Marcus 
Benjamin (editor), James E. Benedict, Otis T. 3Iason, Leonhard 

Steineger, and Lester F. Ward. 

S. P. Langlev, 

Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution. 



Allen, Harrison. Description of a new Species of Bat of 

the Genus GIossoplififl((.—^<^. 1100. October 27, 1890 ^ 779-7.S1 

New species: Olossophaga vilhisa. 

iSTotes on the Vampire Bat {IHphylla evaudata), with 

special reference to its Eehition ships with Besmodns rnfus. — 

'So. 1099. October 27, 1896 - 769-777 

AsHMEAD, William H. On some Reared Parasitic Hymen- 

opterous Insects from Ceylon.— No. 1092. August 12, 1896. 633-648 
(See also under Howard, L. O.) 

Benedict, James E. Preliminary Descriptions of a new 
Genus and three new Species of Crustaceans from an Artesian 
Well at San Marcos, Tex.— No. 1087. August 12, 1896. . . . 615-617 

New genus: ('irolanidrs. 

New species: raJamonetefs <iti*roriim, ClroJavUles fexensis, ('ran<ionyx 

Calvert, Philip P. East African Odonata collected by Dr. 

W. L. Abbott.— No. 104(5. April 23, 1896 121-142 

New species: (h-thetrum iruncatum, O. ahhottii, .Eschna r\hii\, Disparo- 
neura ahhotti. 

Notes on the Odonata from East Africa, collected by 

the Chanler Expedition.— No. 1047. April 16, 1896 143-145 

Chittenden, F. H. Two new Species of Beetles of the Tene- 

brionid Genus Echocenis.—l^o. 1041. April 23, 1896 79-80 

New species: Echocerus denUger, E. reeitr rains. 

Cook, O. E. An Arrangement of the Geophilidw, a Family of 

Chilopoda.— No. 1039. April 23, 1896 63-75 

New families: (ionihregmatid(f, Oryidtp, IHsargida-, BaUophilida , 

Schendylidtr, Dhjnnthodoniido-. 
New genera: Disargns, BaUophihm, Ctenopliilux, Schizoto'nia, Pie-sto- 


Date of publication. 


Cook, O. F. East African Diplopoda <»f the Suborder Poly- 
desmoidca, collected by Mr, William Astor Ohanler. — No, 
1042. April 23, 1S9G 81-1 12 

New jjeuera : Antrodesiniin, Marplodesmus, (h'odefDniis. 
New species: Astrodesmns sleVifer, MdrpfodcsMux chaiileri, Orodrsmiis 
forceps, 0. hicolor, 0. iinicolor. 

■ On Geophilns attenuatis, Say, of the Class Chilopoda. — 

Xo. 1038. April 2.">, 180G 59-02 

Priodesmus, anew iienvis of Diplo])oda from Suriuam. — 

Ko. 1037. April 23, 1896 53-57 

New genus : Priodesmns. 

New species: Priodesmus acuK, P. para. 

Two new Diplopod Myriapoda of the (ienus Oxydesmus 

from the Congo.— Ko. 1036, April 23, 1896 47-52 

New species: Oxi/drsmns rrtwj^n', (>. jiahcllatiis. 

CoQUiLLETT, D. W. Revlslou of the North American JEmpi- 
dtv — A Family of TwoAvinged Insects. — No. 1073. ^lay 25, 
1896 387-440 

Newgeuera: Neoplasia, Empimorphu, Ntovoia, Kidiybiis. 

New species: Hemerodromia captns, H. rogatoris, Mantipeza palloris, 
Brachy stoma rohertsonW, Hilara Johnsoui, If. cana, H. riridis, Empl- 
morpha comantis, Empis loripedix, E. cliiiisd, E. lomatitis, K. valentis, 
E. humUe, E. ravida, E. tenehrona, E. tersa, E. captiis, E. compia, E. 
ai'ida, E. levicuJa, K. maiica, E. oiiosa, E. (jiilo^ta, E. virgata, Microph- 
oi-ii.'s ravidi(s, Mythicomyia libiaJis, Rhamphomyla ravida, 11. loripedis, 
Ii. caUfornica, B. pectoris, B. colorata, B. arvuata, B. amplipedis, 
B. tertia, B. compta, R. nasoni, B. duplicis, B. bifilata, R. avida, B. oii- 
osa, B. setosa, B. insecta, B. effera, B. niaiica, R. vaUja, B. ciliala, 
R. sciitcllaris, B. fiitihriata, R. ahdita, R. virgata. A*. stidigtrotiiH, IL 
amplicella, /'. atylata, B. piliyeronis, R. ftcxiiotia, R. parra, R. 
gilvipiloxa, Xeocota wccdii, Mcghypcriis occideim, .Lcptope:a compta, 
Syiicches dcbilin, »s'. hyaliiius, Hybos slossono', Plalypalpiis tcrsiin. P. 
inciiltus, Tachydromia s(:hwar:ii. 

Dall, W. H. Diagnoses of new Speciesof Mollusks from the 

West Coast of America.— No. 1034. April 23, 1896 7-20 

New species: CaUiosloma iridium, C. tKrhiuiim, Aiiaplocainu-s borcalis, 
Sola7-iellani(da, S. ceratophora, Rimula ( i)expansa, Eniargiinilajtabel- 
lum, Choristes carpentcri, BenfhodoUiiin pacificiim, Phos coconeiisis, 
Comiiiella bnnnieociiicta, I'nsiin (f) riifocaiidatus, Traclolira ■•^parta, 
ScapheUa bcnthalis, Cnncellaria eenlrota, C. io, Plciiroioma (Stcir- 
axis) aulava, Pleiirotornella casfauea, Xiiciila iphigenia, Limopsis 
compresHHs, Philobrya atlautica, Callocardia Icpla, C. oralis, C.gigas, 
('allogo)iia angnlata, Periploma stcanisii, P. carpenieri. 

Diagnoses of new Mollusks from the Survey of the Mex- 
ican Boundary.— No. 1033. April 23, 1896 1-6 

New sjiecies: Epiphragmopliora arizoiiensis, E. hacliitana, I'olygyra 
chiricaliitarta, P. mearnsii, Holoapira {Ifetastoma) crosnei, H. (M.) 
j)ilsbryi, H. {Dintomospira) bilamellata, H. (Haplostemma) mearnsii, 
H. {Bostridiocentrum) reraeruziaua, Uiiio iiiitclitlli, Cerion (.1/aj/- 
nardia) piveria. 


Dall, W. H. Diagnoses of new Tertiary Fossils from the 

Soutbeni United States.— Xo. 1035. April 2'^, 1890 21-46 

New species : CaroIia{ Wakullina) jioridana, Ostrea podaf/rhta, O.J'alco, 
TiirriteUa alcida, Actaon chipoJanii.s, J. (Rictaxis) fnsuliia, A.mtfctk- 
kanns, Bingicula semilimata, I!. cMpolana, Tornatina incisula, T. 
myrmecoon, T. persimilis, T. Jischeri, Retusa cMpolana, Scuphundvr 
lauijdoni, Atys adcmata, A. {Aerotitcmma) (jracilix, A. {A.) sitJiiHi, A. 
ohwnrata, Retusa (Cyiivhuiiia) decapitaiu, R. (C.) quercinenais, R. 
(C.) dnplwensis, R. (C.) microtrcma, liiilUna (Abderospira) cinpolanu, 
Ramiiim pompholyx, Tcrehra {Hastula) hoiisforiia, T. (H.) iiiurnata, 
T. haiteiids, T. (Aciis) curvilineata, T. {A.) curvilirata, T. {A.) 
niuccra, T. (A.) amUra, T. (A.) laiifidom, T. (J.) cMpolana, Conns 
cMpolanus, C. isomitratus, ('. demiuryus, I'tciopnrpura posUi, (ly- 
rodcs (Gyrodisca) dujiUnensis, Umbonintn {Solariorhis) . Jloridanum, 
r.{S.) Hudnla, F. (S.) dapllnense. 

EiCHHOFF. THE LATE WiLLiAM. Remarks on the Synonymy 
of some North American Scolytid Beetles.— No. 1085. Au- 
gust 12, 1896 <;o.v(;io 

scription of a new Species of Pipefish {Siphosioma scovelJi) 

from Corpus Christi, Tex.— No. 1041 April K), 1896 li;'.-il5 

New species: Siplwstoma scovdli. 

Gill, Theodore. On the Application of the name Teuthis to 

a Genus of Fishes.— No. 1052. April 23, 1896 179-189 

Ou the proper Name of the Gunnels or Buttertishes. — 

No. 1018. April 23, 1896 147-151 

Note ou Plectropliti'fi and Hyjwplectrodes, (renera of Ser- 

ranoid Fishes.— No. 1082. July 24, 1896 567-568 

Note ou the Nomenclature of the Poecilioid Fishes.— 

No. 1060. April 23, 1896 - 221-224 

Notes on Characinoid Fishes with Ctenoid Scales, with 

a Description of a new Psectrogaster.—^o. 1055, May 27, 

1896 199-203 

Notes on Oreetolobus or Vrossorhinus, a Genus of 

Sharks.- No. 1057. April 16, 1896 211-212 

Note on the Fishes of the Genus ChorarinK.s.—^o. 

1058. April 16, 1896 213-215 

Notes on the Genus CeplicdeuiherHs of Rafinesiiuc, and 

other Hays with aberrant pectoral Fins [Proptermila and 
Hieroptcra).—'So. 1054. April 23, 1896 195- 1 98 

Notes on the Nomenclature of Scymnnfi or ^Scymnorhinus, 

a Genus of Sharks.— No. 1053. May 27, 1896 191-193 

vin tahlp: of contents. 

Gill, Theodoke. Notes on the Synonymy of the Torpedinidw 

or Xarcohati(la\—^o. 1050. April 23, 1896 161-16r) 

The difterential Characters of the Syngnathid and Hip- 

poeauipid Fishes.— No. 1(>49. April 23, 1896 153-159 

The difi'erential Characters of Characinoid ;ind Erythri- 

uoid Fishes.— No. 105(i. April 23, 1896 205-209 

The Nomenclatnre of Kachicentron or Ulacatc, a (lenns 

of Acanthopterygiau Fishes.— No. 1059. April 23, 1896 217-219 

The Families of Synentognathous Fishes and their 

Nomenclatnre. — No. 1051. April 23, 1896 167-178 

The Nomenclature of the Fishes of the Characinoid 

Genus Tetraf/oiiopterus. — No. 1061. April 23, 1896 225-227 

Holland, W. J. List of the Lei)ido])tera Collected in East 
Africa, 1894, by Mr. William Astor Chanler and Lieut. Lud- 
wig von Hohnel.— No. 1098. October 7, 1896 741-767 

Newgeuus: Metajana. 

New species or variety : Mylothris. 

New species: Yphthima huhiieli, Acnia hoehneli, I'lanema rhanleri. 

Pieris inahoboidex, P.ayripjyinides, Teracolns metagone, Fagri^i astor 'u(, 

Metajana chaiihri. 

List of the Lepidoptera Collected in Eastern Africa by 

Dr. W. L. Abbott, with descriptions of some ajiparently new 
Species.— No. 1062. May 27, 1896 229-258 

New genus: OyorUt. 

New variety: Lacliuoptcra uyresii \'ar. abboilii. 

New species: Acroa pharsalo'ules, A. minima, A. abbottii, Lycn'na 
perpulchra, Chrijsophanns abbotfii, Terias mandarin uliis, Sozuza sle- 
vensii, Sjniarctia abbottii, Alpenu.\ trifasciata, Teracotona clara, 
Metarctia inconspicua, Leiicoma taretensis, Stibolepis atomaria, Co- 
siima maryinala, Dnomitiin kilimavjarensis, Hepiahis henin\ Gorgopis 
abbottii, Conserrula minor, Calliodcn pretiosissima, Ogoria taretenms, 
Gonodela kilimanjarensi-^, (i. rhabdophora. 

List of the Lepidoptera Collected in Kashmir by Dr. 

W. L. Abbott.— No. 1065. May 27. 1896 275-279 

List of the Le)»idoptera collected in Somali land, Eiist 

Africa, by Mr. William Astor Chanler and Lieutenant von 
H(Phnel.— No. 1063. May 27, 1896 259-264 

New species: yphthima chanlrri, Charaxefi chanleri. 

List of the Lepidoptera from .Vldabra, Seychelles, and 

other East African Islands, Collected by Dr. W. L. Abbott.— 

No. 10()4. May 27, 1896 265-273 

New species' Atella xcijcheltariim. CaJloHnnf cranthides, Tcrarol lot 

aldabrennis, Achaa xcuchcUarum . 
New variety : Avhaa '<(>ii-}:ell<tritiii xav. humnndii. 


Howard, L. O., and Asiimead, William IT. On some Reared 
Parasitic H3'meiiopter(»ns Insects from Ceylon, — l^o. 1092. 
August 12, 1890 <»;J3-G48 

New genera: Anar/i/ruK, Anicitus, Jnthemus, Aphrusiobravon. 

New species : Coccophagus orientalis, C. flaccsccns, Encarsiaplanchunui , 
E. (wnidUv, Eucijrtiis HchtensUt', E. chionasjjidis, E. planchon'uv , E. 
fdchardid', E. soUdus, Anag>jrHS (jreeni, Anicetus cei/lonensis, Aphncim 
Jichienskv, Anasialiis tachardia; EupJectrns ceylonensis, .Inthemns 
chionaspidis, Litus enocki, Charops erythrogaster, UemiteUs hrachy- 
cyftari, rolysphbicia reylonica, Bracon green!, Aphra^tohravon flavi- 
})eniiix, Apanteles prutap<{\, A. Urachohv. 

JuDD, Sylvester D. Desciii)tions of Three Species of Sand 
Fleas {AmpMpods) colloctetl at Newport, E. I. — No. 1084. 
July 25. 189G 593-603 

New species: Byblin «r/a.s.v(ci. 

Kendall, William C. DescriiJtion of a new Species of Pipe- 
lish [Siphostoma scoreJU) from Corpus Cbristi, Tex. — No. 104.'). 

April K), 1896 IPi-Uo 

(See also under Evermann, \N'. H.) 

Description of a new Stickleback, Gasterostens (jlaiii 

uhchIus, from the Coast of Maine. — No. 10S9. August 12, 

1S96 623-624 

News])ecies: Gasterostens gladiunculiis. 

LiNELL, Martin L. Description of a new Species of Golden 

Beetle from Costa Kica.— No. 1040. April 23, 1896 77-78 

New species: Pliisiotis keitlii. 

List of Coleoptera Collected on the Tana River and on 

the Jombene Range, East Africa, by Mr. William Astor 
Chanler and Lieut. Ludwig von Hohnel, with Descriptions 
of new Genera and Species. — No. 1094. August 12, 1896. . (J87-716 

New geuera : Paraphosphorus, I'fseiidomacetes, Meracanthoides, (iiphoi- 

New species: Polykirma chanleri, I'sephms hoelineU, Placocerus /iilriis, 
OrphnuK thoracieus, Serica consimUis, S. 7iitidirostri><, Trochahis snh- 
rotiindas, I'egylis rufomacuJatus, Schizonyeha longitarsis, Anomala 
crassa, A. chanleri, Adoretus puraUelus, Paraphosphorus hololeiicus, 
Prosopocera hoehneli, AJphitopola clianleri, Melixanthits imniacnlatus, 
PseKdomacetes ancns, Chrysomela seiitellaris, Aspidoinorpfta macidlcol- 
Us, Laccoptera ferrugiiiea, Epistictia qttadrlpuuctata, Derosphnrus 
carionaius, Achrostns cylindriconiis, Dirholynius minor, Meracan- 
thoidescnpreolineatiis, StrongyliummlrahUe, Praogena tibialis, P. siib- 
viridis. Myhibris atricornis, M. unicineia, Thylacilcs tana, Tanymecus 
aureosquamosus, Cyphoides impressifrons, C. fovvicollis. 


Lin ELL, Martin L. New Species of North American (loleop 
teraof the Family ;<lcarabfC(li(C—^o. 109G. October 7, 1890. 721-731 

New genus : (hjmnopjige. 

New species: PstDiniiodiKfi Si-hirarci, Aphod'ms coquilletti, Ochochrua 
mandibularis, Bradycinitiis minor, (iiimnopyf/c ItopJiaformis, G. pny- 
maa, G. coquilletti, Diploiaxis riifa, La<hnosfer)>a elonfjata, L.parva, 
L. grandior, L. rugosioides, L. minor, I'hijtahis carifrons. Listroche- 
liis pulcher. 

Lucas, Frederic A. Contributious to the Natural History 
of the Commander Islands. XL The Cranium of Pallas's 
Cormorant.— No. 1095. October 7, 1896 717-719 

Osteological and Pterylographical Characters of the 

Procniatida'.~:So. 1077. June 24, 1896 505-507 

MEARN8, Edgar A. Preliminary Description of a new Sub 
genus and six new Species and Subspecies of Hares from 
the Mexican Border of the United States. — No. 1081. June 
24, 1896 551-565 

New species: Lepus gaiUardi. 

New subspecies: Lepus sylraiicnx hohueri, L. arizoiuv major, L. a. 
minor, L texianus griseun, L. t. deserticola. 

Preliminary Diagnoses of new Mammals from the Mexi- 
can Border of the United States. No. 1075. May 23, 1896. 443-447 

New species: Lepus merriami, Peromyscus can us, P. tornilJo. 
New subspecies: SpcrmophiJus niexicanus parrldetis, S. harrisi saxi- 
colus, Peromyscus lexanus medius, I', t. clrmcnlis. 

Merrill, (iEoRGE P. Notes on Asbestos and Asbestiform 

Minerals— No. 1066. April 23, 1896 281-299 

MiuiBACH, Louis. Observations on the Development and 
Migration of the Urticating Organs of Sea Nettles, Cmda- 
,/«.— No. 1097. October 7, 1896 733-740 

Oberholser, Harry C. Descriptions of two new Subspe- 
cies of the Downy Woodpecker, Dryohates pubeftcens (Lm- 
n.^us).— No. 1080. June 24, 18^)6 547-550 

New subspecies: Dryohates puheseens mcridionalis, D. p. nelsoni. 

Eathbun, Mary J. Descriptions of two new Species of Fresh- 
water Crabs from Costa Kica. — No. 1071. July 8, 1896. . . . 377-379 

New species: Pseudothelphusa magna, P. tristani. 

The Cenus Callinectes.— No. 1070. July 8, 1896 349-375 

New name: Callinectes saj)idus. 

New subspecies: Callinectes sapidus acutidenx. 

Richmond, Charles W. Catalogue of a Collection of Birds 
made by Dr. W. L. Abbott in Eastern Turkistan, the Thian 
Shan Mountains, and Tagdumbash Pamir, Central Asia, with 
Notes on some of the Species.— No. 1083. July 25, 1896. . . 569-591 

New species: Jigialilis paiiiireusis. 

New subspecies: Passer montanus dilutus, Merula .nerula intermedia. 


KiCHMOND, Charles W. Catalogue of a Collection of Birds 
made by Dr. W. L. Abbott in Kashmir, ]}altistan, and Ladak, 
with Notes on some of the Si^ecies, and a Description of a 
new Species of Gyaneeula.—^o. 1078. June 24,1896 451-503 

New species: Cyanvcula abhoiti. 

. Description of a new Species of Ant Thrush from i!?ica- 

ragna.— Xo. 1090. August 12, 189G 025-020 

New species: PhUgopsis saturata. 

Partial List of Birds Collected at Alta Mira, Mexico, by 

Mr. Frank B. Armstrong.— No. 1091. August 12, 1890... . 627-032 

EicawAY, Egbert. Characters of a new American Family 

of Passerine Birds.— No. 1070. June 24, 1890 449-450 

Now family: Procniatidw. 

Description of a new Species of Ground Warbler from 

Eastern Mexico.— No. 1045. April 10, 1890 119-120 

New species: Geothhjpis Jiai'ovelatus. 

Description of a new Subspecies of the Genus Pence 

dram «.s, Cones.— No. 107 1. May 21, 189r) 

New subspecies: Pcucidramus oJivoceus anranUacus 

On Birds Collected bv Dr. W. L. Abbott in the Sey- 


chelles, Amirantes, Gloriosa, Assumption, Aldabra, and 
Adjacent Islands, with Notes on Habits, etc., by the Col- 
le(;tor.— No. 1079. June 24, 1890 509-540 

E(jBiNSON, Wirt. An annotated List of Birds Observed on 
Margarita Island, and at Guanta and Laguayra, Venezuela.— 

No. 1093. August 12, 1890 049-085 

New species: Butorides rohinsoni, Eupsychortyx pallidiis, Leptotila 
insularis, ScardafeUa ridgirayi, Speotyio brachyptera, Dendroplex 
Jongirostris, Qiiisailus insularis, Hylophilus griseipes. 

Simpson, Charles T. Description of four new Triassic 
Unios from the Staked Plains of Texas.— No. 1072. May 

19, 1890 381-385 

New species; Vyiio suhjylanatus, U. dumblei, r.graciliratns, U. docku- 

The Classification and Geographical Distribution of the 

pearly Fresh water Mussels.— No. 1008. May 19, 1890. . .-. . 295-343 

New j;enus: Lepidodexma. 

Ste.tneger, Leonhard. Description of a new Genus and 
Species of Blind-tailed Batrachians from the Subterranean 
Waters of Texas.— No. 1088. August 12, 1890 019-021 

New geuiis: TypMomohje. 

New species: Typhlomolgc rathhimi. 


Stejneger, Leonard. Descrii)tioii of a new Species of 
Snake {Tantilla eiseni) from California. — No. 1044. April 16, 

1896 117-118 

New species: TantiUa eiseni. 

True, Frederick W. Note on the Occurrence of an Arma- 
dillo of the Genus Xenurns in Honduras. — No. 1069. July 8, 
1896 345-347 

WoLC'OTT, Charles D. Fossil Jelly Fishes from the Middle 

Cambrian Terrane.— No. 1086. August 12, 1896 611-614 

New genera : Brooksella, Laotira. 

New species: Brooksella aJternata, I>. covfiisa, Laotira cambria. 


1 . I'riodesmuK acits, male 57 

2-(). Species of Diplopoda from East Africa Ill 

1-H. East African Lepidoptera 279 

9. Mai> showing the distribution of pearly fresli- water mussels 343 

10. Tumbo armadillo, female 347 

11. Skull of Xenurus h ispidus 347 

12. Callinceies sapidus, male 375 

13. CaUiticfh's sapidus (iciitidens, male 375 

14. Callinectes sapidus, varying toward aciitidens. male 375 

15. ( 'aUinectes ornatus 375 

16. CaUi)i((les daua\ Smith, male 375 

17. ( 'allinrcfes larvatt<s, male 375 

18. CaUincctcs tinnidiis, male - 375 

19. ('aUinrctis bocourti ( ?), male 375 

20. ('alUnectfs arcttatus, male 375 

21. Callinectes toxotes, female 375 

22. Callinectes hellicosus, male 375 

23. Callinectes arcuatus, male, aud deformed claws of Callinectes sapidus 375 

24. Frontal outlines of Callinectes 375 

25. Abdominal outlines of Callinectes. male 375 

26. Abdominal appendages of CaUlnectes. nuile 375 

27. Abdominal outlines of Callinectes, female 375 

28. Fossil Callinecte-'^ 375 

29. Pseudothelph usa manna, male 379 

30. Fresh-water crabs of the genus Pseudoihelphusa 379 

31-32. Cambrian fossil Medusa- 014 

33. The Island of Margarita, Venezuela 685 

34. Cranium of Pallas' cormorant 719 

35. Crania of Pallas" cormorant 719 



Page 110. erase first dasli in Alta-Mira Yell on- -Throat. 

Page 779, for Glossophaf/a I'illosa, new species, read Glossophaf/a truei, 
new species. 

I Since this descrijjtion was j)repared 1 have become acquainted witli 
the fact tliat the name Glossophnga villosa was used in 1830 by Reng- 
ger (JSIaturgeschichte d. Siiugeth. Paraguay, p. 30) lor a species of bat, 
which, however, is not a member of the genus Gloasophaoa as now 
restricted. Wagner (Suppl. Schreber's Siiugeth., p. 620) places Keng- 
ger's species under Charojii/cterifi, with which genus it agrees in 
possessing three })remolars in both jaws. But in other respects the 
description is distinct from any form now known. H. Allen. J 




Volume XVIII. 



By W. H. Dall, 

Honorary Curator of the Dejiartment of Molhisls. 

The luternatioual Boimdary Commission for the survey of the line 
between tlie United States and Mexico was accompanied by Dr. Edgar 
A. Mearns, U. S. A., who, with his associates, collected objects of natu- 
ral history both along the line and from the ocean near its western ter- 
minus. A full report on the mollusks has been prepared by the writer, 
with suitable illustrations, but as this may be some time delayed in pub- 
lication, waiting for the completion of other reports, the following diag- 
noses of new forms have been prepared. 

Family HELICID.F. 


Shell exactly mimicking the normal P. strigosa, with rounded whorls, 
but measuring only 13 mm. in minor and 16 mm. in major diameter, with 
a height of 8 mm. 

Summits of the Hacliita Grande and Iluachuca Mountains, abundant. 


Shell small, moderately elevated; light brown, with a narrow brown 
band just above the periphery, mostly concealed by the suture, but visi- 
ble internally in the aperture on the outer side; whorls four and a half, 
of which one and a half are nepionic and punctate, the remainder with 

Procecdhijis of the United States Xational Miiseiuu, Vol. XVIII— No. 1033. 

Proc. N. M. 95 1 


rather well-marked incremental lines and microscopic vermicular mark- 
ings, of wliicli the louoer axes are subi^arallel to the lines of groMth; 
suture distinct, whorls full and rounded, but with the periphery slightly 
above the middle, the last whorl descending a little near the aperture; 
base full and rounded; umbilicus narrow, deep; aperture expanded; the 
liiUiXY lip reflected , but the outer lip not so. Height, 1 1 ; major diameter, 
17; minor diameter, 13.5 mm. 

Locality. — Banks of the Santa Cruz Eiver, near Tucson, Arizona. 
Like Arionta var. indioensis, Yates, but smaller, with less oval aperture 
and narrower umbilicus. That species has the brown line not covered 
by the suture. 


Shell large, depressed, polished, sculptured with irregularly promi- 
nent, incremental lines, but without spiral striation or surface granu- 
lation; whorls four and a half, rounded; suture distinct; last whorl 
depressed near the peristome; aperture oblique, with a thickened and 
somewhat dilated but not reflected lip; pillar lip broad near the body; 
umbilicus moderate, deep, exhibiting nearly two whorls; the fresh shell 
livid waxen, or pale reddish-purple, with a single darker baud, bordered 
by paler color, above the periphery. Major diameter, 2G.5 ; minor diam- 
eter, 21 ; height, 12 mm. 

Locality. — Ilachita Grande Mountain, at an altitude of 8,270 feet, 
and in many other localities in the central region. 

This resembles U. maydalcnensis, Stearns, but is a much larger shell, 
and, when fresh, of a different color. 


Depressed, thin and i)olished,dark brown, with five and a half whorls, 
and sculptured only with tine incremental lines ; suture distinct, periphery 
rounded, with a constriction behind the peristome, which descends 
slightly; umbilicus deep, narrow; aperture oblique, with a narrow, 
livid, strongly reflected lip, which is somewhat flexuous and entirely 
destitute of internal teeth; body without teeth, the lips united by a 
thin smooth callus. Height, 7.7; major diameter, 18; minor diameter, 
14.8 mm. 

Locality. — Fly Park, Ohiricahua Mountains, Arizona, at an elevation 
of 10,000 feet. 

Like P. levettei, but larger and edentulous. 

POLYGYRA MEARNSII, new species. 

Shell i)inkish-browii, depressed, flve-whorled, sculptured only with 
fine lines of growth; spire much depressed, suture very distinct; pe- 
riphery rounded, but above the middle of the whorl; base somewhat 
compressed, rounded; umbilicus deep and narrow; last whorl a little 
depressed and strongly constricted behind the peristome, which is 


oblique and strongly reflected, united over the body by a well marked 
callus, on which are two converging but not united lanielhe; basal part 
of the peristome with two distinct transverse lamellte, outer lip broader, 
receding with a single oblique tooth deeper in the aperture. Height, 
5.5; major diameter, 13; minor diameter, 11 mm. 

Locality. — Hachita Grande and Huachuca Mountains, New Mexico. 

Distinguished from all other species by its three well-marked teeth 
on the outer lip. 

Family PUPID.E. 
Genus HOLOSPIRA, Martens. 
Subgenus HOLOSPIRA ss. 

Axis with a plait in the penultimate whorl and with basal, parietal, 
and peripheral lamelhe projecting into the lumen of that whorl. 

Type, H.pUocerei,, Pfeifter. The subgenus includes also H. goldfussii, 
Pfeifl'er, and H. (joniostoma, Pfeiffer. 

Section BOSTRICHOCENTRUM, Strebel and Pfeffer. 

Axis moderate, with a continuous plait nearly the whole length but 
with no lamellii?. 
Type, H. tryoni, Pfeifl'er. H. veracruzianus also belongs here. 

Section HAPLOSTEMMA, Ball 

Axis moderate, with a short, stout, axial lamella in the penultimate 
whorl only. 

Type, H. mearnsU, Dall. 

Section EUDISTEMMA, Dall. 

Penultimate whorl with a short axial and a parietal lamella only. 
Axis moderate. Type, H. arizonensis, Stearns. 


Penultimate whorl with a short, strong, axial and a basal lamella 
only. Axis moderate, smooth. Type, H. bilamellata, Dall. 

Subgenus METASTOMA, Strebel and Pfeffer. 

Axis smooth, without plait or sinuosity, penultimate whorl without 
lamellne. Type, 11. loemeri, Pfeiffer. 
This comprises most of the species usually denominated Holospira. 

Subgenus COELOSTEMMA, Dall. 

Axis vertically ribbed as in Coeloccnirum; shell otherwise as in Meta- 
stoma. Type, H. eUsabctha', Pilsbry. 

Genus COELOCENTRUM, Crosse and Fischer. 
Subgenus SPARTOCENTRUM, Dall. 

Axis as in BoHtricliocentrnm ; otherwise as in the type of the genus. 
Type, G. irreyidare, Gabb. 



Sbell small, compact, twelve-wliorled, with two polished, smooth, 
blunt unclear aud four increasing whorls, followed by a cylindrical 
spire faintly transversely ribbed; suture distinct, base rounded with a 
shallow umbilical chink ; aperture simple, slightly oblique, not projecting 
beyond the periphery of the preceding whorl, the lip entire, slightly ex- 
panded, without internal ridges. Height, 11 ; maximum diameter, 4 mm. 

Top of Hachita Grande Mountain, New Mexico. 

This resembles H. f/oldfussii., with an entirely diifereut interior, and 
a less reflected and triangular peristome. 


Shell externally almost exactly like M. tryoni, rfeiffer, as figured by 
Crosse and Fischer,' but that species has the internal characters ui)on 
Avhich Strebel and Pteflfer based their section Bostrichocenlrum. The 
present form has a height of 13 and a major diameter of 4 mm., aud 
comprises two nuclear, six increasing, and six eqnal whorls. 

Puebla, ]\Iexico; Arizona, collected by Dr. Edward Palmer. 


Shell elongate, slender, blunt-tipped, with two smooth nuclear, six 
increasing, aud nine subsequent equal whorls; sculi)ture of slightly 
raised, distant, straight riblets, obsolete on the middle of the shell, 
but strong on the last whorl, where they are crowded and rather irregu- 
lar; umbilicus small, shallow; aperture as in H. crossei, but projecting 
beyond the periphery of the preceding whorl. Height, 20.5; maximum 
diameter, 5 mm. 

Hachita Grande Mountain, New Alexico. 


Shell small, compact, with two nuclear, seven increasing, and five 
subsequent whorls; sculpture and aperture much as in H. crossei, the 
base slightly appressed and the ribs closer and more i)rominent than 
on the preceding whorls; umbilicus shallow; aperture projecting some- 
what beyond the preceding whorl; the peristome hardly reflected, sub- 
triangular, little thickened, and without folds internally; axis small, 
subcylindric, with a strong, short lamella near the base in the penulti- 
mate whorl; length, 14.5; major diameter, 4.5 mm. 

Hachita Grande ^Mountain, New JMexico. 

This resembles H. erossei exteriialiy, but is larger, with more pro- 
jecting aperture. 


Shell closely resembling the enlarged tigure of i/. microsioma,- Pfeift'er, 
but with a shorter apical cone aud larger aperture; it diifers also by hav- 

' Moll. Mexique. -Crosse aud Fischer, Moll. Mex., p. 337, l^\. xvii, figs. 9, 9a. 


ing 17 whorls in a total length of 17.5 mm., against 18 whorls in a length 
of 15.5 mm. for IT. microstoma. The last whorl in the present species 
is ronnded below, tlmt of H. microstoma angnlated. H. vcracruziana 
has the one and a half nuclear whorls polished, those of tlie ai)ical 
cone finely ribbed, those of the rest of the spire striate, with a few 
coarse riblets just behind the peristome. 

Locality. — IMizantla, Province of Vera Cruz, Mexico. 


Genus BULIMULUS, Leach. 
Subgenus PSEUDORHODEA, Dall. 

Shell slender, small, with a gyrate and pervious axis in the last 
whorl and a half, without internal lamiuiB; jaw as in Thysanophora. 
Type, Colmnna ramoitosa, J. Ct. Cooper, Lower California. 

This group has a superficial resemblance to the South American 
Rhodea., Adams, but an anatomical examination shows it to be most 
nearly related to the BnUmuli of the subgenus or section Leptobyrsus, 
esx^ecially B. artcmcsia, Binney. 


liulimulHS xaninsi var. levis, Dall, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., XVI, p. 641, 1893. — 
Cooper, Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci., 2(1 ser., IV, p. 139, plr v, fig. 14. 

Fresh specimens sent by Dr. Cooper show this to be perfectly dis- 
tinct from B. xantusi. 


JiuHmnlus jyihtia, Crosse andFisCHER, not Binney; Cooper, Proc. Cal. Acad 
Sci., 2d ser., IV, p. 139, pi. v, fig. 12, 1894. 

This form, distinguished among other things by pale peripheral band- 
ing, is quite distinct from the true B. pilula of which the types are in 
the National Museum. 


Bulimidus hiscendens heldingi, J. G. Cooper, Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci., Ill, p. 209, 1892; 
p. 340, pi. XIII, fig. .5, 1893. 
An examination of specimens sent by Dr. Cooper fails to show inter- 
mediate gradations between this species and B. inscemlens. I have no 
doubt of its distinctness. 

Family UNIOISHD^. 

UNIO MITCHELLI, Simpson, new species. 

Shell rhomboidal, solid, rather inflated, rounded before, somewhat 
biangulate behind; dorsal margin curved; incremental lines strong, 
anteriorly irregular; epidermis varying from light brown to black, 
coarse, often shining; beaks moderately prominent, showing traces of 


rather strong concentric sculpture; cardinal teeth strong-, short, rather 
ragged; laterals short, club-shaped, heavy, granular, or striated; nacre 
soft silvery white; shell near the beaks with obscure, narrow plica- 
tions. Height, 33; length, 55; diameter, 20 mm. 

Localiti/. — Guadelupe Elver, Victoria County, Texas, Hon. J. D. 
Mitchell; Eio Salado, near New Leon, Mexico. 

This species probably groups with Unio roicellH and scamnatus, 
though no other members of the group have pustules or plications. 


Ariontu vuliforniensis, Lea, var. ramentosa, Gould, small variety, W. G. Binney, 
Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., XXVIII, p. 133, fig. 108, 1885. 

This small species has been referred to californiensis as a subvariety, 
but a series of forty-three very uniform specimens from various locali- 
ties indicates that it is a distinct species. 

Ty2)e.—:So. 39012, U. S. N. M. ; Nachoguero Yalley, California, Dr. 
Mearns: San Pablo, Arnheim. 


Shell small, whitish, obliquely mottled with pale brownish flammules, 
sometimes nearly all brownish, with about eight whorls; nucleus smooth, 
brownish, of a whorl and a half, followed by fine, narroAv, oblique, sub- 
equal riblets crossing the whorl, with about equal interspaces; apex 
dome-shaped ; body of the shell subcylindrical, base slightly attenuated, 
with no umbilicus; aperture rounded, except over the body, with a 
thick, white, well-reflected lip, parietal and pillar lips each with a low 
medial tubercle or tooth; length of shell, 14; diameter, G.5 mm. 

This is nearest related to Pupa cyclostoma, Kiister, but is small 
and easily distinguished by its finer, closer, and more even ribbing. 
Like all the species of its genus it is variable, and has among others a 
small variety with very regular ribbing which hardly exceeds 10 mm. 
in length, and is doubtless the smallest form belonging to the genus 
which has yet been reported. 

Ty2)e.—l^o. 107329, U. S. N^. M. ; Isle of Pines, Johnson. 


By W. H. Ball, 

Honorary Ctirator of ilie Department of Molhisks. 

During the work of the Albatross on the west coast of America a 
number of iuteresting species new to science have been collected, some 
of which have been described and illustrated, but many more still 
remain to be worked up. Pending the completion of studies now in 
progress the following diagnoses of especially iuteresting forms are 
printed, to attract attention to certain groups not hitherto discrimi- 


Shell thin, with pearly sheen; conical, with eight whorls; nucleus 
smooth, polished, bulbous, asymmetrical, of less than one whorl; sub- 
sequent whorls flattened, so that the sides of the spire are nearly 
straight, diverging at an angle of 00°, and sharply angular at the 
periphery, against which the suture is laid; base flattisli, near the 
aperture more or less rounded, imperforate; sculpture on the spire of, 
first, a strong thread, bordering the suture on each side, this thread 
separated by a channel from the flattened area between the two threads, 
upon which area are (on the last whorl seven) spiral threads, which on 
the last whorl are beaded and separated by wider interspaces, above 
become fainter or lose the beading, are obsolete on whorls 4, 5, and 6, 
while on the apical whorls only the strong threads remain; the latter 
are also beaded on the later whorls; base spirally threaded, the threads 
more or less beaded by the intersection with them of arched, rather 
strong radiating lines of growth; threads stronger and more distant 
as they ajiproach the smooth, broad axial rib; the periphery of the last 
whorl with two granulated keels; aperture subcjuadrate, brilliantly 
pearly, the pillar white, smooth, with no tooth or projection at its base; 
color of the shell pinkish waxen, verging toward bluish near the apex, 
with variable delicate brown flammules, which cross or variegate the 
whorls and usually end as more or less distinctly paired brownish spots 
on the periphery of the last whorl, not being visible on the base: the 

Proceedings of the United States Isatioual Museum, Vol. XVIII— No. 1034. 


nacre shines througli tlie outer coating of the shell quite conspicuously 
when it is wet. Height, 20; maximum diameter, 18; height of aper- 
ture, 7 mm. 

West Mexico, in deep water; also at U. S. Fish Commission station 
3387, and in the gulfs of Panama and California, in about 100 fathoms. 

T,n)e.—l^o. 122957, U. S. :N^. M. 

This elegant species has an operculum with a great many very nar- 
row whorls nnd entire margin. The animal is brilliantly painted with 
scarlet and black, and has well developed eyes and an unusually long 


Shell small, margarit.'^-form, with six and a half rounded whorls; 
nucleus minute, white, smooth, of one whorl, followed by strongly sculp- 
tured, rather inflated whorls separated by an inconspicuous suture; 
sculpture on the spire of rather elevated, narrow, spiral ridges, of which 
the most posterior is always beaded, though the beading on the others 
fails on tbe apical whorls; in front of this ridge is a smaller one, then 
three, or on the last whorl five, subequal, larger ones, the third form- 
ing the periphery of the whorl, the suture being laid against the most 
anterior ridge; the base has al)Out twelve, subequal, more crowded, 
spiral threads, faintly or not at all beaded, larger toward the axis; the 
body of the shell is of a nacreous waxen tint, with transverse flammules 
of dark brown, which articulate the spirals, are much fsiinter on the inter- 
spaces, but do not reach the base, on which the spirals are more or less 
articulated with reddish- brown; the base is somewhat flattened, the 
jDcriphery not keeled, the pillar short, white, with a minute umbilical 
chink; aperture subquadrate, nacreous, sulcate by the external sculp- 
ture; there is no projection at the distal end of the pillar. Height, 12; 
major diameter, 12.5 mm. 

U. S. Fish Commission stations 2902 and 2972, among the Santa Bar- 
bara Islands, in about 100 fathoms. 

Type.— Bo. 122578, U. S. N. M. 

This is a pretty species, with a polished outer coat, through which 
the luicre shines very distinctly. 

Genus AN APLOCAMUS, Dall. 

Shell short-spired, with a thick brown periostracum, with a simple, 
sharp, outer lip, parietal callus, arched pillar, the anterior extreme of 
the aperture slightly produced and pointed, as in some Litorinas; the 
base imperforate, the ai)ertare destitute of lir;ie, teeth, or other i)rojec- 
tions; operculum, relatively to the size of the animal, large; area of 
attachment, small; form, U-shaped, the apex without any spiral incli- 
nation, rather blunt, the increment being applied to the proximal end, 
and the edges entire. 

Type. — A. borealis, Dall. 



Shell short, rude, of about four and a half whorls (the apex In each 
specimen eroded), smooth, except for lines of growth and darker lines, 
which might indicate resting stages; whorls somewhat Hattened above 
and near the apex, more or less appressed at the suture; periphery 
rounded, or, in the younger shells, obscurely angular; base full, smooth, 
with no indication of an umbilicus or axial depression; aperture sub- 
ovate, pointed in front or behind; outer lip thin, sharj), simple; pillar 
rather thick, white, with a smooth, well-marked callus over the body; 
operculum dark brown, with strong incremental lines. Height of 
(somewhat eroded) shell, 17; of last whorl, 15; of apertui-e, 10; major 
diameter of shell, 13; of aperture, 7 mm. 

Pacific Ocean, south of Unimak Island, in 01 fathoms, mud, C. H. 

Tiipe.—^o. 122592,11. S. N". M. 

This very remarkable shell recalls a fresh-water genus at once, and 
would easily be overlooked amid a quantity of Anculosa dilafata. But, 
when studied, it is seen to l)e unlike any fresh-water form or any 
marine form hitherto known. It is probably referable to the family 
Trichotropidai, as the peculiar production of the aperture, the thick 
brown epidermis, and the curious operculum all have points in common 
with species of Trichotropis. 

SOLARIELLA NUDA, new species. 

Shell Turbinate, recalling Margarita^ smooth, polished, except for 
obscure spiral markings which do not interrupt the surface, of about 
four whorls; color, white, with a pink or blue nacre glowing through; 
whorls rounded, flattened in front of the suture; base rounded; um- 
bilical margin keeled; umbilicus wide, funicular; aperture rounded, 
oblicpie, hardly angulate by the umbilical rib, and with a very short 
interruption between the inner and outer lips; operculum light brown, 
thin, with about ten whorls. Height, 15; major diameter, 19; minor 
diameter, 15.5 mm. 

U. S. Fish Commission stations 2928, 3187, and 3318, in 298 to 155 
fathoms, oft' Lower California. 

Tijpe.—^o. 122580, U. S. N. M. 


Shell thin, with a pale olive, silky epidermis, and six whorls beside 
the (decollate) nucleus; early whorls smooth, gradually taking on two 
rows of projecting points or sharp nodules, which are, on the later 
whorls, connected by a slender spiral thread; periphery with a slender 
granular thread, on which tlie suture is laid; base with five simdar 
threads, closer as they approach the umbilicus; umbilicus small, verti- 


cally striate; aperture rounded, slightly angulated by the sculpture; 
the outer lip thiu, sharp ; the inner reflected over part of the umbilicus. 
Height, 28; diameter, 24 mm. The operculuni has four or live whorls. 

U. S. Fish Commission station 3432, in 1,421 fathoms, mud, in the Gulf 
of California, oft' La Paz. 

Type.—yo. 122900, U. S. N. M. 

The single specimen obtained has repaired an injury of the base so 
as to somewhat distort the umbilical region. Except for the presence 
of an umbilicus this might well be referred to Tiircicula ov Batliyhem- 
Mx, and examination of the anatomy may show that to be its proper 

RIMULA (?) EXPANSA, new species. 

Shell low, rounded, expanded; apex small, prominent, subcentral, 
recurved to the right; foramen like an exclamation point without the 
dot ( '), the small end anterior, the suture in front of the foramen incon- 
spicuous, marked by a narrow raised line on the interior of the shell; 
anterior slope convex, gently rounded; posterior a little excavated; 
sculpture of evenly spaced, similar, close, hue, rounded threads over- 
running radiating, rounded, little elevated threads of three sizes, the 
larger starting at the aj^ex, the others intercalary toward the periphery 
as the interspaces widen; margin of the shell slightly crenulated by 
the sculpture; interior smooth, yellowish white, the septum convexly 
arched without buttresses. Height, 10; length, 32; width, 26 mm. 

U. S. Fish Commission stations 3358, in 555, and 3047, in 885 fathoms. 
Gulf of Panama. 

Typc.—^o. 1220G7, U. S. N. M. 

This species recalls R. asfuriana, Fischer, but is lower and more 
expanded, a thinner shell, and with more delicate sculpture. 


Shell small, translucent white, depressed, wider in front, narrow 
behind, squarish at both ends, with the incurved apex terminal behind; 
slit short, one-fourth as long as the shell, widest in front, straight; tiis- 
ciole depressed, with an elevated keel on each side; sculpture of fine 
concentric incremental lines and very tine elevated threads, which start 
from the anal fasciole and curve outward toward the margin with very 
few intercalated threads; margin smooth, interior polished, the fasciole 
convex inward; front margin twice as wide as the posterior margin. 
Length, 10; height, about 2.5 mm. 

U. S. Fish Commission station 291)2, in 460 fathoms, sand, oft" Clarion 
Lsland, Lower California. 

The only specimen taken, though living, was slightly crushed. 


Shell large, solid, of three and a half rounded whorls, covered with 
a pale olivaceous epidermis, sculptured only with somewhat irregular, 


rude, incremental lines; suture deep, the wliorl in front of it slightly 
excavated; base rounded, tlie umbilicus narrow-, deep; aperture sub- 
ovate, not interrupted by the body; the inner lip nearly straight, the 
outer lip simple, sharp-edged; the interior of the aperture white. 
Height (somewhat eroded), 21; diameter, 21 mm. 

U. S. Fish Commission station 3382, in 1,793 fathoms, mud; Gulf of 

Type.—^o. 123039, U. S. N. M. 

This is the second species of this very interesting genus, and the 
first from the Pacific. It is larger, more elevated, and nuich more solid 
than the form from the North Atlantic on which Dr. P. P. Carpenter 
erected the genus. 


Shell resembling i>. ((by-ssonun, Verrill and Smith, from the North 
Atlantic, from which it ditters by its much more elevated spire with the 
same number of whorls, its smaller last whorl and aperture in propor- 
tion to the whole shell, its more slender ])illar and larger umbilicus, and 
especially by having its spiral sculpture less crowded, and reticulated 
by narrow, fiattened threads overrunning the spirals and in harmony 
with the lines of growth. Height, 30; diameter, 20 mm., but less per- 
fect specimens attain twice this size. 

U. S. Fish Commission station 3375 in 1,201 fathoms, ooze, near JMal- 
pelo Island, Gulf of Panama. 

Type.— 1^0. 123031, U. S. N. M. 

The operculum is narrower and less spiral than that of the Atlantic 

PHOS COCOSENSIS, new species. 

Sliell elongate, acute, eleven -whorled, including a nucleus of four 
whorls; color, yellowish white, with variable brown spiral banding; 
sculpture of 11 or 12 narrow, little elevated, distant ribs, more or less 
angulated at the shoulder; spiral sculpture of numerous rather sharp, 
close threads, flatter on the last whorl, with a few more prominent be- 
tween the suture and the shoidder; suture distinct, whorls nuiderately 
rounded; aperture longer than wide, with an entire outer lip, slightly 
thickened and internally lirate; throat white, pillar Avith a groove near 
its anterior edge; canal short, deep; siphoual fasciole moderate; body 
with a thin white callus. Height, 47; last whorl, 28; diameter, 19 mm. 

The operculum is smooth-edged, as in Fusus. 

U. S. Fish Commission station 3308 in 60 fathoms, near Cocos Island, 
Gulf of Panama. 

Type.—^o. 12301(>, IT. S. N. M. 


Shell compact, solid, livid pinkish, with narrow, brown, distant, spiral 
Inies and :i few brown tlammules near the suture; nucleus smooth, 


small, white, of two whorls, followed by live subseiiueiit whorls; si)ire 
acute, whorls moderately rounded, the last much the largest; sculpture 
on the early whorls decussate by tine transverse riblets, strongest near 
the suture, and tlattish spiral threading; later the whorls are polished, 
smooth, except for lines of growth and narrow, distant, sharp grooves; 
suture with a narrow channel; aperture long, narrow, with a shallow 
narrow sinus behind and a deep siphonal sulcus in front; outer lij) thick- 
ened, Hexuous, obscurely Urate behind, body with a thin callus; pillar 
white, concave, with a prominent margin, shorter than the aperture. 
Operculum narrow, elongate oval, with an apical nucleus. Height of 
shell, 31.5; of last whorl, 24,"); diameter, 13 mm. 

U. S. Fish Commission station 3390, in 56 fathoms, sand; tempera- 
ture, 62.6°; in the Gulf of Panama. 

Type.— 1^0. 122000, U. S. N. M. 

FUSUS(?) RUFOCAUDATUS, new species. 

Shell elongate, acute, thin, with six or more whorls (partly eroded) 
covered with a delicate yellow-brown epidermis, the pillar and canal, 
when fresh, of a pronounced rufous-brown or brown-pink, which fades 
more or less in the dry shell; whorls drawn out, rounded, with a deep 
but not channeled suture; nucleus eroded; the remaining whorls 
sculj)tured with about a dozen Hattened subequal spirals with narrower 
grooves between them, crossed by lines of growth and (on the last 
whorl about 20) sharp Hexuous riblets, which cross the whorl and 
are obsolete on the canal; base attenuated; pillar long', very straight, 
attenuated, twisted, almost pervious; aperture narrow; outer lip very 
thin, sharp, concave near the shoulder, produced in front, modified 
by the sculpture, but not lirate. Height of (eroded) shell, 30; of last 
whorl, 21 ; diameter, 9 mm. 

U. S. Fish Commission stations 3360, 3374, 3392 and 3415, in 1,270 to 
1,879 fathoms, Gulf of Panama. 

This elegant little shell recalls Boreofrophon in its sculpture, and may 
not be a true Fusiis. The spirals in some of the specimens are narrower 
and more numerous than in the type, aiul in the young the ribs are less 
sharp and the color more ashy. 

Genus TRACTOLIRA, Dall. 

Shell slender, drawn out in its coil, fusiform, with a short canal and 
pervious axis; outer lip simple, not expanded or lirate; body not cal- 
lous, the axis twisted, with a single strong plait at its anterior edge, 
the young showing five or more narrow, low, thread-like ridges behind 
the one above mentioned, but w^hich become obsolete in the adult. 

This singular shell appears to be a degenerate abyssal form of Volu- 
tidte, but which can not be assigned to any of the genera yet estab- 

Type. — T. sparta, Dall. 


TRACTOLIRA SPARTA, new species. 

Shell elongate, sleuder, with a greenish or ashj- adherent epidermis 
(more or less eroded near the apex in all the specimens), and about six 
whorls; nucleus ap]>arently as in Seaphella, large, with an a]>ical s])nr- 
Avhorls drawn out, rounded, with a distinct suture, the upper whorls at 
tirst smooth, then with irregular, partly obsolete, transverse wrinkles, 
some of which cross the whorl, but which are too irregular to call ribs- 
surface every where sculptured with numerous, even, fine, Hattish si)iial 
threads, with equal or slightly wider interspaces, and with well marked 
but not regular lines of growth; aperture subovate, rather wide in 
front, the outer li]) simple and hardly thickened; the throat white, a 
thin wash of callus on the body, the ])illar thin, pervious, short; the 
canal short and wide, with hardly any siphonal fasciole; operculum 
absent. Height of shell, GO; of last whorl, 43; of aperture, 28; diam- 
eter, 19 mm. 

V . y. Fish Commission stations 330(», 3374, 3414 and 3415, in 1,072 
to 2,232 fathoms. Gulf of Panama, to Acapulco, IMexico. 

Type.— No. 122999, U. S. N. M. 

This is a very characteristic and singular abyssal shell. 


Shell recalling S. mageJlanicaj Boyvev\)y; l)ut stouter, with more 
rounded whorls, the aperture shorter and wider, with a broad flexure 
where the lip turns to meet the body whorl, while in iS. magellanlca 
the posterior part of the aperture is i)ointed; the latter has two strong 
plaits on the pillar; S. henthaUs has three, all obsolete, the middle one 
most perceptible, and has a less marked canal and siphonal fasciole. 
The interior of the aperture is pale flesh color; the exterior seems to 
have been like that of t^. mageUatiiea, but is almost entirely decorti- 
cated. It has five whorls beside the nucleus, and there is no oper- 
culum. Height, 125; of the last whorl, 90; of the aperture, 70; width 
of the aperture, 35; of the (decorticated) shell, 00 mm. 

U. S. Fish Commission station 3300, in 1,072 fathoms, sand, in the 
Gulf of Panama; temperature at bottom, 42° F, 

At first sight one would be disposed to think that this specimen 
represented a northward extension by 3,300 miles of the Magellanic 
species, but a more careful examination shows luimerous points of 


Shell solid, short, ashy or pinkish white, with a smooth, small nucleus 
of two whorls, and five and a half strongly s('ul[)tured s(ii)sequent 
whorls; spire subtabulate, rather pointed; sculpture of five or six 
strong spiral threads, of which that at the shoulder is much the largest, 
crossed by (on the last whorl nine) sharp, recur\ed varices, spiny at the 

• I 


intersections iii well developed specimeus, the spines at the shoulder 
much longer than the others, while in some depauperate specimens the 
only spines are at the shoulder; there is also some obscure spiral stria- 
tiou between the threads on the last whorl, and the lines of growth are 
irregular and often prominent; aperture subtriangular, with three 
strong- plaits on the pillar, and, in fully adult shells, some faint liratiou 
inside the outer lip; canal short, distinct, forming- a strong- fasciole 
around a narrow, deep umbilicus, over which the inner lip is partly 
reflected; body with a wash of callus; throat whitish. Height of shell, 
35; of last whorl, 25; of aperture, 18; width of shell exclusive of tlie 
spines, I'O mm. 

IT. S. Fish Commission station .3308, in ()(» fiithoms, near Cocos Island, 
(iulf of Panama. 

Type.—^o. 122900, U. S. N. M. 

This is the most thorny species yet described. 

CANCELLARIA lO, new species. 

Shell fusiform, solid, whitish or pink, with a more or less olivaceous 
epidermis, and about six whorls; spire i)oiiited, whorls rounded, some- 
what constricted in front of the suture, which is appressed; sculpture 
of numerous flattened spiral threads, with about equal interspaces, 
uniform over the whole surfiice, but with occasional finer intercalary 
threads; these are crossed by (on the last whorl about 13) rather stout, 
rounded ribs, strongest at the shoulder, obsolete beyond the periphery^ 
and not reaching the suture behind them; aperture rather long-, outer 
lip simple, smooth, not reflected or lirate; pillar rather straight, with 
three strong plaits; canal sliallow, wide, pointed, making no percepti- 
ble fasciole; umbilicus none; body with a thin wash of callus. Height 
of shell, -43; of last whorl, 33; of aperture, 25; width of last whorl, 
21 mm. 

U. S. Fish Commission station 3354, in 322 fathoms. Gulf of Panama. 

This species has much the look of a gigantic Admete., but without 
the arched pillar. .Most of the specimens were eroded, and the species 
has a genuine abyssal aspect. 


Shell large, solid, white, fusiform, with about five whorls (nucleus 
eroded) covered with a pale straw-colored epidernns; whorls rounded, 
with rather distinct lines of growth crossed by numerous very sharp, 
narrow, prominent^ subequal spiral ridges with about equal or nar- 
rower interspaces; the periphery is foruied by a sort of rib, on which 
stand two to four similar keels, but smaller than the others and more 
crowded; in front of the rib there is a faint constriction of the whorl; 
the keels are less prominent on the canal, which is moderately longand 
recurved; on the penultimate whorl there are about 14 keels between 
the sutures; aperture elongate, reflecting the sculpture, but without 


lii'iu; outer lip very fiexuons, witli a broad, ratber sljallow anal sulcus 
behind, and arched forward in front of the peripheral rib; body wliite, 
not callous; pillar thin, attenuated, and obli(iuely truncate in front, 
concave, twisted, exhibiting- a pervious axis; canal shaHow, not prodnc- 
ing a fasciole; operculum like that of MoJinia J'nclci. Height of sliell, 
60; of last whorl, 48; of aperture, 38; maximum diameter, 2G mm, 

U. S. Fish Commission station 3415, in 1,879 fathoms, globigerina 
ooze ; bottom temperature, 30° F. ; ott' Acaimlco, Mexico. 

2'y2)e.—:^o. 123099, U. S. N. M. 

The initiatory part of the operculum is spiral, as in jMohnia, thus 
differing from the other deep-water l*leurotomi(be, wliich it in genera! 
resembles. Tliey have tlie nucleus of the operculum apical and not 

If it be thought necessary to use a sectional name for this species, it 
might be called Steiraxis, differing from the other Pleurotomas as Molinia 
differs from the species of Clirysodomus., 


Shell polished, thin, resembling P. ciuffulata, Dall, of a chestnut- 
brown color, fading to a paler pinkish-brown, with seven whorls, the 
nucleus eroded, the early whorls with four or five flattened elevated 
spirals with wider interspaces in front of a somewhat sloping anal 
fasciole, more or less reticulated by narrow, slender, irregular, elevated 
riblets in harmony with the lines of growth, and which form on the 
fasciole delicate arches concave forward; the suture is ai)pressed; on 
the body are about 20 spirals, stronger at the shoulder, smaller and 
closer forward, the wide interspaces finely spirally striate, while the 
most prominent spirals are undulate or obscurely nodulous; tlie trans- 
verse sculpture is nearly obsolete and hardly to be distinguished from 
the incremental lines; aperture elongate, oval ; outer lips thin, sharp, 
crenulated by the sculpture, but not Urate; anal sulcus shallow, wide, 
directly in front of the suture; body with a thin wash of callus; pillar 
thin, gyrate, attenuated in front, forming a narrowly pervious axis, the 
whole of a pinkish brown color; canal short, shallow, not recurved. 
Height of shell, 53; of last whorl, 38; of aperture, 28; diameter, 23 mm. 

U. S. Fish Commission, station 3400, in 1,322 fathoms, ooze; temper- 
ature, 36° F.; eastward from the Galapagos Islands. 

Type.— 1^0. 123134, U. S. N. M. 

This differs from P. cmgulata^ Dall, by its smaller size, more sloping 
whorls, more delicate and reticulate sculpture, and by its pervious 
axis. The animal is blind, and there is no operculum. 

NUCULA IPHIGENIA, new species. 

Shell large, solid, much like Iphigenia hrasiliana in outline, anterior 
end pi'oduced, rounded, longer than the posterior; hinder end obliquely 
truncate, attenuated ; beaks elevated, somewhat pointed, oi)isthogyrous ; 


sculpture of feeble, narrow, irregular concentric wrinkles, crossed by 
fine, sbarp, ratlier distant incised lines; lunule narrow, elongate, bor- 
dered by a faint ridge; escutclieon small, broader tlian long, set off by 
an impressed line from the large j)osterior area, which is flattened but 
not definitely limited, the margin of the valve projecting somewhat in 
the middle line; base rounded in front, somewhat imi)ressed posteri- 
orly; interior brilliantly nacreous, with a strong ijallial line and sub- 
equal adductor scars; the pallial area more or less punctate; basal 
margin denticulate; hinge with about 30 anterior and 15 posterior 
teeth, strong, projecting, and somewhat angular; chondrophore nar- 
row, pear-shaped, projecting forward from the hinge line. Height of 
shell, 22.5; length, 35; diameter, 16 mm. 

U. S. Fish Commission station 339G, in 259 fathoms. Gulf of Panama; 
temperature, 47.1° F. 

Tijpe.—lSo. 122896, U. S. X. M. 

This fine shell is one of the largest known, and peculiar from its elon- 
gated shape and posterior attenuation. The periostracum seems to 
have been thin, dull, and yellowish. 


Shell large, thin, compressed, with a yellowish-brown, pale, pilose epi- 
dermis; surface reticulated with fine radiating striie and rather irreg- 
ular elevated lines of growth; beaks low, but conspicuous, small, and 
swollen; area narrow, long, about equal on each side of the beaks; 
dorsal line straight, anterior end rounded, posterior produced, rounded; 
interior white, smooth, with plain margins; posterior adductor scar 
larger and lower than the anterior; ligament central, lozenge-shaped, 
thin; hinge with about six i^osterior and eight anterior teeth, small, 
obscure, separated by a wide edentulous space, and obsolete in senile 
specimens. Length of shell, 15; height, 37; diameter, 17.5 mm., exclu- 
sive of the hair-like processes of the periostracum. 

U. S. Fish Commission station 3382, in 1,793 fathoms,Gnlf of Panama; 
temperature, 36° F. 

Tijpe.—^o. 122889, U. S. N. M. 


Shell small, thin, short-mytiliform, covered with a conspicuous, thin, 
greenish epidermis, prominent on the ribs and at the margin; valves 
rather inflated, the beaks crowned with the subovate glochidial valves 
of the nepiouic young, bordered by a narrow elevated margin, then 
smooth and inflated for a short distance, then radiately ribbed, with 
about 11 squarish elevated ribs, marked with projecting epidermis, 
between which the margin is slightly' excavated; anterior end short, 
projecting a little beyond the beaks; area linear, auiphidetic; ligament 
internal, short, almost terminal; interior of valves smooth, the hinge line 
rather broad, edentulous; the scars as in MytUus; the byssal gape very 
narrow. Length of shell, 4; breadth, 3; diameter, 2 mm. 


U. S. Fisli Commission station 2770, off Spiring Bay, Argentine coast- 
attached to seaweed dredged in 58 fathoms. 

Tijpc.—^o. 97057, U. S. N. M. 

This little species is interesting as being the first marine Pelecypod 
in which the existence of a glocliidiuni stage was recognized. An exam- 
ination of P. setosa^ Carpenter, from Cape St. Lucas shows that it agrees 
in this particular. The genus was originally named BryojjMla, which 
proved to be preoccupied, and was changed to Philohrya.^ The geiuis 
is apparently related to Fteria, rather than to Finna, as supposed by 

Callocardia sicarnsii, Dall, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., XVII, p. 693, fig. lA, 1895. 

Shell closely resembling C. ( Vesicomija) venusta, Dall, but larger, less 
intiated, the anterior end higher, the base more rounded, and the pos- 
terior end more angukT.r and pro])ortional]y longer. Internally the 
flexure in the pallial line below the posterior adductor scar is more 
marked, and the ligament and also the posterior tooth in the right valve 
are conspicuously shorter. C. stearnsii has the same pale straw-colored 
epidermis and feeble incremental sculpture as C. venusta, but the iunuie 
is narrower and the line circumscribing it less impressed. Height, 1 7.5 ; 
length, 25; diameter, 11.5 mm.; the vertical of the beaks is behind the 
anterior end about 7 mm. 

Off the coast of Washington, near Tillamook, at U. S. Fish Commis- 
sion station 334(3, in 780 fathoms, mud; temperature, 37.3° F. 

This genus is remarkable for its subfoliobrauchiate gills, so xevj dif- 
ferent from the loosely reticulate branchia of the shallow- water Iso- 
cardia, with which until recently CaUoeardia was associated as a mere 
subgenus. These are described in the paper to which reference is made 
above, but, the species having been only named in manuscript at that 
time, it w^as thought best to add the present description. 

CALLOCARDIA LEPTA, new species. 

Shell large, thin, earthy, white, compressed, with an olivaceous or yel- 
lowish, dehiscent epidermis, with concentric wrinkles and projecting, 
lamiuic, which in the young are somewhat regularly spaced and dis- 
tant, in the adult crowded and irregular ; beaks small, low, not conspicu- 
ous, moderately intiated; valves evenly arcuate below, rounded at both 
extremities, the anterior shorter and less high than the posterior; lunule 
narrow, long, bounded by an incised line; ligament external, long, set 
in a groove, with the escutcheon narrow, its edges elevated above the 
dorsal margins of the valves and obtusely keeled, extending one-half 
longer backward than the length of the ligament; interior smooth, or 

' Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collectious, X, No. 252, MoIIusks of Western Nortb 
America, by P. P. Carpenter, index, p. 21, December, 1872. 

Proc. N'. M. J»5 2 


slightly radially striate, margins flattish, smootb; anterior adductor 
scar narrow, posterior wider, tlie pallial line joining it in front of its 
posterior edge, producing an indentation, though not a sinus, of the 
pallial line; hinge narrow; teeth small, compressed, three (more or less 
obscure) in each valve; in the right a long, strong anterior lamella, 
extending most of the way between the umbo and the adductor scar, 
with a socket around its posterior end, above this a short, small, thin 
lamina, joined around the socket with a thicker lamina, obscurely wavy 
and extended backward ; in the left valve a stout subtriangular central, 
joined to a thin, short, anterior lamina, with a socket under it; a short, 
obscure, radial tooth behind the central one; no lateral teeth in either 
valve, and the cardinals, as usual in this group, somewhat variable, 
obscure, or ill-defined. Height of shell, 40; length, 58; diameter, 23 
mm,; the vertical of the beaks, 17 mm. behind the anterior end of the 

Type. — No. 12G751, U. S. N. M., from U. S. Fish Commission station 
3009, in the Gulf of California, off Concepcion Bay, in 857 fathoms, mud ; 
temperature, 38° F. Also specimens (No. 106857, U. S. N. M.) from 
station 3340, oft" Tillamook, Oregon, in 780 fathoms. 

This large, rather compressed species has somewhat the outline of 
the Indo-Pacific Tapes. 


Shell resembling the last species, but smaller, more oval, the poste- 
rior dorsal border more arched, the proportional inflation greater, the 
lunule wider, the ligament proportionally and actually longer, the epi- 
dermis more adherent and without projecting fringes or lamelhe; inter- 
nally the teeth are smaller and more feeble, and the pallial line recedes 
less at the posterior adductor scar. Height, 26; length, 30; diameter, 
10 mm.; the vertical of the beaks 8 mm. behind the anterior end of 
the shell. 

' U. S. Fish Commission station 3360, in the Gulf of Panama, in 1,072 
fathoms, sand; temperature, 36.4° F. 

Type.—^o. 106898, U. S. N. M. 

CALLOCARDIA GIGAS, new species. 

Shell large, rather thin, inflated, with a thin, wrinkled, olivaceous 
epidermis over an earthy, concentrically, irregularly striated surface; 
beaks low, inconspicuous; lunule and escutcheon somewhat impressed, 
but not limited by any distinct line; valves elongated, recalling the 
shape of Modiola capax, Conrad, in a general way; the anterior side 
shorter and less high, the base impressed in the middle, more expanded 
in front and behind; dorsal margin rather evenly arched; both ends 
rounded; internally dentition strong, like that of G. lejyfa, but more 
distinctly developed; ligament short (about 20 mm.), set in a groove; 
interior of valve somewhat radially striate; posterior adductor scar 


somewliat larger, the pallial line set in below it, somewbat irregular 
but not forming a distinct angular sinus ; margins of valve thin, smooth. 
Height, 63; length, 110; diameter, 50 mm.; vertical of the beaks, 24 
mm. behind the anterior end of the shell. 

U. S. Fish Commission station 3000, oft' Concepcion l>ay, in the Gulf 
of California, in 857 fathoms, mud; temperature, 3S° F. 

This relatively enormous shell was obtained only as a number of 
fresh Aalves without the soft parts but from the shell characters it 
can hardly be anytliing but a giant CaJhcardia. 


Shell elongate, moderately inflated, the surface as in the other species; 
the anterior end rounded, shorter; the posterior end produced, pointed; 
ligament short, set in a groove; the posterior dorsal border marked by 
two obscure ridges radiating from the beak, the outer one of which 
terminates at the posterior extreme of the valve, angulating the margin ; 
the epidermis is denser and lamellose in the interspaces between these 
ridges; lunule obscure; basal margin nearly straight, rounded up 
toward the ends; beaks low, anterior; interior white, with some radial 
striie; hinge narrow; right valve with two low cardinals coalescent 
above, and a third, higher, springing between them; pallial line 
distinct, with an angular, rather short, sinus. Height, 35; length, 58; 
semidiameter, 10 mm.; the vertical of the beaks, 18 mm. behind the 
posterior end of the shell. 

U. S. Fish Commission station 3392, in 1,270 fathoms, hard bottom; 
temperature, 36.4°; in the Gulf of Panama. 

A single right valve of this distinct species was collected as above, 
and differs from ^Callocardi a especially by its angular pallial sinus. 


Shell suborbicular, thin, whitish, with pale straw-colored epidermis, 
sculptured with faint concentric irregularities harmonizing with the 
lines of growth and by very fine pustules arranged in radiating lines, 
stronger and more adjacent near and upon the rostrum; beaks not 
prominent, fissured; left valve slightly less convex than the right; ros- 
trum about two-thirds as wide as the shell, not strongly differentiated, 
but with the epidermis coarser, and, especially on the left valve, more 
raised and wrinkled, and the basal margin slightly excavated; interior 
faintly pearly; pallial sinus large, rounded, shallow; chondrophore 
strong, spoon-shaped, inclined obliquely forward. Length of shell, 40; 
height, 35.5; diameter of the riglit valve, mm.; the rostrum 20 mm. 
wide, rounded, and moderately gaping; total diameter, 18 mm. 

U. S. Fish Commission station 30;'.4, in 24 fathoms, mud; oft' Point 
Fermin, at the head of the Gulf of California. 

This difters from P. discus, Stearns, in the radial arrangement and 
larger size of its surface granules, its wider rostrum and more com- 
pressed form. It needs no comparison with other species. 



This species is of inncli the outline of P. stearnsii, Ball, and is best 
described by coiiiparisou with it. lu P. stcarnsii the shell is somewhat 
less inflated and the beaks are nearer the posterior end, but nearer the 
anterior end in P. carpentcri; in the latter the surface granules are 
more crowded and coarser and not arranged in rows separated by a 
clear space, as in P. stearnsii; the rostrum in P. carpenteri is less dis- 
tinctly marked off from the arch of the base, the epidermis has a more 
greenish tint, the interior is more j)early, with a larger pallial sinus, 
and the chondrophore is wider and vertically, not obliquely, directed. 
The right valve is 10 mm. in diameter, with a height of 39 and a length 
of 47 mm. 

Only one right valve was dredged at the U. S. Fish Commission sta- 
tion 3389, in 210 fathoms, mud, in the Gulf of Panama. 

Type.— No. 106891, U. S. N. M. 

This is the third orbicular species from West America. 


By W. H. Dall, 

Honorary Curator of the Department of MoUusks. 

A LARGE number of interesting or new species have recently been 
received by the Museum from the States bordering on the Gulf of 
Mexico, partly from friends of the National Museum and partly from 
the U. S. Geological Survey. Some of these are described in the fol- 
lowing pages, but many more remain to be investigated. As it is 
desirable that as full a list as i)racticable of species belonging to each 
horizon shall be known, the following diagnoses are offered i^relimi- 
nary to the illustrated report upon them, which is in preparation. 

Genus CAROLIA, Cantraine. 
Subgenus WAKULLINA, Dall. 

Shell with the single chondrophore of Monia, the obsolescent byssal 
notch and plug and simple adductor scar of Uj^Mppium. The sensible 
but narrow cardinal area of Ephipplum is here represented by a broad 
and conspicuous margin ; the lateral edges of the ligamentary scar in 
the left valve form narrow, elevated crura, and the exterior is destitute 
of the radiating sculpture common to all the other forms of the group, 
and resembles that of the smooth Anomias. 

Type. — Carolia ( WakuUina) Jiofidana, Dall. 


Shell thiu, smooth, nacreous, adherent to other bodies, suborbicular, 
more or less irregular 5 right valve flattened or concave, especially at 
the umbo; left valve convex, with a moderately prominent umbo near 
the cardinal margin; hinge margin variable, but always with a trans- 
verse flattish area arched in the middle over the attachment of the 
internal ligament; exterior irregularly imbricated by the scalj^ nacre- 
ous layers; interior smooth, with a large subcentral, nearly orbicular 

Proceedings of the United States National Museum, Vol. XVIII— No. 1035. 



adductor scar; tlie minute sealed byssal foramen, under the middle of 
the chondropliore, connected by a soldered linear suture with tlie upper 
anterior margin of the valve; chondrox)hore rounded, triangular, broad, 
radiately rugose above, recurved as a thin himina from the umbo in 
fully adult specimens, rather closely sessile, and fitting into the umbonal 
cavity of the left valve; left valve, with the ligamentary attachment 
broadly triangular, marginated by a thin shelly lamina on each side, 
and arched over by the elevated portion of the cardinal area; there is 
no trace of a byssal-muscle scar in adult examples. Breadth in either 
direction about 110; maximum diameter of the closed valves, 9 mm. 

Sopchoppy limestone, on the banks of Deep Creek, near the Sop- 
choppy River, Wakulla County, Florida, collected by the U. S. Geo- 
logical Survey. 

The original C'aroUais from the Eocene of Egypt; the present species 
from the older Miocene of the Gulf border. 

OSTREA PODAGRINA, new species. 

Shell compact, thick and heavy, wider than high, with very short 
wide beaks, coarsely imbricated surface, inflated shell, with three or 
four strong, wide, rather irregular radial plications ; interior smooth, 
distinctly marginated, with a large subcentral adductor scar; hinge 
and beak flat, the ligamentary area in the flat valve hardly excavated, 
the edges of the flat valve near the cardinal border with two obscurely 
wrinkled projecting crura, which fit into shallow depressions in the 
opposite valve; elsewhere there are no strite or pustules on the edge of 
the valves. Height, 110; width, 100; diameter, 50 mm. 

West bank of the Suwanee River, Florida, at station 2G12, in the 
ujiperniost Eocene bed. 

OSTREA FALCO, new species. 

Shell thin, the fixed valve thin, irregular, cellular or deep, adherent 
over most of its surfiice, having a deep umbonal cavity under the car- 
dinal border; the exterior rude, not perceptibly sculptured; free valve 
flat, thin, with a very acute, usually curved, flat beak; the interior mar- 
gins with a row of strong pustules extending two-thirds the length of 
valve from the beak, and fitting into corresponding pits in the fixed 
valve; adductor scar small, rather laterally situated; the valve as a 
whole more or less arcuate; exterior showing remains of a purplish 
tint, with low, numerous, even, concentric imbrications, each of which 
is finely radially threaded, with rather wider interspaces between the 
threads; general outline flabelliform, wide, and rounded in front and 
acutely pointed behind. Height of a medium-sized specimen, 52; 
width, 35; diameter, about 19 mm., but very irregular in different 

Jackson Eocene, in the Zeuglodon bed, near Cocoa post-oftice, south- 
ern Alabama, collected by Messrs. Burns and Schuchert. 

T^ije.— No. 129972. U. S. N. M. 


Oysters are proverbially difficult and obscure mollusks, but probably 
DO other species, recent or fossil, is more characteristic and distinct 
than the one above described. 

TURRITELLA ALCIDA, new species. 

Shell resembling- T. fcqiii^triata, Conrad, but more acute and more 
rapidly enlarging, shorter, with the anterior ridge on the whorl com- 
pressed and almost keeled, closer to the suture in front, to which tlie 
base drops abruptly, and, on the flnal base, flatter; owing to the form 
of the base and the constriction of the upper part of the whorl, the 
turns appear to overhang the suture. Length, 85; diameter, 21.5 mm., 
in a specimen with 17 whorls. 

"Alum Blutf sands," horizon of the older Miocene, at Oak Grove, 
Santa Rosa County, Florida; also in the same bed at Eock Bluff", Appa- 
lachicola River, Florida. 

Characteristic of this horizon and confined to it. 

ACTiEON CHIPOLANUS, new species. 

Shell small, fusiform, with six whorls; an elevated spire, acute excejit 
for the rather blunt apical whorl, brilliantly polished all over and 
sculptured only by a few incised lines in front of the periphery, and 
more crowded, and becoming more crowded anteriorly; suture distinct, 
almost channeled; nucleus small, rounded, the sinistral part buried in 
the whorl; aperture about equal to the spire, narrow, rounded in front, 
with a thin edge continuous with the pillar; pillar thin, with a single 
plait; umbilical region impressed. Altitude, 6.3; major diameter, 
2.6 mm. 

Hahitat. — Chipola beds (2213), 1 mile below Bailey's Ferry, Calhoun 
County, Florida. 

Types. — No. 113860, U. S. N. M.; also specimens in the collection of 
T. H. Aldrich. 

Not very different from A. punctostriatus, which is proportionally 
shorter, stouter, less glossy, and with the spire-angle less acute. 


Shell small, very slender; specimens decollate, but originallj^ with 
five or more whorls; surface polished, slightly striated by the incre- 
mental lines; whorls spirally grooved by about 25 strong, channeled 
grooves, which become more close-set anteriorly^ these grooves are 
crossed by elevated incremental lines, regularly equidistant and close- 
set, giving a punctate appearance to the grooves; the interspaces near 
the suture considerably wider than the grooves and flattened, anteriorly 
equal to the grooves and somewhat rounded, and elevated so as to look 
thread-like; suture distinct, not deep; aperture narrow, rounded in 
front, crenulated on the edge by the sculpture, the outer lip rounded 


ill front, but not quite continuous with the obliquely truncate pillar; 
IDillar short, concave, with a strong- plait behind at its junction with 
the body. Longitude of decollate tyi^e, 7.5 ; of last whorl, G ; of aperture, 
4.5; maximum diameter, 2.5 mm. 

Habitat. — Chipola beds, with the last species. 

Types. — No. 113803, U. S. N. M.; also specimens in Mr. Aklrich's col- 

This is a peculiar and characteristic species not like any heretofore 
known from American Tertiary or recent fauna', and easily recognized 
by its slender, drawn-out form and sharp spiral sculpture. 

ACTION MYAKKANUS, new species. 

Shell rather slender, the aperture longer than the spire, the whorls 
five beside the nucleus; outline pointed-ovate, suture distinct, not 
impressed; sculpture of about -5 evenly distributed, spiral, punctate 
grooves with wider interspaces; the interspaces are flattened and pol- 
ished, with transverse incremental rug;ie; aperture rather narrow, the 
outer liii thin, so that the sculpture is reflected on the inner surface, 
anteriorly rounded and continuous, with a thin, short, arched pillar lip, 
carrying one well-marked plait, with a deep groove behind it; base with 
no trace of umbilicus. Longitude of shell, 8; of aperture, 5; max- 
imum diameter of last whorl, 3.5 mm. 

Habitat. — Pliocene sands of the Myakka River, Florida; one speci- 
men collected by Mr. Joseph Willcox. 

Type.—l^o. 113110, U. S. X. M. 

This is a shell more slender than the averag'e of the genus, but a good 
deal stouter than A./kskIus, from which it is otherwise readily discrim- 
inated by the evenly disposed spiral sculj)ture and the untruncate 


Shell minute, of three and a half whorls; spire about equal to the 
aperture; surface polished, suture distinct, not deep, the spire a little 
turrited and rather pointed; whorls smooth behind the periphery, in 
front of it evenly spirally grooved, with wider interspaces ; aperture 
wide, with a thickened and reflected margin ; outer lii)S slightly patulous 
and thickest at the middle; pillar with two strong plaits, the body with 
comparatively little callus, only the oldest and most callous showing a 
parietal denticle, the outer lip extending in front of the pillar, the canal 
in the adult very narrow and oblique. The size varies. Latitude, 1 to 
1.2; longitude, 1.5 to 2 mm. 

Habitat.— Chiiwlii beds (2212, 2213), Calhoun County, and Alum Bluff 
beds, at Oak Grove, Santa Eosa County, Florida. 

Types. — Xo. 113111, U. S. X. M. ; also specimens in the collections of 
Mr. Aldrich and the Geological Survey of Alabama. 

This species appears to be rather rare; it most nearly resembles R. 
guppyi, Dall, which is grooved all over and has a less slender spire. 


The parietal tooth in R. gtippyi is rarely absent, even in specimens 
hardly mature; in R. semilimata only the very oldest and most callous 
specimen shows any trace of it. 


Shell small, elevated, slender, faintly grooved all over, with four and 
a half whorls; spire about equal to the aperture, which is longer than 
wide, with a callous body-lip and reflected margin. Longitude, 2.2; 
maximum diameter, 1.4 mm. 

Habit((t.—ChiY)o\a beds (2211); in the lower bed at Alum Blufif, 
Chattahoochee Eiver, Florida. 

2>jj('.— No. 113865, U. S. N. M. 

This species is intermediate in size between R. fJoridana and R. 
guppyi, and is sculptured like them, but has the form of R. scmilimaf a, 
especially the elevated spire, but with a proportionately narrower 
mouth. It differs from the very similar R. biplicata, Lea, by the absence 
of any denticles or lira3 on the outer lij) when mature. 


Shell small, subcylindrical, slightly larger anteriorly, aperture as 
long as the shell; spire coiled in one plane, so that in profile only the 
small bulbous nucleus projects above the last whorl ; surface smooth, 
hardly polished, marked only with incremental lines, and in some speci- 
mens with a few faint incised spiral lines about the base; suture deeply 
channeled, its margins produced and sharp, forming the posterior end 
of the shell, except for the minute globular nucleus which, when not 
lost, is quite conspicuous; whorls, about four, the last enveloping; 
aperture very narrow and deeply notched at the suture, anteriorly 
rounded, the thin, sharp outer lip passing insensibly into the short, 
stout, arched pillar, which is bounded on tlie left by a sharp groove, 
sometimes deepened to a chink, and carries a single, oblique, sharp 
plait; a thin callus covers the body, and the outer lip is somewhat 
produced in the middle. Longitude of shell, 5.5; maximum diameter, 
2.5 mm. 

Habitat.— Chiiwla beds (2211, 2212, 2213), Florida, where it is 

Types.— :So. 113867, V. S. N. M.; and in the collection of T. H. 

This species is more slender than T. canaliculata, Say, and has the 
spire so coiled as to be invisible, and the sntural channel extremely 
deep and sharp-edged. 


Shell small, long-ovate, of three and a half whorls beside the minute 
globular nucleus; surface smooth or marked only by faint incremental 
lines and microscopic spiral strire; aperture slightly shorter than the 


spire; suture narrow, deeply channeled; spire just visible above the 
sutural margin, toward which the posterior jiart of the last whorl is 
evenly rounded over; aperture narrow behind, with a deep sutural 
notch, the outer lip gently arched in the middle, thin and sharp, then 
receding and gently rounded into the broad, conspicuous pillar, which 
is obliquely arched and chiefly constituted by a single broad i^lait; the 
body whorl is covered at the aperture by a thin layer of callus; there 
is no notch or chink behind the pillar ; the anterior end of the shell is 
rounded and attenuated in the same degree as the other end. Longi- 
tude of shell, 6; maximum diameter, 3 mm. 

Habitai.—Dui^lin County, North Carolina (2279, 2280), at the Natural 
Well and elsewhere. 

Types.— Noa. 113874, 113875, U. S. N. M. 

This pretty species is recognizable by the evenly rounded ends and 
gently inflated form, which are not duplicated in any other of our 
Miocene species. 


Shell small, short, subeylindrical, of about three whorls beside the 
nucleus, the spire moderately prominent, somewhat variable as usual 
in this group, the suture distinct, bordered by a narrow, shallow chan- 
nel; aperture narrow behind, wider in front; outer lip thin, prominently 
arched, and very slightly constricted in the middle; in front, rounding 
gently into the pillar, which has a groove behind it, and is chiefly com- 
posed of a single not much arched nor very prominent plait. Longitude 
of largest specimen, 3; maximum diameter, 1.25 mm. 

Eabitat. — Chipola beds (2213), Calhoun County, Florida; a young 
specimen from Oak Grove, Santa Eosa County, Florida, also probably 
belongs to this species. 

Types.— yo. 112G07, U. S. N. M., and in the collection of Mr. Aldrich 

This species is the precursor and probably the ancestor of T. canali- 
culata, Say, which appears in the Chesapeake Miocene and persists to 
the present day. It diifers from it in its smaller size and by its (on the 
average) more cylindrical shape, most of the specimens of canalicuhifa 
showing a tendency to be widest at the shoulder of the whorl. The 
Chipola specimens are more uniform than the ordinary canaliculata, 
yet if they occurred in the same faunal horizon might fairly be regarded 
as a dwarf race of that species. 


Shell small, ovate, rounded at both ends, spire almost concealed, of 
two and a half whorls; body slightly wider behind the middle of the 
shell; aperture as long as the shell, deeply notched at the suture, which 
is channeled, but whose outer margins arch over and nearly conceal the 
spire, probably closing altogether in some specimens; aperture narrow, 
rather contracted in front, the outer lip thin, arched in the direction of 





its growth and slightly Incurved in the middle, sharp, anteriorly round- 
ing into the short, spirally twisted pillar, which lias a groove behind it 
and also a sharp, shallow groove on the plait, making it look double, 
though the distal end is single; the body shows a thin wash of callus; 
surface of the shell when i)erfect, brilliantly polished, smooth. Lon- 
gitude, 2.5; maximum diameter, 1.25 mm. 

Habitat.— Chi\)o\a beds (2213), Chipola River, Florida. 
. Ti/pes.—^o. 113871, U, S. N. M., and in the collection of Mr. Aldrich. 

Tlie groove on the plait is a characteristic feature. 

This species is named in honor of Dr. Paul Fischer, the distinguished 
author of the Manuel de Conchyliologie. 

CiiJichnella ovum-lacerti, Dall, Trans. AVaguer Inst., Ill, p. 15, 1S90, ex parte. 

Pliocene of the Caloosahatchie beds, DalL 

The reception by the National Museum of Mr. Guppy's collection 
of West Indian fossils has enabled a critical comparison to be made 
between the North American and Antillean fossils, which had been 
referred to his species. The result shows that the Pliocene shell differs 
from its Miocene forerunner, being larger, proportionately more slender, 
and somewhat more flaring at the base than the T. (C.) hidcntata, Gabb 
and Orbigny. For this reason I propose for it the name of Tornafina 
{CyJichnella) gabhi. It reaches a length of 4.75 mm., and a maximum 
diameter of 2.5 mm. 


Cylichna ovum-lacerii, Guppy, Geol. Mag., I, p. 437, pi. xviii, fig. 22, 1874. 
CylichncUa hidentaia, G.A.BB, Proe. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1872, p. 273 (uot pi. 10, 

fig. 2); Trans. Xm. Phil. Soc, XV, p. 246, 1873. 
CylichneUa hidentata, Dall, Blake Gastr., p. 46, 1889, ex parte. 
CyJichnella ovum-lacerti, Dall, Trans. Wagn. Inst., Ill, p. 15, 1890, ex parte. 
Not Bulla bidentala, Orbigny, Moll. Cuba, p. 125, pi. iv, figs. 13-16, 1841. 

Ill my Blake report I followed Gabb in referring his Santo Domingo 
CylichneUa bidentata to the Bulla bidentata of Orbigny. It ai>pears, 
however, that Gabb's Santo Domingo fossils are not identical with the 
species described by Orbigny, though the latter are also found fossil in 
our Miocene and Pliocene, both in the Chesapeake ^Miocene of Virginia, 
where it was described under the name of Bulla bipUeata by Lea, and 
ill the Chipola Miocene of the Alum Bluff beds, on the Yellow Kiver at 
Oak Grove, Santa Rosa County, Florida. 

The Santo Domingo fossil is a much larger and proportionately 
stouter shell and more distinctly spirally grooved all over, Orbigny's 
shell being often grooved only near the base. Gabb's shell measures 
4 mm. long and 2 mm. in diameter; Orbigny's 3 mm. long by 1.25 mm, 
in diameter. For the former, Guppy's name must be adopted. 

Gabb's types are in the Academy of Natural Sciences at Philadelphia ; 
the National Museum possesses specimens (No. 11374(1) from Potrero,Rio 


Amiua, iSaiito Domingo, and the types of Mr. Guppy. It may be added 
that the figure given by Gabb in 1872 is not taken from one of his own 
specimens, but is a bad copy of one of Orbiguy's figures, with the spiral 
striation drawn as if it ran obliquely. The Phocene specimen referred 
to C. oviim-lacerti by me in 1890, when compared with Guppy's original, 
proves to be a hirger and more slender shell, which will require a sepa- 
rate name. 

RETUSA CHIPOLANA, new species. 

Shell elougatepyriform, posteriorly attenuated, smooth, except for^ 
lines of growth; spire sunken, with a small perforation over it ; aper- 
ture very narrow, except in front, as long as the shell, produced behind 
the suture at the margin of the apical pit; outer lip thin, straight, 
rounded insensibly into the pillar in front; pillar lip simple, thin, 
reflected, with a groove behind it; body with little or no callus. Lon- 
gitude, 5.5; maximum diameter, 2,25 mm. 

Habitat. — Chipola beds (2213), on the Chattahoochee, and also at Oak 
Grove, on the Yellow Kiver. 

Types.— 1^0. 113879 U. S. N. M., and in the collection of Mr. Aldrich. 


Shell small, rather slender for the genus, with the spire concealed 
and covered by a small, rather shallow pit; aperture wide, as long as 
the shell, with a wide sutural sinus, a straight outer lip, gradually 
rounded into the pillar in front; pillar simple, solid; body with little or 
no callus ; surface polished, transversely marked by lines of growth and 
frequently by small, narrow, parallel waves, stronger toward the mid- 
dle of the whorl; spiral sculiiture of fine, rather distant, punctate, 
incised lines, uniformly disposed, but varying somewhat in different 
specimens; there is no constriction of the whorl in front of the sutural 
keel and no groove behind the pillar, the axis is widely pervious, reveal- 
ing the si^ire. Longitude, 13; maximum diameter 6.5 mm. 

Habitat,— Chiiwla beds (2211, 2213). 1 

Tijpes.—^os. 113883, 113884, U. S. N. M.; also in the collection of Mr. 

This species is more attenuated behind than aS". jj////<».s', Aldrich, and 
less so than the recent 8. ivafsoni, Dall; in proportions and sculpture 
and combination of characters this little species does not appear to 
agree closely with any of those previously known from the region. It 
is named in honor of Mr. D. W. Langdon, lately of the State survey 
of Alabama, and to whom are due the first section of the Alum lUuff 
locality and the discrimination of the Chattahoochee group of rocks. 

ATYS CEDEMATA, new species. 

Shell small, inflated, rapidly attenuated in front and behind, periph- ■' 
ery Dromiueut; aperture as long as the shell, extending behind the 



inner lip aud descending, with a twist, ui)on the apical region of the 
concealed spire ; the shell is sharply constricted just in front of the apex, 
and the vortex thus included is swollen and strongly transversely 
wrinkled; surface of the shell polished, spirally grooved toward each 
end, smooth toward the i^eriphery; aperture rather narrow, somewhat 
anguhited at both apices; pillar straight, reflected, with a narrow 
groove behind it; outer lip thin, simple. Longitude, 4.5: maximum 
diameter, 2.5 mm. 

Jf(//>/7af.— Chipola beds (2213), Chipola Eiver, Florida. 

Tijpes.—^o. 113889, U. S. X.M., and in the collection of Mr. Aldrich. 

It is iirobable that all the specimens which have served for this de- 
scription are immature, but it is quite certain they are not the young 
of any species of Aixjs now known from our Tertiary. 


Shell small, slender, with the aperture longer than the body, which 
is obscurely enlarged about the middle, slopes biconically from this 
girdle above to the apex and below to the region just behind the upper 
end of the pillar, from whence it is more rapidly attenuated to the ante- 
rior end of the shell; spire sunken, the i)it varying in size in different 
specimens, the margin slightly thickened and transversely striated; 
middle of the whorl smootli, but the distal portions more or less dis- 
tinctly spirally grooved; the lines of growth are feeble; apertm^e nar- 
row, espe(;ially behind, where it is a good deal produced above the apex, 
with its inner lip slightly twisted; in front the pillar is twisted and 
fiiintly grooved, with a shallow chink behind it; in front it is obscurely 
obliquely truncate where it joins the anterior curve of the outer lip. 
Longitude 5; maximum diameter, 2 mm. 

HahHat.—Q\i\\^o\ii beds (2211, 2213). 

Types. -^o. 113892, U. S. N. M., and in the collection of Mr. Aldrich. 

M. Cossmann notes that this section forms a passage, as it were, from 
CyUchna to Atys^ but it would seem to the writer that it is more 
nearly related to the latter, and should rank as a section of Atys rather 
than of CyUchna. 


Shell small, rather slender, involved, with a polished surface, and the 
aperture produced in a point behind the spire; body of the shell wider 
anteriorly; sculpture of fine incised lines, closer and more numerous 
anteriorly, becoming sparse about the middle of the shell, and nearly 
absent toward the spire, except at the extreme end; surface other- 
wise smooth, except at the posterior end, where close-set, straight, 
sharp, rather deep axially directed grooves extend from the apex for- 
Avard about one-fifth the length of the shell; aperture narrowest in 
the middle; outer \\\) axially straight, incrementally somewhat arched, 
behind produced beyond the spire to a rather narrow point, whence it 
returns with a twist on the body, covering the apical region with a rather 


thick mass of callus, which is much thiuned auteriorly ; pillar thin, solid, 
arched, with a narrow, long chink behind it; aperture rounded in front; 
outer lip thin, sharp edged, simple. Longitude of shell, 4.5: maximum 
diameter, 1.5 nmi. 

Eaintat. — Lower Eocene, Lisbon horizon, at the head of Saline Bayou, 
St. Maurice. Winn Parish, Louisiana, collected by Johnson f station 

Type. — No. 100971, U. S. N. M. ; received from U. S. Geological Survey. 

This species is remarkable for the combination of characters ordina- 
rily regarded as subgeneric or sectional. It has the form of BullineUa^ 
but the j)osterior extension of the aperture is narrowed to a rounded 
point, the spire is concealed, not marked by any pit or perforation, but 
covered by a short, thick mass of callus ; finally, the shell is very nar- 
rowly umbilicate, with a slender, arched, unplicate pillar, twisted, but 
without the short, strong twist of typical Aiys. AVhen fully developed 
the fringe like grooved area at the apical end is a strongly marked 

ATYS OBSCURATA, new species. 

Shell small, wider than A. gracilis, and differing from it in having 
the lateral profile evenly curved, so that no indication of the'equatorial 
swelling is visible in it; the aj)erture is proportionately wider and less 
produced behind, the inner lip above the spire is more strongly twisted; 
there is a shallow pit, but no perforation, at the spire, nor is there any 
thickened striated rim at the margin of the pit; the spiral grooving, 
though similarly distributed, is rather sharper than in A. graciUs, and 
the i)illar less obviously twisted; it is obliquely truncate, narrow, and 
has behind it a narrow but obvious groove. Longitude, 4; maximum 
diameter, U mm. 

Mabitat. — Lower bed at Alum IJluff (2211) and the Miocene marl of 
Bowden, Jamaica (Bland). 

Types.— ^os. 015C3, 113893, U. S. K. M. 

Only two specimens were obtained at Alum Bluff, but the species 
does not seem to stand in with any of the others. It is a typical Atys, 
and not an Acrostemma. 


Shell small, subcylindrical, smooth, except for lines of growth, gen- 
erally polished, with a few revolving stria* on the base; spire sunken, 
perforate, below a very shallow pit with the edge more or less rounded 
over; aperture as long as the shell, narrow; the outer lip shar^), 
simple, straight, with a deep sutural sinus and anteriorly receding and 
then rounding imperceptibly into the ])illar; pillar twisted, obscurely 
ridged, with a minute chink behind it; the body with a thin wash of 
callus. Longitude, 5.25; maximum diameter, 2 mm. 

Rabitat.—C\nl^o]^A beds (2213). 

Types.— ^os. 113886, U. S. N. M., and in Mr. Aldrich's collection. 


This species is very close to the recent Cylinlma verrillii, Dall, from 
which it is ouly distiugaished by having- the posterior commissiire of 
the aperture more produced and the shell a trihe more evenly cylin- 
drical toward the apex. 


Shell small, resembling C. decapitata, but smaller, more solid than 
C. decapitata of the same size, and proportionately a good deal shorter, 
the apical pit wider, the posterior commissure of the aperture less 
produced, the pillar shorter and more oblique and twisted, and with a 
more distinct furrow behind it; the young G. decajntata is atteni\i\ted 
anteriorly, but the C. quercinoisls, which is evidently adult, is not so; 
the anterior spiral striation is barely perceptible with a glass. Longi- 
tude, 2.5; maximum diameter, 1.25 mm. 

Habitat. — Alum Blutf beds, at Oak Grove, Yellow River, Santa Rosa 
County, Florida, L. C. Johnson. 

Type.— 1^0. 131528, U. S. N. M. 

This species is small, but can not be referred to the young of any of 
the other species known from the region. 


Shell cylindrical, surface marked with hues of growth, which are 
slightly elevated where they pass over the ridge into the apical perfo- 
ration, and with fine spiral stria?, which on and near the base are 
alternated with sharper grooves; aperture narrow, as h:)ng as the shell; 
the outer lip straight, behind but little i^roduced, and moderately 
receding to the suture; in front the outer lip recedes and joins the 
pillar evenly; pillar very oblifpie, strong, with an obscure plait, a small 
chink behind the anterior end; body short, with a little wash of callus; 
apex of the shell gently rounded over to a cylindrical perforation, with 
little or no funicular border. Longitude, C.75; maximum diameter, 
2.5 mm. 

Habitat. — Carolinian marl, at the Natural Well, Duplin County, North 
Carolina (2279), Bums. 

Type.—^o. li;587(i, TT. S. N. M. 

This species differs from C. decapitata by its greater stoutness, the 
absence of a funicle on the spire and most obviously by its stronger, 
more oblique, and differently plaited pillar. TLe latter character also 
separates it from C. verrillii, which differs further in having a well- 
marked funicle around a proportionally small perforation. 


Shell small, slender, somewhat roundly pointed at both ends, smooth 
except for lines of growth; body whorl, except distally, <inite cylin- 
drical; aperture narrow, little produced behind, recurved directly into 
the apical perforation without funicular fasciole or decided notch; 
body with a slight wash of callus; pillar nearly straight, not twisted, 


without perceptible keel or plait, aud witli only the merest trace of a 
groove behind it; outer lip straiglit. Longitude, 3.2; maximum diame- 
ter, 1 mm, 

HahitaL—^aixwiil Well, I^uplin County, North Carolina (2279). 

Type. -No. 113887, U. S. N. M. 

This species only fails of being a Volvula by having a subcylindrical 
perforation in the place of a projecting point. I have not seen any- 
thing like it in the recent fauna. 

Genus BULLINA, Ferussae. 
DnlJinula, Beck; type, 7)«/?Mm scahra, Gmelin+ ?"'ffl*«, Gray. 
Section ABDEROSPIRA, Ball. 

hi the typical BulUna the spire is exposed or even elevated; in the 
fossil about to be described the ai)ex of the spire is hidden, as in 
Bulla, and marked only by a perforation. This difference seems worthy 
of sectional discrimination. Type B. (A.) chipolana, Dall. 


Shell small, ovate, strongly sculptured, umbilicated, with a i;)erfo 
rate apex and hidden sjnre; surface sculptured with numerous sharp 
spiral grooves with wider polished interspaces, crossed by distinct, 
equally spaced incremental lines, more feeble on the interspaces, but 
reticulating or punctuating the grooves; aperture as long as the shell; 
outer lip axially nearly straight, incrementally slightly arched, thin, 
with a simple edge and smooth internal surface; posterior sinus with 
a moderate notch, anterior end rounded; i)illar thin, emarginate, with a 
deep groove behind it, outside of which is a well-marked ridge bound- 
ing a narrow, but deep umbilicus ; body with a thin wash of callus ; ai>ex 
perforate, much as in Bulla striata. Longitude, 4.5; maximum diam- 
eter, 3 mm. 

Habitat. — Chipola beds (2213), Chipola River, Florida, collected by 
Burns; and near (latun. Isthmus of Uarien, by Eowell. 

Types.— l!io. 113894, IT. S. N. M.; and in Mr. Aldrich's collection. 

HAMINEA POMPHOLYX, new species. 

Shell small, thin, subglobular; widest behind the middle; surface 
marked with fine incremental lines and sjnral strife, hardly visible 
except under a glass; apex imin-essed, aperture wide, outer lip thin, 
arched axially and incrementally, receding in front and imperceptibly 
merging with the oblique, slightly thickened, twisted jnllar, which from 
below is pervious; body with a thin wash of callus; shell slightly nar- 
rowed in its anterior third. Longitude, 0.5 ; maximum diameter, 5.5 mm. 

i^a&ito/.— Chipola beds (2211, 2213), Florida. 

Types.— ^os. 113895-113897, U. S. N. M. ; and in the Aldrich collection. 

This species is shorter and more globose than any of the recent forms 
of the coast. 



Genus TEREBRA, Bruguiere. 

This genus is one of the most difficult to handle from the inexhausti- 
ble tendency to variation the species exhibit, and which reuders it 
frequently almost impossible to come to any satisfactory conclusion as 
to the relative rank and permanency of the mutations exhibited. Our 
east American fossil species may be arranged in three series; Terebra 
proper, with large, strong shells, the pillar with a single strong anterior 
keel; Mastula, Adams, with the pillar smooth, the canal straight, and 
the subsutural baud absent, feeble, or not set off by a sulcus; Actts 
Adams, with the band and sulcus more or less distinct, a tendency to 
reticulated sculpture, and the pillar with a flat callus at the aperture, 
which usually bears farther back two more or less distinct plaits or 
keels. The two latter may be regarded as subgenera. It is proper to 
observe that nearly all the diagnoses of the groups in Terebridje contain 
a proportion of error in matters of fact. . This is especially the case 
wuth Hastula and jicus, Adams, whose arrangement is so generally 

In the Eocene we have T. {Ha,stu}a) rennsta, Lea, of which T.perlata, 
Conrad, T. mitis, de Gregorio, and T. inula, de Gregorio, are synonyms 
or mutations; T. /(OHs^o^m (Harris, MS.), new species; and T. {Aciis) 
poJygyra, Conrad, of which T. andrefja and T. tgnara, de Gregorio, are 
mutations. These species are all Claibornian, or older. In the later 
Eocene of Vicksburg we have T. {Acus) dlvisura, Conrad, and its vari- 
ety or mutation T. miruhi, de CJregorio, and T. (Acus) iauinhi, Conrad, 
which extends up into the older Miocene of Haiti, the Orthaulax bed 
at Tampa, Florida, and the Alum Bluff beds at De Funiak Springs. 

In the Miocene the genus is more numerously represented. Typical 
Terehra appears in the Haitian old Miocene, which contains T. ijabhii, 
Dall {rohusta, Gabb, not of Hinds), and T. haitensis, Dall, new species. 
In the Chesapeake Miocene we have tiie T. unilineata, Conrad, a well- 
marked species. 

Acus is represented in the old or Chipola Miocene by T. curvllineata, 
new species, from Shiloh, New Jersey, and Easton, Maryland; T. bqxir- 
tita, Sowerby (1849, not of Deshayes, 1859), T. sulcifera, Sowerby, T. 
ina'qiiali.s, Sowerby, and T. houidoiii, Dall, new species, all of whicli are 
common to Haiti and tlie Floridian Chipola beds; also T. pcr^nmctafa, 
Dall, new species, and T. chijwhoia, Dall, new species, of the Chipola 
beds. Later species of Acus are. T. dislocata, Say {indcnta, Conrad, ex 
parte, indentata, Meek, by a typographical error, and ziga, de Gregorio), 
which extends from the Chesapeake Miocene to the recent fauna; T. 
caroUncnsis, Conrad, of the newer Miocene, at the Duplin Natnral Well, 
North Carolina; T. cmmoiisi, Dall [neglccta, Emmons, 18.58, not of Mich- 
elotti, 1847), of the Carolinas; T. concava, Say, ranging from the newer 
Chesapeake Miocene to the recent fauna, and T. protexta, Conrad, from 
the Pliocene to the recent fauna; T. curviUrata, Conrad, and T. poly- 
Proc. N. M. 95 3 


gonata, new species. Rastula, both fossil and recent, lias few American 
species. T. evansi, Gabb, in the older Miocene of Chiriqui, Central 
America, seems to be an analogue of T. sim2)le.v, Conrad, of the Chesa- 
peake Miocene of Maryland. The latter is abundant in the beds of 
St. Mary's River, where it is accomi)anied by a variety altior^ Dall, and 
by a small, smooth species common to the older beds at Shiloh. New 
Jersey, for which the name inornata is proposed. 

In early publications on our Tertiary, species were sometimes de- 
scribed as Terebra which should now be referred to other families. 
Such are T. costata, I. Lea, 1833 (not of Borson, 1823, -f leai, de Gre- 
gorio),T. (jracilis and T. multiplicata., I. Lea; and also T. dainda awd 
coustricta, H. C. Lea, which belong to the Cerithiacea. There are also 
a number of catalogue names or synonyms, such as T. perlata, Con- 
rad (= vemista, Lea); T. petit ii, Kiener (— coarse var. of T. (lidocata)', 
T. loxonema, Conrad (i)robably intended for one of the varieties of 
T. simplex, hnt never described or figured); T. sublirata, Conrad (a 
catalogue name here revived), and T. tuberculosa, Nelson (unfigured, 
1870) which is not the tuberculosa of Hinds (1813). 

TEREBRA (HASTULA) HOUSTONIA, Harris, new species. 

This species differs from T. venusta by its less rectilinear sides, its 
more inflated whorls, and drawn-out si)ire of somewhat i)ui)iform ap- 
pearance, its straight and simple pillar, its more arched longitudinal 
riblets, which are usually obsolete on the last whorl, and by its feebler 
spiral striation. Longitude, 29; maximum diameter, 5 mm., in a speci- 
men having ten whorls beside the smooth, small, pointed nucleus of 
three and one-half whorls. 

Tyx)es.—l^o. 0031, U. S. N. M. ; Claiborne, Alabama. 

The species will be fully described and illustrated by Mr. (t. I). Harris 
in his report on the Texas Tertiary fauna. It is found in the lower 
bed (Lisbon horizon) at Claiborne Bluff, and also in the Texas Eocene. 


Terebra rohusta, Gabb, Geol. Sauto Domingo, p. 224, 1873; not of Hinds, Proc. 
Zool. Soc, LoncL, p. 149, 1843. 
Shell large, strong, with a slender, strongly sculptured spire, and 
later smoother, rapidly enlarging whorls, with a nearly peripheral, nar- 
row, spiral <'olor band, which, even in the fossil, sometimes is clearly per- 
ceptible; on the earlier whorls the upper half is occupied by a wider 
sutural and an anterior luirrower elevated band, separated from each 
other by a well-marked sulcus; they are crossed obliquely by fine, 
sharp, regularly spaced elevated lines with wider interspaces, which on 
the rest of the whorl have a vertical or axial direction to the suture; 
in the specimen before me about a dozen (partly decollate) whorls exhibit 
this sculpture, the whole shell being microscopically spirally striated; 
the sculpture then becomes obsolete, the following four whorls being 



nearly smooth, except for incremental lines, while they rapidly become 
more rounded; suture distinct; aperture with the outer lip somewhat 
receding- in the middle; inner lip moderately callous; pillar half a turn 
inside the apcj'ture showing a prominent basal keel ; canal twisted, with 
a distinct fasciole. Diameter of spire at decollation, 2.75; maximum 
diameter of twelfth subsequent whorl, 24; longitude of (decollate) 
shell, 70 mm. 

Hahifat. — Older Miocene of Santo Domingo at the Potrero, lliver 
Amina, Bland; Gabb, various localities on the same island. 

Types.— No. 113751, U. S. N. M.; and in the Academy of Natural 
Sciences, Philadelphia. 

This species has hardly more in common with the Pacific T. robusfa, 
Hinds, than the fact that the sculpture is obsolete on the later whorls. 
It grows much larger than the dimensions given above, and the last 
whorls become much swollen. 

TEREBRA HAITENSIS, new species. 

Shell slender, acute, all the whorls sculptured, the early whorls with 
a double subsutural baud, as in the last species, but with the riblets 
crossing the wider band vertically, becoming oblique on the anterior 
band, where they are almost nodulous, and forming arched waves on 
the rest of the whorl to the suture, but becoming suddenly obsolete 
at about the line of revolution of the suture and thence over the base 
to the canal; aperture rather short; pillar short, twisted, with a single 
basal keel, which falls short of the aperture; canal short, sharply re- 
curved ; spiral striation obsolete or none. In a specimen of 24 whorls, 
excluding the nucleus, the total length is 02, the maximum diameter 
11.5 mm. 

Habitat. — Older Miocene of Santo Domingo at the Potiero, River 
Amina, Bland; Gabb, various localities on the same island. 

Type.— No. 113753, U. S. X. M. 

This species diiiers from the preceding by not losing its slender form, 
by preserving its sculpture, by details of the sculpture, and by its more 
numerous whorls in the same length. 


Shell small, slender, nearly smooth, without any sutural band or spiral 
sculpture, and with about a dozen whorls ; early whorls with a few obso- 
lete transverse riblets, other whorls with no sculpture except the some- 
what irregular incremental lines; whorls rather flat, suture distinct, 
closely appressed; aperture longer than wide; outer lip thin, nearly 
straight, simple; pillar short, simple, twisted; the canal moderately 
wide; base rounded, without a carina. Longitude, 18; maximum diam- 
eter, 4 mm. 

Habitat. — Older Miocene of Shiloli, New Jersey, and St. Mary's 
River, Maryland; collected by Burns and others. 

Types.— Nos. 100953-100955, U. S. N. M. 


A single specimen was found with tlie fossils from the lower bed at 
Alum Bluif (2211), but as some St. Mary's fossils had been standing- 
close by on the same table before sorting I believe that this single 
specimen is probably an estray. The species is readily recognizable 
and most nearly allied to the slender form of T. simplex, Conrad, found 
in tbe same bed at St. Mary's IJiver, but which may be distinguished 
by its more conical form and larger size when adult. The name of inor- 
nata was applied by Professor Whitfield to the K"ew Jersey form in his 
report on the Gastropods of the Miocene marls of New Jersey.' It is 
still more abundant in Maryland, and as the specimens do not appear 
to differ in any essential way, T adopt Professsor Whitfield's name for 
the species. 

Teychrapohjiiijra, Coxkad, Journ. Acad. Nat. Sci. Pbila., VII, p. 156, 1834. 
This form, described from Claiborne by Conrad, was not figured by 
him, and seems to have been forgotten both by Conrad and Meek in 
making up their check lists. It has since been redescribed by de Gre- 
gorio, who has figured it as T. andrega, and probably as 1\ igytara. It 
is a small shell, prefiguring T. divisiira, Conrad, from the young of 
whicli it can hardly be distinguished, except as more slender. I have 
thought it well to direct attention to it, as it is clearly distinct from 
T. vemista. 


Tliis species, described from the Vicksburgian Eocene, appears also 
in the older Miocene of Santo Domingo, of the Tampa Orthaulax bed, 
and of the Alum Bluff beds at De Funiak Springs, Florida. It may be 
distinguished from T. pohjgijra and otber similar species by its spiral 


Shell acute-conic, solid, with 12 to 11 moderately convex whorls; early 
whorls more flatsided, with numerous narrow, transverse, slightly 
waved riblets, extending from suture to suture, with about equai inter- 
spaces; suture very distinct; sutural band formed by a vaguely limited 
constriction, not a groove; a short distance in front of the suture the 
ends of the ribs thus delimited fiom the rest have a tendency to coro- 
nate the whoi'l ; on the later whorls the ribs become less regular and 
somewhat less prominent; aperture longer than wide; outer lip sim- 
ple; pillar elongated, twisted, smooth; siphonal fasciole very distinct. 
Longitude, 27 ; maximum diameter, 0.5 mm. in a specimen of 11 whorls. 

Habitat. — Older Miocene of Jericho, i^ew Jersey, and Easton, Mary- 
land, Burns and Harris. Tbe specimens from Maryland are larger 
and in better preservation than those found in Xew Jersey. 

Types.— ^o^. 100952, 111G48, U. S. N. M. 

Moll, aucl Crust. Mice. N. J., p. 114, pi. xx, figs. 11-13, 1894. 


The name curvilineata, by a typograpliical error, appears in Meek's 
Miocene check list for T. eurmliraia, Conrad, a species from St. Mary's 
River, Maryland; bnt it has never been applied to any described spe- 
cies from oar Tertiary heretofore. The species has something in com- 
mon with the more rngose specimens of T. {Hastula) simplex, Conrad, 
but is perfectly distinct. 

Tercbra curi-ilirata, Conkad, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., I, p. 327, 1843. 

This is an old species of Conrad's, which does not appear to have 
been figured. The shell is small, not exceeding 30 mm. in length, with 
rather swollen whorls constricted narrowly above, much as in Pleuro- 
toma of the section Cijmatosyrinx. The ribs are about 12 to the whorl 
and most prominent at the periphery; their posterior ends are con- 
stricted off near the suture without any distinct groove or incised line; 
they are strongly curved in front of the constriction; the surface has 
extremely fiiint, obsolete spiral sculpture, only visible with the aid of a 
lens; the pillar thin, simple, and twisted, rather short; the nucleus is 
conical, of four smooth whorls like a small, very much elevated Callios- 
toma, except that the whorls are rounded. A specimen 15 mm. long 
had ten whorls, exclusive of the nucleus, and a maximum diameter 
of 4.75 mm. 

Hdhitaf. — Miocene of St. Mary's River, Maryland. Types in Acad- 
emy of ISTatural Sciences; specimens in U. S. I^Tational Museum (Nos. 
10G950, 106957). 

TEREBRA (ACUS) SINCERA, new species. 

Shell small, thin, acute-conic, flat-whorled, with feeble sculpture; 
whorls ten, without the nucleus; anterior half of the whorls, with fine, 
feeble, spiral threading overrunning the ribs, posterior half without 
spirals, but divided into two equal parts by a spiral groove visible 
between the ribs; transverse sculpture of fine, low, even, narrow, 
arched riblets, with wider interspaces, extending clear across the whorls ; 
suture distinct, sutural band obscure, not swollen ; aperture longer than 
wide, outer lip thin, arched in harmony with the riT)s; pillar short, 
smooth, or faintly excavated; canal recurved, not contracted. Longi- 
tude, 22; maximum diameter, 5 mm. 

Habitat. — Miocene of St. Mary's River. Maryland. 

Ty2)es.—:^o. 11873 «, U. S. N. M. 

This species is quite distinct from the others of the St. Mary's hori- 
zon, and when perfect is easily recognized. When superficially eroded 
the ribs are more prominent, as is the succeeding whorl at the suture, 
and the whorls may have a slightly turrited appearance. 




Terebra MparUta, Sowerby, Quart. Joiirn. Geol. Soc. Londou, YI, pt. 1, p. M, 
1849. Not= T. Upartita, Deshayes, 1859. 

Habitat. — Old Miocene of Santo Domingo, at Ponton, and in the Cliip- 
ola beds (2213), Calhoun County, Florida. Specimens in the Acad- 
emy of Natural Sciences and the U. S. National Museum (Nos. 113G53, 

Variety hipartlta., s. s. — Shell acute, with the sutural sulcus prominent 
and set off by a deep sulcus, which cuts ribs and all, from the rest of 
the whorl, where the spiral threading is remarkably clear-cut, uniform, 
and elegant, not overriding the narrow, sharp-edged ribs. Santo Do- 
mingo and Chipola. Longitude, 23; maximum diameter, 5..5 mm. 

The pillar of this form seems to be simple and smooth in all the 
sijecimens I have seen. 

Variety sjnri/era, Dall. — Shell with the ribs feeble, the spiral sculp- 
ture more prominent than the ribs, especially two rather narrow spirals 
just in front of the sutural band, and overriding the ribs with close- 
set, even, distinct, coarse, rounded threads, which fail on the canal; 
pillar distinctly grooved or biplicate. Loiigitude, 30; maximum diam- 
eter, 8 mm. Ponton, Santo Domingo. 

This form is larger, and the shell increases in diameter more rapidlj'' 
than in the type. It may prove to be worthy of specific rank with 
more material, in which case the varietal may be used as a specific 
name. No. 113051, U. S. N. M. 

It recalls, in its relation to the tyi)e, the relation of T. indenta, Con- 
rad, to T. (lislocata, Say. 

Variety oligoniitra, Dall. — Shell slender, with 12 or more whorls, 
crossed by numerous very sharp, thin, sigmoid ribs, with wider inter- 
spaces, over which lie (between the sutures four and on the base four 
smaller) strap-like, flat spirals, with much wider interspaces, failing on 
the i)illar; the whole surface is also finely spirally striate; the pillar 
long, twisted, biplicate; the suture very distinct. Longitude. 38; max- 
imum diameter, 8.5 mm. River Amina, Santo Domingo. 

This form is more slender, the spirals are sparse and strap-like, 
instead of crowded and rounded; the fine spiral striation is not seen on 
the previously mentioned forms. No. 11375G, U. S. N. M. 

Variety cirruSj Dall. — Shell much smaller and j)roportionally more 
slender; spirals flat, strap-like, irregular, with narroM^er interspaces, 
overrunning very low and imrrow sharp ribs with wider interspaces; 
whorls, 12 or more, flatfish; pillar sharply biplicate. Longitude, 25; 
max imum diameter, 5.5 mm. Eiver Amina, Santo Domingo. No. 113752, 
U. S. N. M. 

This l)ears to the variety oligomitra much such a relation as T.jyrotexta, 
Conrad, does to the more delicate types of T. (lislocata, Say. It mayj 
prove to be worthy of specific rank. 




The preceding varieties would by most writers be regarded (and with 
some reason) as species, but the differences they exhibit are for the 
most part such as 1 find between the different races of T. (li.sloc«ta, when 
a sufficient geographic series is compared. In the absence of hirge 
suites of the Santo Domingo fossils, it seems more i)rudent for tlie pres- 
ent to assign them varietal rank. 

TEREBRA (ACUS) AMITRA, new species. 

Shell small, acute, slender, of 10 whorls without the nucleus: whorls 
flatfish, crossed by about 17 prominent, straight, rounded, even ribs 
With slightly wider interspaces; spiral sculpture of sparse, sharp, in- 
cised lines, more numerous and closer on the base, eight or nine in all; 
sutural band absent, or not set off by sulcus or constriction; aperture 
longer than wide, outer lip straight incrementally; canal wide; pillar 
straight, smooth, witli its anterior edge prominent; canal short, wide; 
siphonal fasciole distinct. Longitude, 9.5; maxiumm diameter, 2.5 mm. 

Huhitat. — Potrero, River Amina, Santo Domingo. 

Type.—^o. 113755, U. S. N. 31. 

This little species, though represented by only a single specimen, 
seems clearly distinct. 

TEREBRA (ACUS) LANGDONI, new species. 

Shell small, slender, of 13 whorls beside the nucleus, which is small, 
conical, and of three whorls; sculpture reticulated transversely by IG 
low, narrow, rounded, slightly flexuous ribs, with wider interspaces, 
the posterior ends of the ribs not cut off by the deep sulcus which 
defines the sutural band in front; transverse sculj)ture of this sulcus 
visible between the ribs, and four flatfish spirals, separated bynarrower 
grooves, between the sulcus and the next suture, and seven or eight 
narrower spirals on the base; aperture longer than wide; pillar simple, 
smooth; canal rather long, twisted and recurved. Longitude, 20; max- 
imum diameter, 4 mm. 

//^,/,j7rt/.— Chipola beds (2211, 2212, 2213), Calhoun County, Florida, 

Type.—^n. 113913, F. S. N. M. 

y axiety perpiDU'tata, Dall. Shell with the spiral sculpture replaced 
by fine spiral striie, obsolete or irregular, except the sulcus in front of 
the sutural band, which is represented between the ends of each pair 
of ribs near the suture by a deep, geueralh^ rounded, puncture or pit. 
Found with the type in the Chipola beds (2213). 

This well-marked and rather abundant little species is dc^dicafed to 
Mr, D. F. Langdon, late of the Alabama State geological survey. 


Shell small, slender, obsoletely sculi)tnred, with a pupoid nucleus of 
four whorls and about a dozen subse(|ueiit whorls, the earlier of which 


are slightly smaller than the last two nuclear turns; sides flattish, 
suture distinct; sutural baud conspicuous, set off by a deep sulcus; 
the band is without nodules or marked sculpture, except on tlic last 
whorl; the whorls are feebly transversely wrinkled by obsolete riblets, 
which on tlie last whorl in the type specimen take a more definite 
shape, but fade out on the periphery; spiral sculpture of obsolete 
grooves on the anterior half of the whorl, two of which on the base 
are more distinct than the others; aperture longer than wide; pillar 
simple, smooth, twisted, little recurved; siphonal fasciole with a sharp 
posterior keel. Longitude, 12; maximum diameter, 2.5 mm. 

Habit(iL—Chii)olA beds (2213). A single specimen (Xo. 113912) in 
the National Museum. 

This little species is sufficiently unlike the others to require bu( lit- 
tle in the way of comparison. A dwarf T. lanydoni var. 2)erpuHctata, 
with the ribs almost wholly obsolete and the sulcus continuous instead 
of broken into punctures, would be something like it. 

Tcrehra vajlecfn, Emmons, N. C. Geo). Snrv., p. 258, 1<^58. 

This unfigured species appears to have been lost sight of, though 
apparently well characterized. At first sight it would recall T. dislo- 
caia^ but on inspection it is found to differ materially. The sutural 
band is marked in front by a constriction, not a sulcus, toward which 
the transverse sculpture becomes obsolete, while the front part of each 
whorl is somewhat SAVollen, with the ribs strongest on the periphery. 
In many specimens the ribbing on the sutural band alternates with 
that on the whovl. The posterior half of the whorl is smooth or only 
faintly spirally striated; on the anterior half the spirals, though fine and 
close, are well marked. The pillar is smooth and without plaits, while 
in 1\ dlshx-afa it is biplicate. The shell reaches about 32 mm. in length 
and 7.5 in maximum diameter, with 15 whorls. The taper of the tip of 
the spire is more rapid than the rest, instead of being uniformly conical. 
It was described by Emmons from the ^Miocene of North Carolina, but 
was not found by Burns in tlie Duplin beds. We have it in the Na- 
tional Museum (No, 114(51) from the Chesapeake Miocene (1521) of South 
Carolina, on the autlioiity of Whitfield. 


Terebra dislocata (Say) Conrad, Sill. Am. Jouru. Sci. XLI, p. 343, 1841. 
Terehra hulenUi, Coxrao, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1862, p. 565, 1863. 
Terehra indentaia, Mkek, Miocene check list, p. 18, No. 603^ 1864. 

Hahitat. — Duplin beds at the Natural Well, Duplin County, North 

The species T. dislocata in the Miocene has some varieties which ^ire 
not reproduced in the recent fauna, as well as some that are. Of the 
former, T.hidcnta, Cour-M\{l7ideniata of Meek by a typographical error), 
is the most marked. It differs from the typical T. dislocata by its feebler 
and closer transverse sculpture, and its stronger, close-set, cord-like 


spirals, whicb are more conspicuous than the riblets which they over- 
run. In full-grown specimens the diameter of the base is proportion- 
ately greater than in T. dislocata, and the surface is less polished. The 
young T. Indenta resemble an exceptionally stout T. protexta., Conrad. 
The variety, which, when well developed, often seems perfectly distinct 
from typical T. dislocafa, nevertheless grades insensibly into the latter 
in a large collection from one locality, and it can not be regarded as a 
mutation of more than v. rietal rank. 

renus CONUS, Linnaeus. 

The species of this genus are separated when belonging to the recent 
fauna largely by their color-pattern, and m the absence of this aid 
they are doubly ditticult to discriminate. In general the rule that 
local fauniB are derived from preexisting fauna' of the same general 
region is a good guide, and a careful comparison of the fossils w^ith 
the recent types will often assist materially in determining the rela- 
tions of fossil forms. The identifications which travel to distant 
fauiuTe for representatives — as, for instance, the Indo-Pacific fauna for 
Haitian fossils — are usually wrong, and all Gabb's identifications of 
this sort will be modified by further and more careful study. Analogous 
characteristics are often purely dynamic in forms of different lineage 
subjected to similar conditions in widely distant localities. Where 
modern faun;e differ in the races of any genus which they contain, the 
antecedent fossils in the same regions are not likely to be much more 
nearly related. 

The Mediterranean and African cones belong to groups which are 
not effectively represented in American waters; hence it is probable 
that none of the identifications of American with European Tertiary 
cones have the weight of probability m their favor. The same type 
may be represented in both faunae, but this is only exceptionally the 
case, and is not to be taken for granted. 

In de Gregorio's useful but rather slipshod work on the Alabama 
Eocene fossils the common Conns sauridcns of Conrad is referred to 
C. ilivers'formis of Deshayes, an Eocene cone of the Parisian basin. 
They are in fact very simil-ar species, but if identical, G. smiridens, being 
the older name, must be applied to the French species and not the 
French name to the American species. I think, however, the two 
species are not identical. (J. dirersiformis is a much thinner and 
lighter shell, with a proportionally wider aperture, and does not show 
the remarkable plait at the end of the pillar, the formation of which 
announces maturity in C. sauridens. The latter species, though rather 
rare at Claiborne, is only varietally se[)arated from the Jacksonian 
G. tortilis and the Vicksburgian G. alvcatus, while the old 3Iiocene 
G. plnniceps, Heilprin, forms the culmination of the series. Very young 
G. saiirUlcns (like many other immature cones) show small nodules at the 
shoulder or just below it; these are the G. parvus, H. C. Lea. G. pro- 
tracttis, Meyer, and Co pulcherrimas, Ileiiprin, with a probably new 



but uiidescribed form from "Vicksburg, complete the list of our kuown 
Eocene cones. C. gyratus, Morton, and C. claihornensiSj Lea, are uurec 
ognizable, and should be dropped. C. suhsavriflens does not appear to 
differ from C. sauridens, Conrad. C. gr(tno2)sis, deGregorio, appears to 
be identical Avith C. protractus, Meyer, but the type of C. granopsis is 
only 4 mm, long-, and it may be a young C. sauridens. C. improridns, 
de Gregorio, from an unmentioned (American?) locality, is not like 
anything known from Claiborne in American collections. 

Only three species of cones are yet known Irom the Chesapeake 
Miocene: C. adversarins, Conrad; C. diluvianns, Green, and C. mary- 
landicHs, Green, The original locality of the latter is not known, and 
it has not recently been collected in Maryland, but occurs in Duplin 
County, North Carolina, and has by some accident been figured by 
Tuomey and Holmes, under the name of C. diluvianns, from South 

The cones of the old Miocene of Florida do not include any of the 
Antillean species described from the ecjuivalent horizon, which is rather 
a surprise, but we find the three forms here described, with several 
well-marked varieties. 


CONUS CHIPOLANUS, new species. 

Shell double-conic, with a rather elevated spire of nine normal and 
about three Incid nuclear whorls; profile of the spire somewhat con- 
cave, turrited shoulder of the whorls sharply keeled, concave between 
the keel and the suture, without spiral grooving, but showing faint 
microscopic spiral scratches, the prominent sculpture of this area being 
the delicately nrched lines of the anal fasciole, which are sometimes 
very conspicuous; the keel is wholly without nodules; sides in front of 
the keel straight, slightly concave toward the canal, smooth, except 
for incremental lines, polished anteriorly, with about nine sharp, chan- 
neled spiral grooves, besides some striations on the canal; the grooves 
are separated by wider interspaces and crossed by numerous elevated 
lines of growth^ which only appear in the channels; each channel in 
the fully adult shell has a spiral row of faint, round tubercles close to 
its anterior margin; in the young the grooves sometimes cover the 
Whole shell before the keel, and the nodules are often absent; in the 
adult the grooves cover somewhat less fhan half the whorl, while on 
the smooth part traces of five narrow, revolving color bajids are some 
times visible, with wider interspaces; anal notch only moderately deep; 
outer lip thin, only moderately arched ; aperture narrow, with nearly 
parallel sides; the pillar straight, thin, slightly twisted. Longit'iide of 
shell, 32; of spire, 7.5; maximum diameter, 15.5 imn. 

^f,/,,7a/._Chipola beds (2213), Chipola River, Florida. 

Types.— '^o. 113985, U. S. K M.; and in the collection of Mr. Aldrich. 

This species recalls C. interstinctits, Guppy, of the Haitian Miocene, 
but is a smaller, more slender, and more delicate shell, without any 
grooving in the sutural fasciole. It is more nearly related to G. mary- 


landicus of the newer Miocene, aud to G. Jioridamis, Pliocene and recent, 
tlian to any of tlie Antillean fossils witli wliicli I have coiiioared it. 

CONUS ISOMITRATUS, new species. 

Shell small, solid, short, stont, with a rather low spire of eight or nine 
whorls beside the uuclens ; a single elevated thread runs at the shoulder, 
on which the suture is laid; between the sutures, which are dee^) and 
distinct, the whorl is convex, turgid, with only incremental lines; in 
front of the shoulder the sides are slightly swollen, the posterior half 
obsoletely spirally striate or smooth, anteriorly with distinct spiral 
threads and equal interspaces crossed by conspicuous lines of growth; 
the siphonal fasciole distinct, swollen, showing as a rounded ridge; 
outer lip straight, thin, sharp; anal notch shallow, aperture narrow, 
siphonal notch deep; pillar with the edge thickened and twisted, form- 
ing in welldevelo])ed specimens with tlie siphonal fasciole two obscure 
plaits; body with little or no callus. Longitude of shell, 1*8; of spire, 
5; maximum diameter, IS mm. 

Habitat.— C\u\)o]ii beds (2212, 2213), Cliipola River, Florida, and 
Alum Blutt' beds near De Fuuiak Springs (2238). 

Types.— 1^0. 113980, U. S. N. M,; and in the collection of Mr. Aldricli. 

The young of this species have nine or ten deep grooves, with nar- 
rower interspaces, covering a little more than the anterior half of the 
shell. These grooves during growth become gradually modified to the 
adult sculpture. 


Shell resembling the tj'pe, except that the sutural border or shoulder 
of the shell is flattened or excavated m itli a few or numerous s])iral 
grooves upon its surface. It is also larger. Longitude of spire, 5; of 
shell, 38; diameter, 24 mm, 

7/rtZ>//rt/.— Chipola beds (2212, 2213), Chipola River, Florida. 

Tyjyes.-^o. 113024, U. S. N. M, 

The transition from a concave to a turgid sutural border, from smooth 
to spirally grooved, is quite gradual, though the extremes have a very 
diherent asi)ect, and would, by some writers, be put in different sections 
of the genus. This species recalls C. mxs of the recent fauna as much 
as any species. It is nuich shorter and stouter than the line which 
begins with C. sanridcns et al., and is represented in the present fauna 
by G. (laiicus. 

CONUS DEMIURGUS, new species. 

Shell large, elongate, with a large, somewhat bulbous, nucleus, and 
about 10 su))sequent whorls; spire low, in the young nearly flat, with 
a distinct but not channeled sutuie; shoulder of the whorl angular, the 
space between the sutures flattish or feebly excavated, sculptured with 
obvious lines of growth, crossed by few, faint, obsolete, spiral, traces; 


sides of tlie wliorl sinootli, except for obsolete spiral lines, ratber wide 
and irregularly spaced ; iu the anterior third they are stronger, but even 
there not very marked; some specimens seem to indicate a faded color- 
pattern of continuous, narrow, spiral lines, rather evenly and nniforndy 
spaced; aperture narrow, of efpial width, or nearly so; the anal notch 
moderately deep, the pillar straiglit, with a narrow callous part not 
showing' any ridge or plait. Longitude of spire, 5; of shell, 05; diam- 
eter, 35; width of aperture, mm. 

HaMtat.—Chiiwln beds (2211-2213), Florida. 

Types.— Iso. 113920, U. S. N. M.; and in the Aldrich collection. 

This species is the largest yet found iu these beds, and among recent 
species finds its nearest analogue in C. papilionaceiis, Hwass. It is a 
more slender shell than the latter, with more flattened spire and larger 
nucleus. It is a shell without striking characteristics, yet which will 
not fit in with any of the other forms of this horizon. 


Shell of moderate size, with five whorls, beside the (decollate) nucleus, 
with three sharp, continuous varices exteiuling down the si)ire and a 
single prominent intervarical nodule on the interspaces of the whorls; 
the last varix broader than any of the others, with a posterior angle, 
the front sculptured with fine crenulate imbricated lamelhe, the back 
smooth, except for the ends of the spiral ribbing; spiral sculpture of 
(about 15 on the last whorl) low spiral ribs most prominent on the 
varices and on the intervarical nodules, the rather wide interspaces 
finely spirally striate; aperture small, subovate, the outer lip with 
about seven strong teeth; the body with a thin, smooth callus; suture 
appressed, obscure; canal open, narrow, not quite as long as the aper- 
ture; on the siphonal fasciole a single projecting remnant of an earlier 
canal is visible. Length, 38; of last whorl, 28; of aperture, 14; diam 
eter of shell, 20 mm. 

Habitat. — Ballast Point, Tampa, Florida, old Miocene silexbeds: a 
single specimen collected by E. J. Post. 

Type.— 'No. 130349, U. S. N. M. 

It is possible this should be referred to Pterorhi/tis rather than 
Pteropurpnra, but there does not appear to be any long tooth on the 
edge of the outer lip as usual iu the former genus. 

Genus GYRODES, Conrad. 

Subgenus GYRODISCA, Dall. 

Shell like Gyrodes, but small, without any channel in front of the 
suture, the umbilical angle crenate l)y the transverse lamellar or fibrous 
sculj)ture: the nucleus small, prominent, glassy, the shell otherwise 


eartliy or porcelanous; the operculum like that of Sicjaretus. Type, 
Adeorhis depressus, Jeffreys.' 

8i()aretUH prohlematicus and Gibbula mitis of Desliayes, from the 
Paris basiu Eocene, appear from the figures to be referable here. The 
Cretaceous species, upon which (ryrodes was founded, are considerably 
larger, and the sutural sulcus, though not absolutely constant, gives 
them a different asi)ect. There are several Tertiary and one or two 
recent sj)ecies which belong to the subgenus as restricted. 


Shell small, with a small glassy nucleus and somewhat more than 
three whorls, the last much the largest; the nucleus primiinent above 
the rather depressed spire; whorls rounded, suture very deep; base 
rounded; uml)ilicus wide, its border hardly angular; scul})ture of 
numerous, tlexuous, siibequal, regular, transverse, lamellar riblets, with 
wider, faintly si)irally striate interspaces; aperture large, very oblique, 
pointed above, rounded below, not interrupted by the preceding whorl; 
lip simi»le, sharp, rather tlexuous, the inner one receding. Width, 3.6; 
height, 2.7.5 mm. 

Upper Chesapeake Miocene of Magnolia, Dui)lin County, North 
Carolina, Burns. 

TyjJe.—^o. 114430, U. S. N. M. 

This species differs from most of those belonging to the subgenus by 
the obsolescence of the umbilical angle, though this may be, and prob- 
ably is, an individual rather than a specific characteristic. 

Genus UMBONIUM, Link. 

Shell small, depressed, three-whorled, with a smooth, glossj- nucleus, 
the subsequent whorls deiu'essed and tricarinate; one carina is at the 
periphery, oiieon the base, and the least i)iominei!t between the suture 
and the i)eriphery; the latter fails on the last i)art of the last whorl, 
and is more or less nodulous or undulated by faintly elevated but dis- 
tinct radiating ridges, which begin weak, are strongest on the keel, and 
die out before reaching the periphery; the base shows radiating ridges, 
rather stronger than those on the spire, but which do not creimlate the 
strong basal keel; umbilicus moderate, with a single spiral thread above 
the lingular margin; aperture entire, oblique, the edge simple, but 
modified by the intersection of the keels. Diameter, 1.0; height, 1 mm. 

Habitat. — Pliocene of the Caloosahatchie beds, Dall. 

Type.—^o. 113590, U. S. N. ]\I. 

This very small species appears adult, and has a rather solid and 
strong shell. 

1 Jeffrey's, Proc. Zool. ,Soc. LoncL, 1885, p. 41, \)\. iv, figs. 8, 8a; Dall, Blake Gastr., 
p. 298, 1889. 




Sbell small, solid, of three and a half whorls, depressed, dome-like, 
strougly keeled at the perii^hery, ^vith a round-edged, broad carina, 
above and below which the whorl is more or less compressed; trans- 
verse sculpture of about a dozen rounded ripples between the suture 
and the periphery, the nucleus and the last half of the last whorl being 
free from them ; these ripples cross the whorl in a flexuous manner, and 
differ in strength in different specimens; the base also shows radiating 
flexuous sculpture, but more feeble and obscure; the spiral sculpture 
consists of the perii)heral carina, and of oblique incised lines, which are 
absent near the suture and umbilicus, but sharp and distinct periph- 
erally; they cut the surface at a slight angle with the plane of the 
periphery; base flatfish, slightly rounded in the middle, the umbilicus 
moderate, without any well-marked angle or internal sculpture; aper- 
ture oblique, nearly circular, produced at the upper angle; peristome 
simple, entire. Diameter, 2.5; height, 1 mm. 

Habitat. — Miocene of the Natural Well, Duplin County, North Caro- 
lina; Burns, collector. 

Type.— No. 114440, U. S. N. M. 


Shell small, solid, of three and a half whorls, rather depressed; sculp 
ture on the spire of rather even, rounded, oblique, subequal, transverse 
riblets, with narrower interspaces, crossed by tine, sharp, close-set, spiral 
stride; an incised line in front of the suture cuts off a narrow^ border, 
except on the smooth nuclear whorls; the periphery is formed by a 
strong, blunt-edged keel; the base is rather full, with two more rather 
strong keels with reticulate sculpture between them, the spirals pre- 
dominating near the umbilicus and the radials near the periphery; 
umbilicus small, with an angular border and a single spiral thread 
within; aperture rounded, oblique, produced on the body whorl, entire. 
Diameter, 2; height, 0,75 nmi. 

Habitat. — Miocene of the Natural Well, Duplin County, North Caro- 
lina; Burns, collector. 

Type.— No. 114445, U. S. N. M. 

Though so small, the sculpture is very elegant. 


By O. F. Cook. 

Neakly two years ago, I received from the U. S. National Museum a 
small collection of Myriapoda, sent in by Ilev. J. H. Camp, of the 
American Baptist Missionary Union. The Polydesmid;\; were repre- 
sented by the two species of Oxydesmns here described. 

Since the specimens have been in my hands I have had opportu- 
nity of comparing- them with the types of 0. afer (Gray) and 0. (jrayi 
(Newport), in the British Museum, and with those of 0. irivu^pUlatHS 
(Peters) in the Berlin Museam, with none of which are they identical or 
closely related. As far as may be judged from the insufficient descrip- 
tions of the other species, these Congo Valley forms offer a new character 
in the great width of the ax)ex of the last segment. This, howevei-, can 
hardly form the basis of generic distinction, for the other characters, 
including those drawn from the copulatory legs of the nmle, otter merely 
specific ditt'erences frcmi the other species of Oxydesmiis. Indeed, the 
characters of the coiDulatory legs in the present genus are of compara- 
tively little use in separating the species, the differences being so slight 
as to be very diflicultof detinition, even between species strikingly dis- 
tinct in color, sculpture, and form. 

The genera of Polydesmidic have in very few cases been adequately 
described, so that their characters and aftinities must be inferred mostly 
from what may be known of the typical species. In the case of Oxydes- 
mus the species ditter little in structural cliaracters, and wliile the type 
species, O.flavomarfiinatus, is not .sufficiently known, it was said by its 
author to differ only in color from 0. tricuspidatus, so that a generic 
description is apparently practicable. 

Genus OXYDESMUS (Humloert and Saussure). 
Oxiidcsuiiin (Hu.AinEirr and Saussure), Xevh. Zool.-Bot. Ges. Wieii, 18(59, p. 671. 
Diaynosis. — Body large. Antenmp with four olfactory cones. Seg- 
ments dorsally with three transverse rows of rounded granules or 
tubercles. Segments 1-4 without specially enlarged tubercles. Lateral 
carime large, the lateral edge thin and sharp, even, or nearly so. 

ProceeiUuKs of the Tniied Statt's Naticiiial Museum, Vol. XVIII— No. 10:i(). 



Repugnatorial pores 11, dorsal on the outer slope of tlie iiitramarg- 
iiial ridge of segineuts 5, 7, 9, 10, 12, 13, 15-19. Penultimate segment 
exceeding- segment IS. Last segment broad, or very broad, tlie apex 
more or less evidently emarginate; superior lateral tubercle usually 
not large. 

Sterna witbout special structures. Male legs soiiieMiiat crassate. 
Male genitalia flexed, and inserted under tbe edge of the aperture. 

Descripiion. — Body large, about six times as long as broad; cavity 
nearly circular. Vertex prominent, rough; sulcus very deep. Antenn;B 
scarcely clavate; third joint nearly as long as the second, or subequal; 
joints in order of length G, 2, 3, 4=5, 1, 7. 

Mandibulary stipe with exposed surface divided by sutures into six 
areas, two triangular, four trapezoidal. Masticatory plate lunate, 
oblong, the surface crossed by eight to ten transverse ridges, alter- 
nating with grooves. Dentate lamella with three to four broad, rounded 
teeth. Pectinate lamelhe, six. 

Mentum triangular-cordate, slightly broader than long, broadly 
emarginate posteriorly, anterior angle sharp or rounded. Cardo small, 
pointed distad. 

Lingual lobes with one small cone concealed on the dorsal face; 
median lobes with styliform processes long and simjile. 

First segment semi elliptical, with the lateral corners i)roduced and 
somewhat recurved, much broader than the head, longer and somewhat 
narrower than the second segment. 

Lateral carina' broad (one-half as wide as the body cavity), inserted 
near the top of the body-cylinder; sharp and thin at tlie entire or 
slightly sinuate edge, with a prominent, smooth and shining submar- 
ginal ridge. Anterior carina^ laterally curved forward, the posterior 
with corners produced candad; dorsal surface finely granular, divided 
by furrows into three transverse rows of more or less evident quad- 
rate areas, usually with one large, smooth granule in each. 

Below the carina' the segments are rough with conic warts ; a rounded 
prominence just above the front pair of legs, larger in the male. 

Eepugnatorial pores opening dorsally on the outer slope of the sub- 
marginal ridge of segments 5, 7, 9, 10, 12, 13, 15, IG, 17, 18, 19; pores sur- 
rounded by a raised rim. 

Anterior subsegmeuts finely wrinkled longitudinally, sometimes very 
obscurely. Supplementary margin long, membranous, very finely 
striate longitudinally, not pectinate. 

Anal segment finely granular, posteriorly transversely wrinkled and 
slightly decurved; the apex broad, rounded-truncate; on the margin 
three pairs of setigerous punctations, two pairs located on tubercles; 
the ui)per surface with two pairs and the under with one pair of setig- 
erous punctations, more or less elevated. 

Anal valves with two setigerous tubercles, tlie upper placed on the 
raised margin, the lower somewhat removed from it. 


Preanal scale semi elliptic triangular, tricnspidate, the middle pro- 
jection usually flat and thiu; the others long conic-cylindric papilUe, 
with a setigerous cavitj' at apex. 

Legs of male larger and stronger than those of female, without 
special modification for copulatory purposes, except that the claw of 
the male legs is short and stout; second joint with a short, sharp s]nue 
at apex below; joints in order of length o. 6, 5, 2=4, 1 ; surface of joints 
not tuberculate nor papillate in either sex. 

First and second pairs of legs free in both sexes; first jiair much 
smaller tlian second and succeeding pairs, the two basal joints propor- 
tionately longer. 

Second pair of legs of male with the coxal joint produced ventrally 
into a sharp cone, on the median face of which is the opening of the 
spermatic duct. Genitalia of female internal, protrusible. Genitalia 
of male apically of two parts, one of which is distally spatulato, trans- 
versely wrinkled, and with a decurved edge forming a groove which 
serves as a sheath for the other, styliforra, ramus. Basal joint not 
expanded; apical joint inserted under the projecting edge of the aper- 
ture in which the genitalia lie. »Segments of adult, 20. 

Distribution. — The west coast of Tropical Africa. 

OXYDESMUS CAMPII, new species. 

Vertex prominent, granular-rugulose; sulcus very distinct. 

Clypeus medianly in^ominent, nearly smooth or finely striate-rugulose, 
excavate below the antennre; also a broad, obli(]ue fossa midway be- 
tween the antenna and the lateral margin. 

First segment somewhat longer and narrower than the second, lat- 
erally decurved, especially in front; distinctly and broadly emarginate 
in front on each side of the prominent middle; a fine, smooth, raised 
margin runs entirely around; submarginal ridge smooth, very ])romi- 
neut, rather remote from the margin and incurved anteriorly. Surface 
of segment finely and evenly granular, obliquely rugulose on the 
anterior lateral portions; medianly in front there is a distinct promi- 
nent area; behind this a broad depression. Tubercles scarcely evi- 
dent, areas wanting. Two tubercles representing the anterior row are 
located on the raised area; the second row is represented by two 
located considerably behind the middle, while of the third several are 
evident, the median coalesced with the posterior marginal ridge, the 
others very near it. 

Subsequent segments gradually broader to the sixth or seventh, 
thence subequal to the seventeenth; second segment shortest, the 
others gradually longer to about the sixteenth. Anterior corner 
gradually less rounded, so that the middle segments have their lateral 
margins nearly straight, though the anterior corner is never as square 
as the posterior. Surface distinctly, though finely and evenly, granu- 
lar, the tubercles gradually more prominent than on the first segment, 
Proc. N. Mo 95 4 


scarcely distiuguisbable with the naked eye; posterior row more and 
more remote from the posterior margin. Areas and transverse depres- 
sion behind the first row of tubercles not distinguishable except on 
middle segments. 

Carina^ with edges faintly sinuate under magnification; submarginal 
ridge evident, straight, longitudinal, close to the margin, nearly smooth, 

Eepugnatoiial pores opening nearly laterad in the rather abrupt 
outer slope of the submarginal ridge. Above the ])ore the ridge is 
somewhat higher if viewed from the side, and the margin is somewhat 
decurved below the pore, causing the lateral margins of poriferous 
segments to appear much thicker than the others; around the pore is 
the usual excavation and raised rim, though not so pronounced as in 
some species. 

Near the middle of the cariuse of poriferous segments is a slight 
though evident elevation, showing the probable location of the repug- 
natorial gland; the duct leading out to the pore may sometimes be 

Below the carinsie the surface is granular, the granules coarser below 
and toward the posterior margin ; no large tubercles. Densely hirsute 
with long hairs along the margin. 

Anterior subsegments longitudinally rugulose; sulcus between sub- 
segments abrupt, deep, nearly smooth. 

Penultimate segment with the large granules not distinct; surface 

Last segment transversely rugulose, the posterior half abruptly 
thinner. Apex broad subquadrate, the twelve marginal and apical 
bristles located on or near the posterior margin. 

Anal valves very finely granular, vertically somewhat rugulose; mar- 
gins very prominent, thick ; superior setigerous tubercle located on the 
margin ; the inferior distinct, large. 

Preanal scale prominent in the anterior portion; setigerous tubercles 
long, mamillate, subequal to the broader median process. 

Sterna granular, without hairs between the bases of the legs, but 
hirsute in front and behind. 

Male legs hirsute, the hairs rising from small tubercles, especially on 
the distal joints; femora distinctly spinetl. 

Color in alcohol dull brown to nearly black, the submarginal ridge, 
legs, and antenuie, reddish; also a triangular median spot on the ante- 
rior subsegments. The apex of the triangle is directed caudad; some- 
times it is produced a short distance upon the posterior subsegment. 

Length, about 60 mm.; width, 11.5 mm. 

LocaUty. — Near Leopoldville, Congo Free State, four males, collected 
by Kev. J. H. Camp, for whom the species is named, in the National 
Museum collection. 

No. 758 of the Berlin Museum, collected at Chinchoxo,by Dr. Falkeu- 
stein, is a male of this species. 



Head as described for 0. canqni, and soinewliat more liirsute. 

First segment not so decurved as iu 0. campii; anterior emargiua- 
tions not evident; raised margin not distinct posteriorly; surface of 
segment finely granular, uneven, but the granulation not nearly so 
pronounced as in 0. ca))ipii, so that the surface appears smooth except 
in the depressions; tubercles very minute, the anterior median pair 
very close to the anterior margin; posterior row indistinguishable, sug- 
gested only by slight unevenness of the posterior margin. 

Subsequent segments very similar to those of 0. vampil, but not so 
long; the carinte are evidently shorter, the posterior margin of the 
anterior and middle ones being directed slightly cephalad from the 
horizontal, instead of slightly caudad, as is the case with the middle 
segments of 0. eampii. The difierence in the length of the segments 
is, however, still more evident on the posterior segments, the posterior 
corners of which are more extended caudad in 0. jiahellaius. Surface 
somewhat smoother than in 0. eampii, and the tubercles less distinct; the 
arched median j)ortion more convex and somewhat shining; tubercles 
visible to the naked eye on median segments, the areas obsolete, and 
the transverse sulcus very nearly so. 

Below the cariniv the surface is less granular than in 0. canqyii, but 
above the bases of the legs are two clusters of coarse papilliform 
tubercles; that opposite the anterior leg has the tubercles more crowded 
and shorter, and is placed on a rounded, cushion-like elevation. 

Anterior subsegments somewhat more finely rugulose-striate longi- 

Last segment somewhat fiabellate, the lateral margins evidently 
divergent caudad; posterior marginal tubercle much larger than the 
anterior, instead of subequal. 

Anal valves distinctly granular and vertically rugulose, the margins 
also granular. Preanal scale with the median prominence of the same 
shape as the setigerous tubercles, but much larger and longer. 

Sterna hirsute between the bases of the legs, the hairs rather scat- 
tering, rising from small tubercles. 

Color in alcohol nearly black, with a slight brownish- vinous tinge, 
concolorous; legs scarcely paler. 

Length, 65 mm.; width, 11.5 mm. 

Localifi/. — One male specimen from the vicinity of Stanley Pool, Congo 
Free State, collected by Rev. J. H. Camp, in the National Museum 

As may be judged from the description, this species is evidently 
related to 0. eampii, from which it seems distinct in the characters 

The description was drawn with specimens of both species in hand, 
and that of 0. eampii may be supposed to apply to <). Jiabellatus, except 
where modified in the description of the latter. 


The shorter carina are also more distant from each other, and this, 
with the slight actual difference in length, makes the present species 
appear more slender. The differences in color, especially of the legs 
and antennae, are striking, while the shape of the last segment and pre- 
anal scale are uniaue and diagnostic. The differences are thus along 
lines which in other species do not appear subject to much variation, 
though their constancy in the present case must be shown by fnrther 



By O. F. Cook. 

The specimen on wbicli this description is based came into my pos- 
session abonttwo years ago, and seems to represent a new generic type. 
That the species is also new, 1 have not the same degree of confidence, 
for there are a large number of very poorly described South American 
Polydesmoidea in the literature of the Diplopoda. However, none of 
the- descriptions seem to accord with the i)resent form, nor even to 
approximate it. I noticed nothing closely comparable among the older 
types in the British Museum, nor is there anything of the kind among 
the Petersian types of the Berlin Museum. There is, however, in the 
Berlin IMuseum an undetermined female specimen from Para which is 
certainly generically the same, and may possiblj' prove to be-specifically 
identical, for a satisfactory knowledge of the secondary sexual charac- 
ters of the genus is impossible until more specimens have been obtained. 

PRIODESMUS, iiew genus. 

Rhachidomorpha, Peters, proparle, not of Saussure, 

Body rather small. 

Antennte with four olfactory cones. 

Segments dorsally thickly beset with small and large granules. 

Lateral carina) of moderate width, the margins deeply incised-dentate. 

Repugnatorial pores 11, dorso-lateral, on capitate jirocesses of seg- 
ments 5, 7, 9, 10, 12, 13, 15-19. 

Penultimate segment not specially shortened. 

Last segment triangular, the apex rounded. 

Sterna of legs 3-6 of males, each with two conic j)rocesses; other 
sterna unmodified. 

Male legs slightly crassate, the third joint of legs 1-7 inflated on the 
ventral side. 

The following more detailed description is given: 

Body rather small, about nine times as long as broad, sides i^arallel 
to near the ends; cavity circular. 

Vertex granular, sulcus evident; post-antennal depression moderate; 
sense organ large; margin not excised. 

Proceedini;9 of the United States National Musevim, Vol. XVIII— No. 1037. 



Labrum slightly emarginate, with three distinct teeth. 

Aiitenure siibclavate, joints in order of length 2, 3, 4, 5 = 6, 1, 7, beset 
•with piliferous grannies. 

JMaudibulary stipe with exposed surface granular, divided into the 
usual hve areas. 

Ilypostoma strongly arcuate, deeply and broadly emarginate in front. 
Cardo present, in situ perpendicular to the stipes. Mentum subtri- 
angular, broader than long, pointed in front, very broadly emarginate 
behind, densely granular-pilose. Stipes three times as long as broad, 
granular-pilose, a deep sulcus near the lateral margin. Lingual laminje 
three times as long as broad, granular-hirsute. Lingual and median 
lobes distinct. 

First segment less than three times as broad as long (13:7); anterior 
and posterior margins convex; posterior corners acute; lateral margins 
dentate. The segment is subequal in width to the head, and distinctly 
narrower and longer than the second segment. 

Segments with dorsal surface slightly convex, densely beset with 
granules of two sizes, the smaller very numerous and without order, 
the larger more or less evidently arranged in three transverse rows. 
Fourth and subsequent segments with a distinct transverse furrow. 

Lateral carinse moderately broad, about one-fourth as wide as the 
body cavity, inserted nearly on a level with the dorsum; margin thick- 
ened and deeply excised into coarse teeth, longer on i)osterior segments 
and directed caudad. 

Kepagnatorial pores of medium size, directed laterad, located on a 
large capitate horizontal process rising from near the middle of the 
carinte of segments 5, 7, 9, 10, 12, 13, 15-11). Below the carinas the seg- 
ments are densely granular. Inferior carina interrupted, represented 
by an anterior and a ijosterior dentate process, both large and distinct. 
Anterior subsegments distinctly, though very minutely, granular. 

Supplementary margin rather long, irregularly striate longitudinally, 
the free edge entire. 

Last segment as long as the preceding, with twelve setiferous tuber- 
cles and four apical set;e. Eight of the setiferous tubercles are located 
in the apical portion of the segment; the other two pairs on the sides 
below the level of the carina^. 

Anal valves with moderately elevated, compressed margins and two 
setigerous tubercles, the upper located on the margin, the lower con- 
siderably removed from it. 

' Preanal scale triangular, pointed; two setigerous tubercles toward 
the apex. 

Sterna sparsely and minutely granular, a very small conical spine at 
the base of each leg (in the male only"?); spiracles large, the margins 
tumid. Sterna of legs 3-0 of male, with a large conical spine at the 
base of each leg. 

Legs of male slightly crassate; the ventral face of the third Joint 
of legs 4-7 iniiated. 


Second legs of male with coxre stout, produced ventrad into a 
rounded-conic process, in the median face of which is the opening of 
the seminal duct. 

Male genitalia with the basal joint large and bulbous; second joint 
very short, with two processes of subequal length, the larger toothed at 
apex, the smaller simple, needle-like. 

Priodesmus is a type strikingly diflerent from any of the related 
genera, and although the differences are mostly quantitative, the new 
form shows, as far as is yet known, the extreme of development and 
specialization in the line it represents. Indeed, the aspect of the ani- 
mal is so bizarre and peculiarly different from evidently related genera 
as to warrant the suspicion that it will be found explainable by some 
unusual local condition. 

The affinities of this genus are with species described under Rhachido- 
onorpha, such as R. nodosa, Peters, which appears to be nearer to the 
present form than to R. iarasca, Saussure, the type of that genus, and 
may, at least provisionally, stand as a species of Priodesmus. 

PRIODESMUS ACUS,' new species. 
(Plate I, figs. 1-19.) 

Body oblong, the sides i^arallel, the segments of nearly equal width 
to near the extremities; dorsum slightly convex, the cariiue horizontal. 

Vertex prominent, especially above; densely granular, without hairs; 
sulcus deep, extending below the antenna?, but there very iiulistinct. 
Between the antennie it meets an indistinct sulcus from each antennal 
socket, the two converging caudad at the point where the vertical sulcus 
ceases to be distinct. 

Clypens smooth and shining, with a few distinct granules: no hairs, 
though these may have been rubbed off'. The surface is granular 
immediately below the antenna?, but smooth farther down and in the 

Antenuiie moderately pilose, the hairs rising from conic granules; 
length, 5 mm.; joints 2-6 subequal, second joint longest, the sixth much 
the thickest. 

Mandibulary stipes rather large, the sutures appearing as fine, smooth 
lines in the granular surface. 

First segment somewhat lenticular in outline; a fine anterior raised 
margin; traces of four transverse rows of large granules. Lateral 
edge somewhat irregularly quadridentate, the posterior tooth some- 
what produced obliquely backward. Somewhat removed from the 
lateral margin is an oblique sulcus. 

Subsequent segments shorter than the first; large granules in three 
distinct rows, the third of which is close to the posterior margin; the 
four marginal teeth more or less distinct, the posterior increasing in 

'The generic name alludes to the coarsely serrate segments; the sjiecific to the 
slender process of the male genitalia. 


length. The whole surface of the segments is thickly granular, except 
the apices of the marginal teeth and the large granules, which are 
smooth and shining; anterior margin of carina raised on anterior 

Fourth and subsequent segments to the eighteenth with a transverse 
furrow, very indistinct on the fourth and eighteenth; on some of the 
segments the transverse furrow divides, the branches turning to the 
anterior and posterior margins. 

Repuguatorial pores located near the middle of an oval smooth area 
which faces obliquely upward, laterad and cephalad: pore immediately 
surrounded by a very minute rim. 

Lateral carinie coarsely dentate as above, and with a fine raised ante- 
rior margin. 

On posterior segments, the whole carina is more curved caudad and 
produced. Last segment with finer granules than the preceding. 

Anal valves finely grauular-rugulose. Preanal scale with surface 
evenly convex and with scattering granules. 

Legs moderately pilose, the surface scarcely granular. The promi- 
nence of the ventral face of the male legs is somewhat more densely 
j)ilose. The process of the coxa of the second male legs is smooth and 
shining, but with a long bristle at apex. 

Male genitalia with apex of larger branch deeply bidentate; the 
smaller tooth simple, pointed; the larger flattened at right angles to 
the smaller, and with several small teeth. 

Color dull reddish-brown, rather dark; legs and antennie lighter, 
tending to yellowish; ventral surface and basal joints of legs sordid 

Length, about 27 mm. (the specimen was broken); width, 3 mm. 

Locality. — One male specimen in the National Museum collection^ 
obtained in Surinam, May, LS93 (Beyer). 

PRIODESMUS PAR/E, new species. 

The species differs from P. (tens, as here described and figured (PI. 
I, figs. 1-19), in the following details: 

Dorsum distinctly, tliough not strongly, convex. 

Vertex densely granular-rugulose. 

Antenna^ somewhat more slender. 

First segment distinctly narrower and slightly longer than in P. aciis; 
the posterier corners not prominent and spiniform as in that species. 

Dorsal surface about as densely granular as in the figure of P. aciis; 
the large granules of the anterior and posterior rows more distinct, 
those of the other rows less so. Anterior raised margin not evident. 

Subsequent segments somewhat more densely granular, ns above; 
the anterior and posterior rows of large granules larger, the middle 


Lateral carinas not as broad as in P. acus, a usual sexual difference, 
but the posterior corner is in all cases less produced than in that spe- 
cies, and the large tooth of the posterior corner is rounded and not 
prominent, while the next mesad on the posterior margin is conspicu- 
ously enlarged, on the anterior segments more especially. 

Eepugnatorial pores located as in P. acus, but the poriferous process 
shorter and less distinctly capitate. 

Last segment distinctly shorter than in P. acns; the superior lateral 
tubercle smaller. 

Preanal scale regularly semicircular, medianly abruptly mucrouate; 
the setigerons tubercles distinctly less prominent than in P. acus. 

Legs much shorter, a usual sexual difference. 

Genitalia oblong, large, and very prominent, with the ventro-caudal 
aspect showing three distinct teeth on each side. 

Color in alcohol bright brown, darkest on anterior segments and in 
the sutures and transverse sulci of the dorsal surface of the segments; 
ventral surface, legs, antenucT, and margins of carina? nearly Avliite. 
The color is almost exactly the same as in P. acus, but the shades are 
much lighter. 

Length, 28 mm.; width, 3,3 mm. 

Locality.— VciYn (Schulz). A single female specimen in the Berlin 
Museum. As stated above, this may 'prove to be the female of P. acus, 
but the differences are such that the analogy of other Polydesmoidea 
makes this improbable. 


Friochsmns acus, male. 

Fig. 1. First five segments, dorsal view. 

2. Segments 7 and 8, dorsal view ; the small granules ai-e somewhat too numer- 

ous on this figure. 

3. Gnathochilarium. 

4. Antenna. 

5. Apex of antenna, showing the arrangement of the olfactorj' cones, sub- 


6. Tenth segment detached. 

7. Leg of pair 31. 

8. Leg of pair 3. 

9. Leg of pair 9. 

10. Genitalia, ventral view. 

11. Genitalium, lateral view. 

12. Apex of larger ramus of genitalium. 

13. Segments 16-20, dorsal view. 

14. Apex of last segment, apico-ventral \iew. 

15. Segments 18-20, ventral view. 

16. Same, lateral view. 

17. Last segment, dorsal view, more magnified. 

18. Leg of pair 6. 

19. Apex of same. 







By O. F. Cook. 

The ideutification of tliis species has not proved an easy task. Dr. 
Wood says of his Mecistocephalus fulvus: "It may possibly be Geophilns 
(itteniiatus^ but that species can uever be determined from Say \s descrip- 
tion." The late Charles fl. Bollman has, however, attempted an identi- 
fication,' which places as synonyms of G. attenuatus the followlug 
species: G. hi jmnctlceps, Wood, G. (jeorgianus, Meinert, and G. per/or- 
atiis (McNeill j. It is not necessary here to touch upon the question of 
the identity of G. georgiamis and G. perforatus with G. hipuncticeps, 
further than to agree that they are at least related species. The ground 
on which Mr. Bollman based the identification of G. hipnncticeps with 
attenuatus, was that hipuncticeps was the only species of the southeastern 
region which could bear Say's description. Lest this view should be 
taken as final, it seems best to publish the tact that there exists in the 
region indicated another animal to which Say's description is much 
more ap])licable. 

In interpreting Say's language it should be taken into consideration 
that he gives closer attention to tlie colors than to the other characters, 
and that his color descriptions of Myriapoda are absolute, his acquaint- 
ance with the group not being suflrtcient to enable the use of many 
comparative differences. The colors of Geophilida^ vary indeed, but 
within limits and in a definite direction. Young and recently molted 
individuals are pale and become darker with age. The strictly sub- 
terranean species usually remain very light, while those living under 
stones or bark of decaying trees have a more pronounced coloration. 
Thus, between white or jiale specimens the exact shade may be of little 
importance in specific diagnosis, but a deep color, such as a reddish- 
brown, is quite a different matter. Say calls Gcophilus riihens,^ a nuich 
deeper- colored species, "red," but not brown, while Scolopocryptops 

' Bull. 46, U. S. Nat. Mus., p. 148. 1893. 

2 Mr. Bollman was correct iu identifying Geopliilus ceplialicus, Wooil, witL this 
species. I have examined the type in the British Mnseum. 

Proceedings of the United States National Museum, Vol. XVIII— No. 1038. 



is "reddish-ferruginous," aud the head of Crypiops is "reddish-brown," 
and the body "white." Thus, if we take Say's statement at face 
value, its application is not so difficult. Only one reddish-brown 
Geophilns is known from Europe and ^STortli Africa, GeopJiilus ferru- 
(fineuSj C. L. Koch. In view of the fact that no Geoiihilidfe common 
to the two continents had then been rei^orted, it was something of a 
surprise to me, three or four years since, to find a specimen of Oeophllus 
ferrngineus in a bottle of jNIyriajJoda collected in the vicinity of Phila- 
delphia. This was dissected and carefully compared with the descrip- 
tions of the various European authors, and with Swedish specimens of 
G./crruginexs, also dissected. In 1893 1 collected several specimens near 
St. Michaels, on the eastern peninsula of Maryland, some of them under 
stones and rotting wood, some under bark of decaying locust (i?o?>/«/«). 
The reddish-brown color of the living animals is noticeably different 
from that of any other (leophilidai I have collected in Xorth America. 
This species corresponds even in hahitut v^ith Mecistocejyhalnsfnlviis, 
Wood. The only discrepancy of importance seems to be that of the 
number of legs. Wood gives 57, while none of my American specimens 
have more than 49, most of them 47.^ In the Canary Islands, however, 
I collected numerous examples of this species with 57, aud some with 
59 legs. That Wood should describe this species under Mecistocephalus 
need not be a matter of surprise if we consider that he was dealing 
with the type of that genus. Tlius the genus Pachymerium, C. L. Koch, 
being founded on the same species, is identical with Mechtocephalns^ 
Newport. It is an error to cite Newport as the author of the genus as 
employed by recent writers. As constituted by Newport it was based 
entirely ux)on the length of the ceiihalic lamina, and was no more natural 
a group than the genera of C. L. Koch ; to have been consistent, Meiuert 
should have set it aside, as he did Koch's genera. However, G. atfenu- 
atus is a species differing from GeopMIu.s as represented by carpnphagus 
sufficiently to merit generic recognition. The synonymy of the genus 
and the species will then stand as follows: 


Mecistocephalus, Newport, Proc. Zool. Soc, London, CXIX, p. 177,- 1842. 
Pachymerium, C. L. Kocii, System der Myriapoden, pp. 85, 187, 1847. 
Geophilus (pp.) Meinert, Latzel, etc. 

Cephalic lamina long and narrow; frontal lamina distinct; basal 
lamina narrow; prosternal teeth evident; claw of preheusorial feet, 
with a strong tooth at base; coxa toothed. Ventral i)ores inconspicu- 
ous; last sternum narrow; pleural pores numerous, pigmented; anal 
legs slightly crassate in the male, clawed. Anal pores present. 

• It is evident from the fact that Wood, frequently ascribes an even number of legs 
to his Geophilidiv that they Avere not too carefully counted. It is also easy to make 
a mistake of ten in counting. 

-Latzel's citation of Trans. Linn. 8oe. London. XIX, 1844, for this genus (Ost.-Ung. 
Myr. I, p. 15), is an error which that author has himself corrected on p. IGO. 


Type. — Mecistocephalus attenuatus (Say), 1819, the synonymy of which 
is as follows : 

GeopliUus ferrugineus, C. L. Keen, Deutsclil. Crnst. Myr. u. Araoh.. 1835. 
Paehjpnerlinnferritgineum (C. L. Koc'ii), System der Myriap., p. 187, 1847. 
Mecistocejihalua fiilvus (Wood), Jouru. Acad. Nat. Sci. Pliila., V. p. 41, 1863. 

Distribution. — Europe, Korth Africa, Canary Islands, Eastern North 

- This disposition leaves the species hitherto called Meci.stocephalus in 
need of a generic name, and Dieellophllas is i)roposed for the sj^ecies 
congeneric with Mecistocephalus Umatns, Wood, in allusion to the forked 
chitinous thickening of the ventral plates. The species which this 
change affects are: limata (Wood), hreviceps (Meinert), melanonotus 
( Wood) , quadrata ( Wood ). Tliis genus is further defined by the frontal 
lamina being completely chitinized above the labrum, the margin of the 
labrum laciniate, and the cephalic lamina without a claw-like chitinous 
callosity at the sinus of the frontal lamina. 

The generic name Lamuonyx may be applied to the species which 
have the cephalic lamina incompletely chitinized, the margin of the 
labrum entire, and a claw at the anterior corners of the cephalic 
lamina below. Lamnonyx leonensis^ I'lay be taken as the type. The 
claw-like structure of the cephalic lamina seems not to have been 
observed previously, but as I find it on all the specimens at hand from 
the Eastern Continent, the species to be referred to Lamnonyx, pro- 
visionally at least, are the following: carniolensis (C. L. Koch), casta- 
we/cejM- (llaase), f/igas {ll'daae), japonicus (Meinert), leonensis, maxUlaris 
(Gervais), punctifrons (Newport), punctilahrum (Newport), spissus 
(Wood), tennicuJns (L. Koch), synonyms having been omitted. These 
species are mostly in need of study which shall make known the 
character of the mouth parts. 

Mecistocephalus microporiis, Haase, is apparently generically distinct 
from the others by reason of tlie very numerous segments, the enor- 
mous pleura', and peculiar conformation of the posterior scuta; it may 
stand as the type of a new genus, to be called Megethmus. The genus 
Bi cello phil us may be taken as the type of a distinct family, sei^ara- 
ble from the Geophilida^ and Notiphilidai by many characters, among 
which are the following: Body attenuate caudad; head large, long, 
and narrow; frontal lamina always distinct, more or less chitinized 
above the labrum. Cephalic lamina not concealing the prehensors; a 
claw-like callosity at the sinus of the frontal lamina. Labrum entirely 
free, tripartite, the median part very small, the lateral parts large, 
transversely carinate. Lamin;!:' fulcientes linear, extending^ back past 
the maxillary sternum as chitinous margins of the cephalic lamina. 
Mandibles with numerous pectinate lamellic; no dentate lamelhe. 
Labial sternum always divided, simple : labial pal])us and interior labial 
process subsimilar in shajDC, distinct, consisting^ of a basal portion 

' A uew species from Sierra Leoue aud Liberia, in tlie National Museum collection. 


(joint?), supplemented by a spatulate hyaline portion. Maxillary 
isternuni entire and distinct; maxillary palpus slender; claw simple; 
basal joint subeijual in lengtli to the other two taken together. Pre- 
hensorial sternum without chitinous lines. Pleuroe of the prehen- 
sorial sternum divided by chitinous ridges into three areas. Sterna 
with a median anteriorly bifurcate chitinous thickening. Ventral ])ores 
wanting. Last sternum very short; last pleurte very large and long, 
with numerous pigmented pores. Anal pores present; anal legs with- 
out claws. Number of segments constant on both sexes of each si)ecies. 
In most of these characters, the Dicellophilidje approach the Scolo- 
pendridfe rather than the other Geophiloidie. Especially is this the 
case with the mouth parts, the lack of ventral pores, the last segment, 
and the constant number of segments. 



By O. F. Cook. 

That the genera included in this family present structural char- 
acters of great diversity has been known since the publication of Mei- 
nert's investigations. That author attempted no subdivision of the 
family into groups higher tlian genera, a course to be explained by the 
fact that the number of genera recognized by him was very small, and 
by the further consideration that some of the more important structures 
were misunderstood. Thus the labrum of Orya is given as " bipartitum,''^ 
while m reality it is entire, the bipartite appearance resulting from the 
fact that the part in question is arched when in place, and usually 
becomes wrinkled in the middle when depressed by a cover glass. The 
labrum of Orphmvus is said by Meinert to be free; in reality it is com- 
pletely coalesced and closely homologous to that of Orya. The labrum 
of the primitive Chilopoda was, in all probability, tripartite, and the 
coalescence of the parts with each other and with the frontal lamina 
are to be-viewed as deviations from the ancestral form. Relationships 
can not, however, be inferred merely from such a fact as coalescence; 
Orya and SchendyJa have the labrum entire and completely coalesced, 
and yet represent two very distinct lines of development. 

The present method of describing the mandibles has been another 
source of confusion. As in other Chilopoda the mandibles of Geophi- 
lidse may be supposed to have had originally both i^ectinate and dentate 
lamellae. The comijound pectinate lamellie of DicelIophih<s,^ Orya and 
Himantarium are evidently the homologues of the laciniate processes 
of the mandibles of Scolopendrid;v and Lithobiidtv, while the mandibles 
of such genera as Geophilus and Schendyla have developed differently, 
the laciniate processes being now represented by a row of simple 
spines. Thus one of the simple spines of Geophilus is to be looked upon 
as homologue of a whole <' pectinate lamella" in Himantarium, and the 
mandibles of the two genera are structurally much wider apart than 

'A new genus partially equivalent to Mecislocepltalus of Meinert and recent 
authors, but not of Newport. According to Meinert, the mandibles of Mecistocepha- 
lus have only dentate lamellie, but the reason for this view is not apparent. 

ProceedinL's of the United States National Museum, Vol. XVIII— No. 1039. 



could be iuferred while the opiniou held that the so-called /'i^ectinate 
lamellaj" in the two cases were structural equivalents. 

That the dentate lamellte have been sui^pressed in Dicella and Orya 
is a case of apparent similarity between genera distinct by nearly all 
possible characters, and an example of the principle that the presence 
or suppression of a primitive structure or character is not of itself an 
evidence either of close aftinity or wide divergence. 

Since the publication of Meinert's works the number of described 
genera has greatly increased ; likewise the desirability of some arrange- 
ment whereby their affinities may be made apparent. Unfortunately, 
the descriptions of new forms are often very incomplete and omit the 
most important data, those to be drawn from the mouth parts. Not- 
withstanding this neglect, it is evident from many specific descriptions 
that the number of genera yet to be recognized is considerable, and it 
would seem that a statement of the affinities already manifested will 
aid in subsequent study. 

That a complete arrangement, such as is here j)roposed, can in the 
present state of the subject be entirely correct or satisfactory is not to 1 
be exi)ected. Cases of uncertain and deficient data are noted in sev- 
eral places. The groups here proposed as families seem to have, by j 
analogy with other classes and with other Chilopoda, ample structural 
basis for such recognition. The external form and habit are almost j 
identical for the entire group, and the structural differences are not to 1 
be explained as correlated with adaptations to localities or hosts, but 
are rather the accumulated result of variation without the interference 
of any important principle of selection, a history the more possible 
because the changes are mostly in the direction of degeneration. From 
this consideration we may explain the confusing fact that in the difl'er- 
ent groups there are frequent examples of the preservation of some 
primitive character which the other members of the family may have 
lost, and on the other hand there are numerous cases of parallel varia- 
tion. Of this last the pleural pores are a good example. These may 
be numerous and distinct, doubtless the primitive condition, and the 
one which appears in Scolopendrida^; they may be clustered about two 
or more large cavities in the pleurte, or they may be entirely wanting. 
In the genus Geophihis the first and second conditions are present, and, 
if some descriptions are to be trusted, also the third. To suppose that 
a character which may differ in closely related species can be of use as 
an evidence of affinity between genera or families would be clearly 
unreasonable. And yet poriferous foveohe entirely similar to those of 
some species of Geophilus occur in SehendyJa and several related 
genera, in BaUophilns. and Dignatliodon. Thus animals with widely 
divergent types of labrum, mandibles, and other parts, live in the same 
localities, have the same habits, and eat the same food with appar- 
ently equal success, so that it seems impossible to imagine that special 
advantages pertain to the different adaptations. 


The opinion has recently been advanced that the Oeophilidfe and 
Scolopendridte should rank as orders/ the distinction being based on 
the number of segments and spiracles. That a merely quantitative 
difference is sufficient for ordinal distinction may well be doubted. At 
the same time the recognition of groups of Epimori)ha higher than 
famlHes is desirable and possible, but they can hardly be more than 
superfamilies. Indeed, it is not easy to suggest a diagnostic structural 
difference between the Scolopendroidfe and Geophiloidse. The two 
superfamilies may, however, be defined as follows : 

Superfamily SCOLOPENDROID^. 

Autennte with 17-33 joints; eyes present or wanting; basal lamina 
obsolete; iirosterual teeth present or wanting; spiracles 9-19; ventral 
pores wanting; last pleune porose, more or less produced caudad; seg- 
ments 21-23, constant for genera and species. 

Superfamily GEOPHILOID^. 

Antenna^ with 14 joints; eyes wanting; basal lamina present; pro- 
sternal teeth rudimentary or wanting; spiracles present on all pedif- 
erous segments except the first and last; ventral i)ores usually present; 
last pleurne not i)roduced, sometimes eporose; segments 31-1^^3, not 
constant for genera, rarely so for species. 

That future study will necessitate the recognition of family types 
among the Scolopendroida? is not improbable; the families of Geophi- 
loidse may be distinguished by the following artificial key: 


A. Ventral j>ores wanting; suprascutella in five rows; last pleurte occupying three 

segments Gonibkegmatid^. 

Ventral pores distinct in all cases where suprascutella are present; last pleurae 
affecting last segment only B. 

B. Basal segment very broad, concealing the pleunc of the prehensors C. 

Basal segment not or scarcely broader than the cephalic lamina, the prehensorial 

pleur;B evident from above D. 

C. Ventral pores in one median central or posterior area E. 

Ventral pores in two or more areas, anterior and posterior F. 

D. Labrum entire; mandibles with one pectinate and 1-3 dentate lamelhe; ventral 

pores, if present, in a central area Schendylid.e. 

Labrum tripartite, mandibles without dentate lamelLne; ventral pores, if present 
seldom in a central area G. 

E. Mandibles with one pectinate lamella; labrum tripartite, the lateral parts geatly 

reduced or rudimentary Digxathodontid.e. 

Mandibles with dentate and pectinate lamella? ; labrum entire H. 

F. Last pleura' coxseform, without pores; anal legs unarmed; anteuntu atten- 

uate 1 OUYID^. 

' Silvestri, Orders Oligostigmata and Plantastigmata, Ann. d. Museo Civico di 
Storia Nat. di Genova, XIV, pp. 623, 634, 1895. 

Proc. N. M. 95 5 


Last plenriP, inflated, porose; anal legs with a distinct claw; antennte fili- 
form or crassate, not attenuate Disakgid^e. 

G. Mandibles with one pectinate lamella; labial sternum entire; ventral pores 

normally present Gkophilid.e. 

Mandibles with several pectinate lamellas; labial sternum divided; ventral 

pores Avanting Dicellophilid/E. 

H. Autennai geniculate, more or less clavate; segments scabrous, dorsally with a 
transverse depression; ventral pores perforating an elevated chitiuous 
plate lying along the posterior margin of the segments. ..Ballophilid.e. 
Antenn;e attenuate, not geniculate; segments smooth, or nearly so, without 
transverse furrow; ventral pores in a small central or subcentral depres- 

GONIBllEGMATID^, new family. 

Antennae filiform; frontal lamina coalesced; cei)lialic lamina not con- 
cealing the preliensors; prebasal lamina obsolete; basal lamina broad; 
mouth parts unknown; prehensorial sternum very broad; suprascu- 
tella present in fiv^e rows; ventral pores wanting; last sternum very 
small; last pleur;e enormously developed, extending along three seg- 
ments; pores very numerous; anal pores wanting; anal legs carinate, 
five-jointed, without claw. Pairs of legs, IGl. 

Genus GONIBREGMATUS, Newport. 
Gonihrcgmatiis. Nkwpokt, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, CXIX, p. 180, 1842. 
Distribution. — rhilii)pine Islands. 
Tt/pe. — Gonibreynintus cumiwiii, Newport. 

The known charaeters of tliis genus are so remarkable that others 
equally interesting are to be expected from an examination of the 
mouth parts. 

ORYIDtE, new family. 

Antennae attenuate or subfiliform; frontal lamina coalesced or dis- 
tinct; cephalic lamina concealing the prehensors; prebasal lamina ob- 
solete; basal lamina broad; labium entirely coalesced; mandibles with 
several pectinate Limelke; no dentate lamellne; labial sternum entire, 
simple, or provided with processes; labial palpi one-jointed, with or 
without i)rocesses; interior labial palpus distinct; maxillary palpus J 
with claw simple or pectinate; prehensorial sternum very broad; 
suprascutella present in one or more rows; ventral pores in 1-4 trans- 
verse indefinite areas; last sternum broad; the pleur;e not inflated, 
without pores; anal pores wanting; genital palpi two-jointed; anal 
legs six-jointed, without claw. Pairs of legs, 07-125. m 

Genus ORYA, Meinert. 

X)rya, Meinert, Nat. Tidsskr. VII, p. 14. 1870. 
Type. — Orya harbarica (Gervais) Meinert. ^ 
Distribution. — North Africa; Spain. 

1 Mag. Zool de Gu6rin, IX. 


AspidoJeres, Porat, Bih. t. k. Svenska Vet. Akad. Hand., Afd. IV, No. 7, p. 15, 1893. 
Type. — Aspidopleres intercalatus, Porat. 
Distribution. — Damaralaiul. 

Genus ORPHN^^US, Meinert. 
Orphna'us, Meinekt, Nat. Tidsskr., VII, p. 17, 1870. 

Type. — Orphnceus phosphoreus (LiniuBus). ' 
Distribution. — Tropics of both hemispheres. 

Genus NOTIPHILIDES, Latzel. 
Noti2)hUides, Latzel, Zoologiscber Anzeiger, III, No. 68, p. 546, 1880. 
Type. — Notiphilides maximiliani (Humbert and Saussure).- 
Distribution. — Mexico. 

It may be that Mesocanthus, Meiuert, shoukl be placed in this family, 
but though the maudibles are said to have only pectinate laniellw, it 
would appear from Meiuert's diagram that they are of a character 
entirely different from those of Orya and OrpJmceus. 

Family HIMANTAEIID^:, new name. 
NoUp}iUidce, C. L. Koch, System der Myriapodeu, 1847. 
Antennte attenuate; frontal lamina coalesced or distinct; cephalic 
lamina concealing the prehensors; prebasal lamina obsolete; basal very 
broad; labrum entire, free; mandibles with one deutate and several 
pectinate lamellae; labial sternum entire, simple; labial palpus one- 
jointed; interior labial process distinct; maxillary sternum entire; 
claw of maxillary palpus excavate (spoon-shaped), more or less pec- 
tinate; prehensorial sternum very broad, with chitinous lines; supra- 
scutella i)resent, in one or more rows, or wanting; ventral pores in 
one central area; anal pleunie more or less inflated, with few or many 
pores; anal pores wanting; genital palpi two-jointed; anal legs six- 
jointed, without claw. Pairs of legs, 67-173. 

Genus H IM ANTARIUM, C. L. Koch. 
Himantarium , C. L. Koch, System der Myriapoden, p. 82, 1847. 
Type. — Himantarium gabrielis (Linniieus).' 
Distribution. — South Euro])e; North Africa. 

Genus BOTH RIOGASTER, Seliwanoff. 

NotiphUiiti, C. L. Koch, System der Myriapoden, p. 82, 1847. 
Bothriofjatiter, Seliwanoff, Zool. Anzeiger, XLIII, p. 620, 1879. 

Type. — Bothriogaster signatus (Kessler).'' 
Distribution. — Greece to Turkestan. 

'Syst. Nat., Ed. X, p. 368, 1770. =»Syst. Nat., Ed. XII, p. 1063, 1766. 

* Kevue et Mag. d. Zool., 1870, p. 205. " Trudy, Russ. Entom. Obsz., VIII, p. 39. figs. 4, 5. 


NotiphUus has uot been identified by recent writers, and was consid- 
ered by Meinert to be a synonym of HimantarmmJ Koch's description 
is, however, quite extensive and explicit, and offers several characters 
sufficient to distinguish tlic genus from Oryanud Himantarium. From 
Bothriogaster it is difficult, if not impossible, to indicate distinctions; 
indeed there is no evident reason why Seliwanoff's description and 
figures of Bothriogaster signatHs, Kessler. do not correspond with Koch's 
Notlphiius taniiatns,' as Seliwanoff' has himself suggested by placing 
NotiphUus ifvniatus as a doubtful synonym of signatns. Later on 
signatus was reported from Greece by Dr. Karsch,^ so that not even a 
difference in habitat remains. Nevertheless it can hardly be asserted 
with confidence that the animals are specifically and geuerically the 
same, but the agreement in all important characters is so great that 
a generu; difference is exceedingly improbable. The fact that Koch 
gives the legs as varying from 100 to 154 suggests the possibility that 
he may have had more than one species under observation. The matter 
will probably remain more or less in doubt until the Greek Myriapoda 
are better known, but for our jiresent purpose it is sufBcieiit to point out 
that Notiplillus would be a valid genus, were not the name preoccupied 
in the Diptera, and that Bothriogaster may rejilace it until the typical 
species are shown to be distinct, and not congeneric. 


St'Kjinatoijaster, Latzkl. Myr. Oest.-Ung. Moii., I, p. 211, 1880. 
Type. — Stigmatogasfcr gracilis (Meinert). ^ 
Distribution. — South Europe; North Africa. 

Genus STYLOL^^MUS, Karsch. 

Stylolamus, Karsch, Troschel's Archiv f. Naturges.. Jahrg. XLVII, Heft. 1, p. 9, 
figs. 3, 3a, Sb, 1881. 

Type. — Styloloemus peripateticus, Karsch. 

Distribution. — Tripoli. 

The type and only specimen of this genus is in the Berlin Museum. 
It is in very poor condition, but does not possess the abnormal charac- 
ters which might be inferred from the figures cited above. Its affini- 
ties are doubtless with the jSTotiphilidte, and it does not appear to 
coincide with any of the genera. In certain of its external characters 
it suggests Pectiniunguis. No examination of the mouth parts was 

' Meiuert has also described a " Hiviantarium twniaium, new species" (Myr. Mus. 
Hauii., Ill, p. 149), wbicli of course could not stand if XoliphiUis is a synonym of 
Himanlarium. This is either an oversight or a complete disregard of the principle 
of priorit}^ 

-System der Myriapoden. p. 180, 1817; Die Myriapoden, II, p. 59, fig. 181. 

^ Verzeichniss der von Herru E. v. Oertzen in den Jahren 1884 und 188.5 in Grieclieu- 
land nnd auf Kreta gesammelten Myriapoden. Berliner Entom. Zeitschr., XXXII, 
p. 220 (1888). 

"Naturh. Tidsskr., VII, p. 32, 1879. 


Genus CHOM ATOBIUS, Humbert and Saussure. 
('Iiuiiuiloh'ni.s, Hr.Air.KKi- and Saussure, Revue et Mag. il. Zool., p. 205, 1870. 
Ty2K\ — Choni at obi lis ni exicamis ( Saussure) . ' 
r>isfrihi(ti<»i. — Mexico. 

DISARGIDiE, new family. 

Auteima? tilifonii or crassate, not attenuate; frontal lamina distinct 
(or coalesced?); cepbalic lamina concealing the prehensors; prebasal 
lamina obsolete; basal plate broad; mouth parts unknown; prelien- 
sorial sternum very broad; supra scutella wanting; ventral pores in 
two areas, a. circular anterior and a broad, transverse posterior; anal 
pleura inflated, with uumerous pores; anal pores wanting; genital 
palpi two-jointed; anal legs five or six jointed, with a claw. I'airs of 
legs, r)<J-99. 

DISARGUS, new genus. 

Type. — Unndiitiirium (?) striation (Pocock).- 
Distrihiition. — Madras. 

Genus HIMANTOSOMA, Pocock. 
Himantosoma, Pocock, Ann. d. Mus. Civ. di Gcnova, 2 ser., X, p. 428, 1891. 

Type. — HimantoHohia typicum, Pocock. 

Disiribution. — Mergui Archipelago, Burmah. 

Besides these genera there are i)robab]y two or more others in the 
oriental region represented by species described by Meinert and Pocock 
under Himantarium, but evidently very little related to gabrieJis. The 
characters now known are not sufficient, however, to give inu(;h base 
for an estimate of affinities. The present family has been recognized 
on account of the unique combination of characters which make affini- 
ties with the other families very improbable, though much must depend 
on the mouth parts. 

BALLOPHILIDiE, new family. 

Aiiteniue geniculate, subclavate; frontal lamina not distinct; ce- 
phalic lamina concealing the prehensors; prebasal lamina obsolete; 
basal very broad; labrum entire, not chitinous; mandibles with one 
pectinate and one dentate lamella; labial sternum entire, simple; labial 
palpus two-jointed; interior labial jirocess distinct; inaxillarj^ sternum 
divided; claw of maxillary palpus excavate, the margin pectinate; 
prehensorial sternum very broad, chitinous lines wanting; suprascu- 
tella wanting; ventral j)ores in an oval posterior area, consisting of a 
raised, perforated, chitinous plate; anal pleurie not inflated, Avith two 

'Essai d'une Fanue d. Myr. d. Mex., p. 1.32, 1860. 
-Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (6) V, p. 248, pi. xii. fig. 4. 


large pores more or less concealed; anal pores present; genital palpi; 
anal legs strongly crassate, six-jointed, witliont claw. Pairs of legs, 
63-73 (87-91 in Mesocanthus). 

BALLOPHILUS, new genus. 

Type. — Bullopkilus clavicornis, Cook, new species, in the National Mu- 
seum collection. 
Distribution. — Upper Guinea. 

Genus MESOCANTHUS, Meinert. 
MesocantliHs, Meinert, Nat. Tidsskr., VII, p. 34, 1870. 

Type. — Mesocaiithus albns, Meinert. 

Distributio7i. — Tunis. 

This genus is assigned to the present family provisionally, and tlie 
family desciiption was not arranged to contain it. According to 
Meinert's descri])tion and plates, tliere is great similarity with Ballo- 
philus in the labrum. The mandibles are strikingly different from 
those of Orya and Orphnwus, the other forms with several pectinate 
lamella^, and the ventral pores are in a single area. Seliwanoff has 
described a species with pleural pores. 

Genus T^^NIOLINUM, Poeock. 
Ta'nioHnnm, POCOCK, Journ. Liuu. Soc, XXIV, p. 471, 1893. 

Type. — Tceniolinum setosion, Poeock. 
Distribution. — St. Vincent. 

SCHENDYLID.55, new family. 

AntenuiP filiform; frontal lamina coalesced; cephalic lamina not con- 
cealing the prehensors; prebasal lamina evident or concealed; basal 
lamina narrow; labrum entire, free or coalesced; mandibles with one 
pectinate and 1-3 dentate lamelhie; labial sternum entire, simple, or 
with a])rocess; labial palpus two-jointed, with a process; interior labial 
lirocessdistiiict or united with pal pus at base; maxillary sternum entire; 
claw of maxillary i)alpus simple or pectinate; prehensorial sternum 
moderately broad; chitinous lines present or wanting; suprascutella 
wanting; ventral pores in a median area or wanting; anal pleurjie not 
much inflated, with few or many pores; anal pores wanting; genital 
palpi entire; anal legs five or six jointed, with or without claw. Pairs 
of legs, 39-71. 

Genus SCHENDYLA, Bergsoe and Meinert. 

Schendyla, Bergsoe and Meixert, Xatuih. Tidsskr., IV, p. 103, 1866. 

Type. — Schendyla nemorensis (C. L. Koch).^ 

Distribution. — Europe; North Africa; Eastern North America. 

1 Deutschl. Crnst. \i. Myr., Hft. 9, t. 4, 1837. 


Genus PECTINIUNGUIS, Bollman. 
PecUnimu/ms, Bollman, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., XII, p. 212, 1889. 
Type. — Pectininnguis americanus, Bollman. 
DistribnUon. — Lower California. 

Genus ESCARYUS, Cook and Collins. 
Escarym, Cook and Collins, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mns., XIII, p. 391, 1890. 
Type. — EscaryuH pJiyllophilns, Cook and Collins. 
Distribution. — Central New York. 

Genus NANNOPHILUS, new name. 
Nannopus (Bollman), Cook and Collins, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mns., XIII, p. 389, 1890. 
Type. — Nannophilus eximins ( Meinert).' 
Distribution. — l^orth Africa. 

CTENOPHILUS, new genus. 

Type. — Ctenophilus africnuns, new species, Cook, in the National 
Miisenm collection. 
Distribution. — Liberia. 

DIGNATHODONTIDiE, new fiimily. 

Antenna' filiforin or subchiN ate; iroiital lamina distinct or coalesced; 
ceplialic lamina concealing tbe piebensors; prebasal lamina present or 
obsolete; basal lamina broad; labriim tripartite, tbe lateral parts 
greatly reduced; mandibles with a single pectinate lamella; labial ster- 
num deeply bilobed, simple; labial palpus one-jointed, simple; interior 
labial process present or obsolete; maxillary sternum entire; claw of 
maxillary palpus rudimentary; prebensorial sternum not broad; cbiti- 
nous lines present; suprascutella, wanting; ventral pores in a median 
area or wanting; anal pleune not greatly enlarged, pores few or many; 
anal pores present or wanting; genital palpi simjile, or two-jointed. 
Pairs of legs, 55-154. 

Difjiiathodon, Meinert, Natnrh. Tidsskr., VII, p. 36, tab. 2, figs. 13-22, 1870. 
Type. — Dignathodon microcephahnn (Lucas).- 
Distribution. — South Europe; North Africa. 

Genus HENIA, C. L. Koch. 
Benin, C. L. Koch, System der Myriap., p. 83, 1847. 
Type. — Henia devia, C. L. Koch. 
Distribution. — Greece. 

The genus Scotopliilus^ Meinert, was described without reference to 
Henia. Pocock has pointed out that the two genera are the same, and 

iNatnrb. Tidsskr., VII, p. 57,1870. 

^Explor. Sclent, d. I'Algerie, p. 349, jd. ii, tig. 10. 


that Scotopliihis is i^reoccupied. Bollman has proposed the generic 
name MeinerUa to take the phiee of Scofophilus, but this can not be 
used unless deria, the type of Henia, and hicarinatus^ the type of Scoto- 
philus, prove not to be congeneric. Tliis is not impossible, for Koch's 
species is credited with 154 pairs of legs, while hicarinatns has only 
about half as nuiny. 

Genus CHyETECHELY N E, Meinert. 
Chwtechelyne, Meinekt, Natiuh. Tidsskr., \\\. y. 44, 1870. 

Type. — Chwtechelyne vcsuciaiKi ( Newport ).' 
Distribution. — South ICurope; Nortli Africa. 

Family GEOPHILID.K, Leach. 
Geophilida', Leacii, Trau.s. LiDn. Soc. London, XI, pt. ii, p. ii84, 1814. . 

Antenme filiform; frontal lamina distinct or coalesced; cephalic 
lamina not concealing the prehensors; prebasal lamina i)resent or 
obsolete; basal lamina narrow; labruni tripartite. Mandibles with a 
single pectinate lamella; labial sternum entire or bifid, simple or with 
a i)rocess; labial palpus two-Jointed, simple, or with a process; interior 
labial process usually distinct; maxillary sternum entire or divided; 
claw of maxillary pali)us not excavate or pectinate; i)rehensorial 
sternum narrow, chitinous lines present or wanting ; su})rascutella want- 
ing; ventral pores on posterior half of segments, not in a definite area; 
anal pleurie more or less inflated, pores few or many; anal pores present 
or wanting; genital palpi two-jointed. Pairs of legs, 31-109. 

Genus GEOPHILUS, Leach. 

Geophilns, Leach, Traus. Linn. Soc l^ondoii. XL i>t. u, p. 884, 181t. 
Type. — Geophilus carpophcujus, Leach. 
Distribution. — Europe; I^orth Africa. 

MevintoctphalHn, Newi'OUT, Proc. Zool. !Soc. London, |). 178, 1842. 

Type. — MeciHtoeeph id us <it ten u <i t us ( Say ) .' 

Distribution. — Eastern North America; Europe; North Africa. 

Genus ORINOPHILUS, new name. 
OrinoniKs, Attems, Sitzuugsb. d. Kais. Akad. d. Wissen.s. Wieu, CIV, p. 166, 1895. 

Type. — Orinophilus oliyopus (Attems).' 
Distribution. — Austria. 

' Trans. Linn. Soc, XIX, p. 435. 

sjonni. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., II, p. 114. 

•'Sitzungsher. K. Akad. Wiss. Wien, CIV, ]>. 167, pi. i, lig. 11. 


SCHIZOT^^NIA, new genus. 

Type. — Sehizota'iiia j>r(>(/ii(itli((, new species, in the National Museum 

Distrihiifioii. — Liberia. 

PIESTOPHILUS, new genus. 

Type. — Piestophiliis tenuitarsis (Pocock).' 
Distribution. — Dominica. 

Genus LINOT^^NIA, C. L. Koch. 

LinoUvnia, C. L. Koch, System <ler Myriiij)()deu, p. 86, 1847. 
Type. — TAnotanUi cruHHipes (0. L. Koeli).- 
Distrihiition. — Euroi)e. 

Genus TOMOT^ENIA, Cook. 

Tomoiania, Cook, American Naturalist, XXIX, p. 86(j, 1895. 
Type. — Tomota'ii ia pa ri'iceps ( W< »od ).■'• 
Distribntioii. — Califoinia. 

Genus AGATHOTHUS, Bollman. 

Agaihothus, Bollman, Bull. 46, U. S. Nat. Mus., p. 166, 1893. 
Type. — Af/athofhus gracilis (Bollman).^ 
Distribution. — Tennessee. 

Of the affinities of this genus little can be asserted. It is placed 
here mostly because Bollman originally described the species as a 
Scollop)! a nes. 

Family DICELLOPHILID^:, Cook. 

Dkellojihilidw, Cook, Proc. V. 8. Nat. Mus., XYIII, p. 61, 1895. 
Antennee filiform or subatteniiate; frontal lamina always distinct; 
cephalic lamina narrow, not concealing the prehensors; prebasal lam- 
ina obsolete; basal lamina very narrow; labrum tripartite, entirely free; 
mandibles with several i)ectinate lamelhe; labial sternum divided, sim- 
ple; labial palpus and interior labial process similar in shape, distinct, 
apically spatulate; maxillary sternum entire; maxillary palpus slender; 
claw simple; prehensorial sternum very narrow, without chitiuous lines; 
suprascutella wanting; ventral pores wanting; anal pleura* in Hated, 
with numerous pores; anal pores present; genital palpi usually two- 
jointed; anal legs slender, six-jointed, witliout claw. Pairs of legs con- 
stant for each species; in the different species, 4:3-101. 

1 Aun. and Mag. Nat. Hist., 6 ser.. II, Xo. 12, p. 472, 1888. 
2Deutsclil. Crust, uud Myriap., ]'t. 3, tab. 3, 183rj. 
Mouni. Acad. Nat. Sci. Pliila., V, p. 49, 1863. 
••Ami. N. V. Acad. Sci., ]>. 110, 1.8S7. 



DiceUopMlus, Cook, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mns., XVIII, p. 61, 1895. 
Type. — DiceUopMlus limatus (Wood).' 
Distribution. — California. 

Genus LAMNONYX, Cook. 
Lamnonyx, CooK, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., XVIII, p. 61, 1895. 
Type. — Lamnonyx leonensis, Cook. 
Distrihution. — Sierra Leone. 

Genus MEGETHMUS, Cook. 
Megeihmns, Cook, Proc. U. S. Nat. Una., XVIII, p. 61, 1895. 
Type. — Megethmus microporns (Haase).^ 
Distribution. — Philippine Islands. 



Type. — Arthronomalus h>n(iicornis (Leach) = Geophilus longicojnis, : 


Type. — CUnopodes flaviclus, C. L. Koch = Geophilus tlavidus (C. L. 

GEOPHILUS, Newport (not Leach). 
Type. — Geophilus acumiiiatus, Leach = Linotfenia acuminata (Leach). 

MECISTOCEPHALUS, Meinert (not Newport). 

Ty2}e. — Mecistocephalns carniolensis (C. L. Koch) = Lamnonyx carni- 
olensis (C. L. Koch). 



Type. — Necrophkeophagus longicornis (Leach) = Geophilus longicornis, 


Type. — Xotiphilus tamiatus., C. L. Korh = Bothriogaster tiieniatiis 
(C. L. Koch). 

Type. — Paehymerium /ern(gineum (C. L. Koch) = Mecistocephalns 
attenuatus (Say). 

POABIUS, C. L. Koch. 

Type. — Poabiiis ititeus, C. L. Koch = Geophilus flavidus (C. L. Koch). 

■ Journ. Acad. Nat. Sci. Pliila., V, p. 42, 1863. 

2 Abh. u. Ber. d. K. Zool. u. Aiith.-Etbn. Mas., Dresden, 1886-87, No. 5, p. 106. 


POLYCRICUS, Saussure and Humbert. 
Described as a subgenus of Geophilus. 

SCNIP^^US, Bergsoe and Meiiiert. 

Type. — Scnipceus foveolatuSj Bergsoe and Meinert = Geopbibis tbveo- 
latus (Bergsoe and Meinert). 

SCOLIOPLANES, Bergsoe and Meinert. 
Typr. — Scolioplanes maritimus (Leacb) = Linota'uia niaritima (Leacli). 

Type. — Scofophllus hlcarinatus, Meinert = Henia bicarinata (Meinert). 

STENOT^^NIA, C. L. Koch. 

Type. — iStenotieiiia linearis, 0. L. Koch = Geoi^hihis linearis (C L. 



Type. — Strigamia acuminatns (Leach) = Linota^nia acuminata (Leach). 

STRIGAMIA, Seliwanoff. 
Type. — Strigamia parviceps, Wood = Tomotteuia parviceps (Wood). 


By Martin L. Linell, 

Aid, Department of Insects. 

Among a small lot of Costa Rican Coleoirtera recently i^reseiited to 
tbe United States National Museum by Mr. John Keitli, of Ssui Jose, 
Costa Rica, through Capt. G. P. Scriven, U. S. A., there were three 
specimens of the magnificent golden and silvery beetles from that 
locality. One of these I have identified as PlKsiotis rcsplendens of 
Boucard, a true Plusiotis; the second one as P. chrysargyrea of Salle, 
a species intermediate between Phisiotis and Felidnota as regards the 
mandibles, the only structural character separating these two genera. 
The third specimen, which is described below, strictly belongs to Pelid- 
nota, since it has the mandibles as distinctly bidentate as in the majority 
of species of this genus, but it would evidently be wrong to separate 
it from association with the species of Plusiotis inhabiting the same 
region, which it resembles so much in form and coloration. Its near- 
est ally seems to be the above-mentioned Plusiotis chrysargyrea, which 
it approaches in form, although having a still broader thorax. The 
species is readily distinguished from any form of the group hitherto 
described, both in coloration and elytral sculpture. 

PLUSIOTIS KEITHI, new species. 

Oblong, parallel, somewhat convex, above splendidly golden colored. 
Clypeus, front and a broad side margin of thorax, pinkish brown. A 
large purple spot at inner margin of eyes, and a line of same color on 
the thorax, separating the golden color of the disk from that of the 
side margin. Head rather coarsely punctured, with finer punctures 
intermixed. Clypeus rugose, almost semicircular, with strongly reliexed 
margin. Mandibles distinctly bidentate. Thorax at base nearly as 
broad as the elytra, sparsely and finely punctured at the middle, more 
densely at the sides. Elytra without stvise ; sparsely covered with large, 
shallow, somewhat rugose punctures. Apical callus prominent. Sutu- 
ral striae impressed toward the apex. The finely rugose pygidium, the 

Proceedings of the United States National Museum, Vol. XVIII— No. 1040. 
[Advance sheets of this paper were published January 12, 1895.] 


whole under-surface aud the legs, of a pinkish brown with silvery reflec- 
tions; all sutures shining cupreous, A line on inner margin of tibite 
and all the tarsi, rich purplish blue. Mesosterual process very long, 

Size. — Length, 30 mm.; width, IC mm. 

Type. — A single specimen in the National Museum collection. 

Boucard, who has monographed the genus Fhisiotis, has also studied 
these insects in nature during his travels in Central America. In 
regard to the habits of the golden and silvery species, he states that 
they feed in concealment during the d;iy on the leaves of trees, especially 
young oaks. Just before sunset they take wing for a short time. Their 
period of life is very brief, and their habitat is extremely restricted. 
How difficult it is for collectors to obtain them may be better under- 
stood by citing his own words, narrating one of his visits to these 
regions. He says: "I was in Costa Kica in the proper season aud at 
the exact locality where these insects are found, but was not able to get 
more than three specimens, although I offered a high i^rice for them to 
the natives and did myself all that possibly could be done. Everyone 
in the country knew what I meant, when I asked for golden and oilvery 
beetles, but they did not procure any." 


By F. 11. Chittenden, 

ilstant Entomologist, United States Department of Jijricnlture. 

A STUDY of a series of specimens of the teiiebrionid genus Ecltoee- 
rus in the National Museum, kindly placed at my disposal for the pur- 
pose by Prof. C. V. Riley, has led to the discovery of two species that 
are evidently undescribed. The following- brief descriptions are pre- 
sented in advance of a more extended paper which is to be published 
at an early date. 


Form rather slender, convex. Eyes comparatively feebly emargi- 
nate; canthus slightly foliaceous, hardly extending beyond tlie eyes at 
the sides. Antennae rather short, closely jointed. Prothorax hardly 
broader than long, sides subparallel, slightly rounded anteriorly; 
anterior angles considerably produced, acute; base slightly narrower 
than elytra. Prosternum finely punctate; pro episterna very coarsely 
and sparsely punctate. Scutellum short, much broader than long, 
broadly rounded posteriorly. Elytra strongly punctate-striate ; sutural 
and adjacent stri;e more or less deeply impressed. Ventral segments 
moderately coarsely punctured at the middle. Hind tarsi short, first 
joint hardly as long as the second and third together. 

Male: Mandibular horns short, suberect; inner margin flattened, 
with a broad, irregularly serrate tooth reaching about two-thirds to- 
ward the apex; apices slender, acute and incurved, not approximate. 
Frontal tubercles very large and quite obtuse. Canthus not promi- 
nent, subacutely produced, reaching the base of the mandibular horns. 

Female: Front feebly reflexed, not extending beyond the eyes at the 

Size. — Length, 2.7 to 3.0 mm.; width 0.7 to 1.1 mm. 

Habitat. — Columbus, Texas; Cocoanut Grove and Crescent City, 
Florida (Schwfvrz); Allegheny, Pennsylvania (Hamilton); Ohio, Ken- 
tuckv. and Illinois (Ulke). 

Proceedings of the United States National Museum, Vol. XVIII— No. 1041. 
[Advance dheets of this paper were published January 16, 1895.] 



Types. — Three examjiles in tbe National Museum collection, from 
Columbus, Texas, and specimens in the collections of Messrs. E. A. 
Schwarz, Henry Ulke, and F. H. Chittenden. 


Form depressed. Eyes large, rounded, rather coarsely granulate, 
feebly emarginate. Anterior angles of i^rothorax broadly rounded; 
base feebly bisiuuate; basal fovea strongly marked. Pro-episterna 
densely rug<»sely punctate. Marginal elytral stria deeply impressed. 
Ventral segments finely and densely punctured at the middle. 

Male: Mandibular horns long, slender, simple, ascending and con- 
vergent from the base, recurved and contiguous at the apices. Front 
strongly concave, posteriorly with an arcuate ridge, forming at each 
side just above the inner margin of the eye an obtuse tubercle, and 
medially a small, elevated, more or less dentate or sinuate lamina. 
Canthus small, broadly rounded anteriorly, not contiguous to the 

Female : Clypeus subtruncate, separated from the front by a deeply 
impressed line. Prosternum sparsely i:)unctate and shining. 

She. — Length, 2.9 to 3 mm.; width 0.9 to l.U mm. 

R<ihitai. — I'lorida: Key West (Morrison, Schwarz),Metacombe Key 
(Ash mead). 

Types. — Three examples in the National Museum, from Metacombe 
Key, Florida, and specimens in the collections of Messrs. Schwarz, 
Chitten<len, and W. H. AsUmead. 


By O. F. Cook. 

The collection wliich is tlie occasion of this report is a small one, 
but the forms included are very interesting, and after a comparison 
with the types preserved in the Berlin Museum all seem to be new. 
In attempting- to place the species generically, it has been found that 
the East African genera are mostly distinct from those to which species 
from that region have been referred by previous writers. The present 
collection furnishes representatives of but three genera, of which com- 
plete descriptions are here attempted. Kotices of other African genera 
are included in the synopses, drawn partly from a considerable collec- 
tion of African Polydesmoidea belonging to the Berlin Museum. This 
has seemed desirable in order to better define and show the affinities of 
the genera established on the specimens belonging to the United States 
National Museum. 

The Polydesmoidea thus far known from East Tropical Africa are 
comprehended in three families, one of which seems peculiar to that 
region. East Africa is either strikingly deficient in family types, or very 
careful collecting has not been done, as may be judged from the table 
of African families here presented, of which six have been found in 
West Africa and only three in East xVfrica. 

It is a noteworthy fact of distribution that no species of this suborder 
is known to be common to the east and west coasts of Tropical Africa, 
and what is more remarkable, no genus is common to the two sides of 
the continent except in the cosmopolitan family Strongylosomatidie. 
That future discoveries may modify these facts is of course probable, 
for the number of African genera and species will doubtless be increased 
indefinitely. The larger and more conspicuous forms, however, have 
been collected quite extensively, and the personal opportunities of the 
Avriter warrant him in the opinion that no s^iecies closely related to 
those known from East Africa exist in Liberia, or indeed in the neigh- 
boring regions, from Cape Verde down. 

The literature of the East African Polydesmoidea is not extensive, 
and is much scattered. For convenience of reference, uniformly 

Proceedings of thu United States Natioual Museum, Vol. XVIII— No. 1042. 

Proc. N. M. 95 G 


arranged translatious of the original descriptions of all the species have 
been added and the figures redrawn, except in some cases wliere they 
are so imperfect as to be of no use in identification. Hence the pres- 
ent paper may claim to be a monograph of the East African Polydes- 
moidea as complete as is now practicable. 

The notes and drawings of the species in the Berlin Museum were 
made during a visit in May of the present year, twelve months after 
the work on the material collected by Mr. Chanler had been completed. 
The Berlin Museum contains all the types of East African Polydes- 
moidea thus far described. A new species, Orodesmus forceps, is de- 
scribed, at the request of Mr. Pocock, from a specimen in the British 
Museum; as this was the only mature male of the genus then access- 
ible, Mr. Pocock's kindness gave the opportunity of completing the 
generic description. 


Body minute, contractile into a conii)letely closed sphere, in wliich the head and 
first segment are included between the decnrved lobes of the enormously enlarged 
second segment: Family Ammodesmid.e, type Ammodesmus (jvannm. 

Body small to large, not capable of being more than spirally coiled; second seg- j 
ment not specially enlarged ! 

Last segment rudimentary, included and concealed by the penultimate;, first seg- 
ment clypeate, entirely concealing the head; segments densely setose, and with 
large processes or coarse tubercles; repugnatorial pores on special stalks or lobes : 
Family Stylodesmid/E, type Siylodesmus horridus. 

Last segment not concealed; first segment short or tiabellate; repugnatorial pores 
not on stalks or special lobes 

Carinte strongly decurved; body capable of being coiled into a close spiral; dor- 
sum roughened with clusters of large tubercles or numerous longitudinal carin;e : 
Family Campodes.mid.e, type Campodesmus carhonarius. 

Carina? distinctly horizontal; body not capable of being closely coiled 

CariniB very broad, without thickened margins; repugnatorial pores remote from 
the hiteral margin, located in the anterior part of the snbsegment; head concealed 
under the expanded first segment: Family Cryptodesmid.e, type Criipiodesmus 

Carina^, if well developed, with a distinct thickened margin or iutramarginal 
ridge bearing the repugnatorial pores ; head not concealed 

Anterior legs of males with a fleshy sole at apex, immediately above the claw; 
sternum of sixth segment of males with one or two large processes; fifteenth or 
sixteenth segments of males sometimes with sternal processes; penultimate segment 
very short; dorsum smooth, with no traces of granules or tubercles: Family Gom- 
PHODESMiD^E, ty^ie Gomphodesmus castanens, Berlin Museum. 

Anterior legs of males without fleshy soles; no j»rocesses from the sterna of the 
sixth and fifteenth segments 

Lateral surface of segments smooth above the bases of the legs, with distinct 
longitudinal or oblique carina; body slender; dorsum smooth; lateral carina? 
email: Family Strongylosomatid.e, tyi^^. Stroii;iijlo8oiiHi pallipes. m 


Lateral surface more or less beset with coalc tubercles; above the bases of the 
le,a,s two gradually rounded prominences, densely tuberculate: dorsum nearly 
always tuberculate or granular; carime distinct; Family Oxydesmid.e, type Oxf/rft's- 
mus Jiaromarijiitatits, Berlin Museum. 


Antennae with ten olfactory cones, arranged in a circle: Genus AsiroHtsmus, type 
A. stellifer. 
Antennte with four olfactory cones, as in all other Polydesraoidea 

Sternum of fifteenth segment of male with a broad triangular ensiform i)roces8: 
Genus Aidodesmus, type A. mossambiciis, Berlin Museum. 
Sternum of fifteenth segment without process 

Repugnatorial pores 11, segments 11 and 14 without pores: (ieuus Marptodeamus, 
type M. clianleri. 

Repugnatorial pores 13; segments 11 and 14 provided with pores. 

Sterna of fifth and sixth pairs of male legs each with two distinct processes, those 
of the sixth much larger; genitalia not strongly curved, pluridentate : Genus 
Hannodcsmiis, type II. niiens, Berlin Museum. 

Sternum of sixth segment with a single conspicuous median process, that of the 
fifth unarmed; apical portion of the genitalia strongly recurved upon the basal and 
produced into a slender flexuous llagellum 

Sternal process of sixth segment of male narrow, bidentate; sternum of sixteenth 
segment with an abrupt verruciform process on the middle of the anterior edge, 
directed ventrad: Genus Tycodesmns, type T. medins, Berlin Museum. 

Sternal process of sixth segment of nuiles broad, unidentate; sternum of sixteenth 
segment unmodified 

Body large, 60-70 mm. ; preaual scale with setiferous tubercles greatly enlarged 
in both sexes, much exceeding the median angle; sterna of seventh and eighth seg- 
ments of males with a distinct flattened process at the base of each leg of the pos- 
terior pair: Genus Gomphodesmns, type G. castaneus, Berlin Museum. 

Body small, 20 mm. ; preanal scale with median angle much more prominent than 
the setiferous tubercles; sterna of seventh and eighth legs without process: Genus 
Sphenodesmus, type S. rugulosus, Berlin Museum. 

ASTRODESMUS/ new genus. 
Euriidesmus pro parte, of Peters, GerstXcker, and Karscit, not of Saussure. 
Diagnosis. — Body very laige. 
Aiitenuie with ten olfactory cones. 
Segments dorsally smootli. 

Lateral carinjie medium, margins thickened, entire. 
Kepugnatorial pores 1.'5, dorsal on the thickened margins of segments 
o, 7, 9-19. 

Penultimate segment very short, surpassed by segment 18. 
Last segment very short, triangular, the apex narrow. 
Sterna with transverse medianly interrupted ridges. 
Sternum of segment G of male with a large process. 

' The name alludes to the peculiar conformation of the apical joint of the antenna. 


Sternum of segment 15 of male with a broad process. 

Male legii crassate and inferiorly tuberculate, the first six iiairs with 
a fleshy sole at apex. 

Description. — Body very large, about five times as long as broad, cavity 
scarcely depressed; oblong, abruptly narrowed at both ends. 

Vertex smooth, sulcus distinct, meeting a transverse inter-antennal 
sulcus; post-antennal depression deep, the sense organ large. 

Labrum not emarginate, with three short, blunt teeth. 

Antenn;c filiform, joints in order of length 2, 4, 5, 3, 0, 1, 7. Seventh 
joint broader than long, truncate, and with a conic depression in its 
apical face; ten olfactory cones arranged in a circle around the edge of 
the depression. 

Mandibulury stipe with exposed surface divided by sutures into five 
areas, the basal larger than all the others together. 

Hypostoma strongly arcuate; rising from each side of the convex 
median portion is a flattened, oblong process lying against depressions 
of the lower part of the mentum. 

Oardo present, transversely oval. 

Mentum broadly triangular, long-pointed in front, very broadly 
emarginate behind, hirsute. 

Stipes over twice as long as broad (2:5) hirsute. 

Lingual lamina? three times as long as broad, hirsute. Lingual lobes 
large. Median lobe not evident. 

First segment three times as broad as long, with anterior and poste- 
rior jnargins medianly straight and parallel; posterior margin laterally 
curved forward; anterior corners broadly rounded, the posterior nearly 
a right angle. The segment is much broader than the head, very 
slightly narrower and noticeably longer than the second segment. 

Segments with dorsal surface smooth, neither granular nor areate. 

Lateral carina? subapproximate, about one-fourth as wide as the 
body cavity, inserted about three-fourths of the distance up; margin 
abruptly raised and thickened above, especially the lateral; edge 
blunt, entire; carin.v of anterior segments curved slightly forward, the 
X)osterior witb posterior corners more and more produced. 

Repugnatorial pores small, dorsal, located in a slight depression of tlie 
middle of the thickened margins of the lateral carina? of segments 5, 
7, 9-11), surrounded by a fine raised rim. 

Below the carina? the segments are finely rugulose, Avith a small 
longitudinal carina above the insertion of the legs. 

Anterior subsegments smooth. 

Supplementary margin long, membranous, finely striate longitudi- 
nally, not pectinate. 

Penultimate segment xevy short, included between the projecting 
corners of the antepenultimate. 

Last segment very short, triangular, the apex narrow, truncate or 
rounded, tlie whole segment bearing 10 seta^, as follows: Two pairs 
lateral, two pairs marginal, two pairs dorsal; all these upon larger or 


smaller tubercles; one pair apical and one subapical; these last rising 
from punctations. 

Anal valves with compressed, elevated margins and two setigerous 
tubercles, the upper placed on the outer slope of the raised margin, 
the lower somewhat removed from it. 

Preaual scale semielliptic-triaugular, tricuspidate, the three projec- 
tions close together, the middle flat, the others conic, blunt, with pili- 
ferous i)unctations at apex. 

Sterna with a sharp, transverse, mediauly interrupted ridge between 
the bases of each pair of legs; between the ridges a transverse furrow. 

Sternum of sixth segment of male with a three-cornered ])rocess pro- 
jecting veutrad between the anterior pair of legs. Sternnm of the fif- 
teenth segment of male with a broadly ensiform process projecting 
cephalad from between the anterior pair of legs into a socket in the 
posterior part of the fourteenth. 

Eighteenth segment with the pedigerous lamimTe very narrow, especi- 
ally the posterior, so that the legs project obliquely candad over the 
preaual scale. 

Legs of males long and crassate, the dorsal face of the second joint 
strongly inflated; all the joints more or less tuberculate on the ventral 
face and beset with bristles on the apical joints. 

First six pairs of male legs with a fleshy sole at apex of the last joint, 
and the claw shortened. 

First pair of legs of male six-jointed like the others; the coxjc long, 

Second pair of male legs with thecoxne produced veutrad into a large 
process, in the depression of the flattened ventro-posterior face of which 
is the seminal opening. 

Male genitalia with basal joint very small, flattened ; distal joint very 
large, laterally compressed, tricarinate; ungual portion very long, 
complicate, thin, and compressed at base to forui a flexible pseudo- 
articulation, above which it is inflated, then extended into a long, flex- 
uous flagellum, very slender distally. 

This genus is distinct from Uuri/desmus, Saussure, in the oblong body, 
the dorsal pores, the unarmed sterna and femoral joints of the legs, 
the unarmed fifth segment of the males, the single process of the sixth 
segment, and that of the fifteenth segment; probably also in the 10 
olfactory cones. The two genera probably have no close affinity, not- 
withstanding the agreement in i)ore arrangement, the only character of 
importance which they seem to possess in common. 

Eurydesmus is confined, as far as known, to South America, and the 
indubitable generic distinctness of the African forms makes stronger 
the probability that the two continents have little in common in the 
way of Diplopoda. The present is probably one of many cases where 
more careful study will show that the Diplopod genera are more circum- 
scribed in their distribution than has been generally supposed. 


(PI. II, Mgs. 1-11; ri. Ill, figs. 1-9.) 

Vertex without hairs, polished and shining; sulcus distinct, meeting 
a transverse shallow sulcus (and suture) between the antennal sockets. 

Clypeus smooth, even, excepting an oblique depression on each sid( 
and a few coarse i^unctations below. 

Antenucie with basal joints very sparsely hairy, the distal gradually' 
more hirsute. 

Mentum hirsute over the posterior two-thirds of its .surface. 

Stipes densely liirsute, a broad depression along the lateral edge, 
especially distad. 

Lingual laminiTe very densely hirsute OA^er their entire surface. 

Segments dorsally apparently smooth, shining with a dull luster, 
uniformly covered with minute, irregular, indistinct, impressed lines 
and wrinkles, and very minutely and densely punctate. Posterior mar- 
gins of all the segments more or less rough with fine longitudinal 
notches or very short wrinkles. 

Anterior segments with the posterior subsegments slightly convex 
anteriorly in the middle; broadly emarginate on each side of the con- 

Lateral carina* about one- fourth as wide as the body cavity; margin 
abruptly raised and thickened above, the edge entire, blunt; anterior 
and posterior edges of carina* with a distinct, though fine, raised mar- 
gin, which does not extend across the segments. Anterior carina? later- 
ally curved slightly forward, the posterior corners at first right angles, 
gradually more produced, until on posterior segments the rounded pro- 
jection is more than half as long as the posterior subsegment. On pos- 
terior segments the raised margin is gradually broader, until on the 
penultimate it occupies the entire carina. 

Below the cariuic the segments are densely rugulose with fine, fiexu- 
ous wrinkles; a small, subtuberculate, indistinct carina just above the 
insertion of the legs. 

Anterior subsegments shining, very indistinctly marked with longi- 
tudinal impressed lines. 

Last segment (see PI. Ill, figs. 3 and 4) very short, triangular, the apex 
narrow, truncate, slightly rounded; superior lateral tubercle somewhat 
above the level of the carina of the nineteenth, the inferior somewhat 
below; the anterior tubercle near the sinuation, the posterior about 
half way between the anterior and the ap.ex. The dorsal bristles close 
to the margin; apical piliferous punctations rather close together, the 
subapical somewhat farther apart; apex of segment thick. 

Anal valves moderately inflated, with compressed elevated margins; 
rugulose, especially in the depressions. 

Preanal scale with surface nearly smooth. 

Sterna sparsely hirsute. 


Process of tlie sternum of the sixth segment somewhat quadrate in 
posterior view, narrower at base, then broader, then narrowed again 
to a mucronate apex. The apical faces hirsute with very long hairs. 
Posteriorly tlie process, and the sternum below it, is medianly deeply 
canaliculate; antically the process is straight, with tine, raised lateral 

Sternum of the fifteenth segment Avith the i)rocess naked, broadly 
ensiform, medianly grooved below. The process consists of an exten- 
sion of the transverse ridge between the anterior pair of legs, and is 
directed cephalad into a depression between the posterior legs of the 
fourteenth segment. Between the posterior legs of the fifteenth segment 
is also a similar depression, but smaller, althongh the sixteenth sternum 
is in no way modified. 

Legs of males hirsute with long bristles, especially on the distal 
joints. Tubercles confined to the ventral face and best developed on 
the fifth joint; on the posterior legs the tubercles of the other joints 
are small or rudimentary. Posterior legs more slender than the others, 
but not much shorter. 

First legs of males with the sole less developed and the claw larger 
than on the five following legs. 

Male genitalia (PI. J I, figs. 4-9). 

Color in alcohol Aarying from dirty yellowish-white (bone color) to 
dark purplish brown. The carinie are always light, and the posterior 
margin of the posterior subsegment usually so, also the anterior sub- 
segments, excepting a dark median line and a line on each side along 
the level of the carinas Posterior subsegments bordered all around 
with a fine jnargin of distinct brown. Legs and antenn.T reddish- 
brown, especially the distal joints. First segment usually with a 
broad margin of light color all around. 

Length, 65 mm.; width, 13 mm. 

Ty]}e. — ISFational Miiseum collection. Four mature males. 

Localiiy. — Tana River, East Africa, between the coast and Hameye. 

One aspect of the male genitalium of this species greatly resembles 
that of Eurydesmus laxus, Gerstacker, as figured by Karsch, and the firvSt 
inclination was to identify it with that species in spite of consider- 
able discrepancies in Gerstiicker's description. These are, however, 
too grave to be reasonably ignored. Compared with most Polydes- 
midpe, the animal would be called very robust instead of slender. 
Gerstiicker's measurements, however, justify his statement. Neither 
is it loosely articulated nor slightly convex. The a])ex of the ])rocess 
of the sixth segment of the male is not a distinct knob, and the 
shape of tlie process does not suggest a spherical triangle. The proc- 
ess of the fifteenth segment is not on the "fourth from the last" pair 
of legs, but the eighth from the last, though in this respect it would 
not be surprising if a mistake has been made in the description. 


(Pl.IV, figs. 11, 12.) 
Enrydesmns Iiiridus, Karsch, Troschel's Archiv f. Naturw., p. 43, 1881. 

Segments convex, nearly smootli, the sides slightly rugulose. 

Male genital appendages broad, somewhat compressed, pilose with 
long hairs, constricted in the middle; falciform process and tooth en- 
tirely wanting. 

Color dirty testaceous ; carinre testaceous yellow; also a large subdis- 
ciform spot on the posterior margin of cariniferous segments, strougl}- 
narrowed at the sides. 

Length, about 45 mm.; width, 11 mm. 

Locality. — INIombassa. A male specimen collected by Hildebrandt is 
in the Berlin Museum. 

"A species easily distinguishable from all others previously known 
by the dirty color and the yellowish spot of the cariniferous segments, 
and especially by the form of the male genitalia, presuming the (type) 
specimen to have been mature." 

The genitalia of the type of this species were either broken off or 
the specimen was iiiunature. In the Berlin Museum are a number of 
young Astrodesmi comparable with this species, but I have not seen 
the type. 

(PI. Ill, figs. 17, 18; PI. VI, figs. 1-3.) 

rohjdesmus mossamhicus, Peters, Mouatsber. d. K. Preiiss. Akad. d. Wiss., Ber- 
lin, p. 81, 1885. 
Enrydesmns mossamhicus, Peters, Eeise nach Mossambique, Zoologie, V, p. 533. 

Body convex; vertex smooth, the sulcus distinct. Antennfe extend- 
ing to the third segment, joints 3, 4, and 5 equal, the second slightly 
shorter, the sixth slightly longer, the seventh very short. 

First segment narrow, the lateral angle rounded-triangular, the mar- 
gin thickened. Segments smooth. Lateral cariuiP quadrangular, the 
margin thickened, the anterior angle rounded, the posterior acute. 
Last segment triangular, rounded at apex, above with four wart-like 

Preanaal scale tringular, tridentate at apex. 

Length and breadth of adult 85 and 16 mm, ; of young, 25 and 4 mm. 

Locality. — Island of Mozambique, Cabaceira, Rios de Sena, Querimba. 

This species was later described at greater length among the Myri- 
apoda of Mozambique, as follows: 

Body broader than high, convex. 

Vertex with a fine sulcus. 

Antenna? finely hirsute, of moderate length, reaching to the third 
segment when laid back ; the basal and terminal Joints are very short, 
the others gradually decreasing from the second to the sixth; the third, 
fourth, and fifth differing but little in length. 



First segment arched, the lateral augle rounded; the anterior margin 
straight, the posterior with a shallow emargination, and on account of 
this and the greater convexity of its posterior portion the segment 
appears somewhat narrowed in the middle. Submarginal ridge of the 
lateral margin gradually decreasing on the anterior and posterior mar- 
gins. The surface of this segment, as well as that of the remainder of 
the body, shows under the microscope a very fine granulation. 

Lateral carimi^ descending in the direction of the dorsal curve, and 
making, in the contracted condition of the animal, a connected series, 
since the pointed and somewhat ascending posterior corner of each carina 
projects over the anterior rounded corner of the following segment. 

Kepugnatorial pores located in the middle of the marginal ridge, and 
as the ridge slopes obhquely downward the pores are distinctly visible 
from above as well as from tlie side. 

Last segment apically pointed-triangular; on each side of the upper 
surface four more or less distinct wart-like prominences. 

Preanal scale broadly triangular, posteriorly with three rounded 
points, of which the middle is the smallest. 

Legs hirsute, rather strongly granular, but the second joint with- 
out a spine. 

Sternum of sixth segment of males with a rather long, three-lobed 
process between the first pair of legs. 

Sternum of the fifteenth segment of males with a pointed, anteriorly 
directed median process and a corresponding depression in the four- 
teenth segment. 

Male genitalia with the basal joint very large. 

Males with the dorsum slightly less convex and the antennsTe slightly 
longer than in the females. 

Young animals difteriug only in the more cylindrical body, the 
peculiar structures of the sixth, fourteenth, and fifteenth segments 
being well developed in young males. 

Color of dorsum and antennae dark reddish brown; the carinae, 
ventral surface, and legs, brownish-yellow. 

Length of largest specimens, 85 mm.; width, 10 mm.; of the young, 
25 mm. and,4 mm. 

LocalUij. — Dr. Peters says: "I found this species in rubbish heaps on 
the island of Mozambi(iue and upon the peninsula of Cabaceira in the 
month of December, at Querimba in May, and also at Tette." 

The animals which are referred to as young males are in the Berlin 
Museum, and belong to a distinct genus. 

(PI. Ill, figs. 10-14; PI. YJ, figs. 4-7.) 
EurydesmMs oxygonus, Peters, Reise nacli Jlossambique, Zoologie, V, p. 535. 
First segment with a distinct obliiiue submargiiml ridge, which ap- 
pears to be separated from the posterior, slightly convex margin by a 
sharp corner. 


Lateral carinse directed liorizontally, so that tlie dorsum appears 
less convex than in mossamhicns. The submarg-inal ridges and the pos- 
terior spinous pointed corner are more deveh>ped. 

Sterna of sixth and fifteenth segments, male genitalia, and colors as 
in yiiossamhicus. 

Length, 5.") mm.; width, 11.4mm. 

Loealiti/. — Rios de Sena, near the Zambesi. Dr. Peters collected three 
male specimens, and at first considered them a variety of mossambicus. 

(PL II; tigs. IL', 13.) 

Euri/dcsniKu lu.rus, Gerstacker, Deckeu's Eeise, p. 518, 1873 

Slender, loosely articulated, slightly convex. 

Head and antennjie as in A. oxygonus. 

Clypeus with a rounded swollen su[)ra-labral ridge. 

First segment longer and somewhat narrower, the posterior margin, 
as on the two following, without a fold li Ice thickening, from the median 
slope strongly decurved and directed cephalad. On this account the 
lateral margin is shorter and more oblique to the head. Without form- 
ing a corner, and merely with a slight curve, it merges into the anterior 
margin. The smooth ridges on the upper side of the lateral margins 
are, and even more in the second segment, markedly smaller than in 
A. oxygonus. 

The fiattened arch of the median part of the segments and the slight 
elevation of the carinaj as in A. oxygonus, although on the second ami 
third segments the elevation of the cariuie is evidently shorter, result- 
ing from the fact that the anterior margin passes into the lateral by a 
stronger curve. 

Posterior segments with the cariniie more pointed and farther i)ro- 
duced caudad than in A. oxygonus; the carin;ii of the penultimate seg- 
ment have the form of a small and lightly curved spine. 

Last segment with the cylindrical apical part separated by a deej) 
transverse furrow and truncate at apex. 

Preaual scale without a median projectio'i between the wart-like proc- 
esses. Anal valves with smooth, swollen margins. 

Posterior legs with two basal joints sparsely covered with small, 
wart-like prominences. 

Sternum of sixth segment with an obliquely upright process almost 
in the form of a spherical triangle, with a well-defined shining brown 
terminal knob. 

Sternum of the fourth from the last pair of legs with a fiattened, 
longitudinally furrowed process, nearly equilaterally triangular, bhiut- 
poiuted, pitch-brown. 

First and second joints of posterior legs of male only sparsely beset 
with snuill, wart-like prominences. 


Male genitalia noticeably broader than in A. oxygonns, on the inner 
niar^^in near the base, more rounded, and hence ai)i)earin<4- to be more 
nearly approximate. 

Color of alcoholic specimen dirty testaceous yellow, the lateral ridges 
of the carinie lighter and clearer yellow, and with the anterior and 
l)osterior margins brown. Margins on the median portion of the seg- 
ments, antenmt, and legs more ferruginous. 

Length, 78 mm,-, width, 12.\mm. 

Locality. — A single male specimen from Mombassa. 

'■'l^eav Uurydesnius oxygonusj Peters, but noticeably larger and dis- 
tinct on account of the posterior margins of the three first segments 
without fold-like thi(;kenings; the first segment with the posterior mar- 
gin decurved cephalad on the sides; the much smaller marginal ridges 
on the carinai of the second segment, the longer and more pointedly 
attenuate carinte of the three segments before the last, the sj)arsely 
and finely granulated basal Joints of the posterior pairs of legs, etc." 

Karsch's drawing of the genitalia of this species bears considerable 
resemblance to Astrodesmus stelUfer. If there is really a process on the 
sternum of the seventeenth segment ("des viertletzten Beinpaares"), 
it would probably be necessary to establish another genus. 


Euriidc^mus compactUis, Gv.UfiTxcKFAi, Uccken's Reise, p. 519, 1873. 

Body short and stout, i)roportionally strongly arched, slightly 

Vertex with a fine, though sharp, median furrow; clypeus below 
more strongly contracted than in A. laxu.^, the curved line above the 
middle of the margin distinct, the part below densely punctate. 

Antenuie somewhat more slender than in A. laxus. 

First segment with anterior margin even, moderately arcuate, pass- 
ing with the same curve into the lateral margins; posterior edge 
emarginate in the middle, and also on each side, so that the lateral 
corners are sharp and slightly produced caudad; marginal ridges 
smooth, linear, continued on the anterior margin and gradually nar- 

Subsequent segments strongly arched dorsally. Second to fourth 
segments with an evident emargination on each side of the posterior 

Lateral carinfe small, below the middle height of the segments; on 
the anterior segments scarcely evident, but more pronounced from the 
fifth back, slightly arched, the ])osterior edge slightly more elevated. 
]\Iarginal ridges of segments 2-4, also of and 8, linear, more pronounced 
than on the first segment. Carina' gradually larger from segment 10; 
fronj 14 with evident tooth-like i)rojections beyond the posterior mar- 
gin. Projection of segment 18 smaller than that of 17, that of 19 small, 


Last segmeut with a distinct, fine, transverse fnrrow limiting the 
posterior caudal projection, which is short triangular, with a blunt, 
almost truncate, above swollen, apex, and has on each side a stout, 
wart-like knob. Both the knobs and the apex of the segment bear 

Anal valves light gray, with smooth yellow margins. Preanal scale 
transversely subhexagonal, with small median knobs between the 
lateral wart-like prominences. 

Second leg of the female with a long styliform jjrocess directed 
obliquely caudad and ventrad, and lying between the legs of the 
third pair. 

Color in alcohol pale bone-yellow, with a light-brown posterior 
margin of the dorsal portion of the segments, and with more or less 
evidentlj^ brown posterior corners of the anterior and i>osterior cariute. 
Antenn.v and legs light ferruginous. 

Length, 49 mm, ; width, 10.5 mm. 

Locality. — One mature female specimen and an immature male, col- 
lected at Mombassa. 

The male specimen was 31 mm. long and 8 mm. broad, and had 19 
segments. There was no trace of the button-like process of the coxa 
of the second leg, which bears the genital opening, nor of thei)rocesses 
of the pedigerous lamina^ of the sixth and fourth from the last pairs of 
legs. In place of the not yet developed genitalia, between the coxie 
of the legs of the seventh segment were two transversely quadrate 
cu.shion-like prominences. 

As the mature male of this species is not known, it is not possible to 
determine its generic affinities. The peculiar i^rocesses of the coxoe of 
the second legs of the female indicate the probability that it constitutes 
a generic type. 

(PL III. figs. 15, 16.) 
Eurydesmus falcatiis, Karsch, Troschel's Archiv f. ISatnrgesch., p.43, 1881. 

Segments somewhat convex, nearly smooth. 

Carinas rather broad and thick, 

Male genital appendages compressed at base, strongly curved, dis- 
tally provided with a stout, rather long spine; beyond this produced 
into a very long, slender, falcate structure, slightly bifid at apex. 

Color uniform pale testaceous. 

Length, about 40 mm.; width, about 8 mm. 

LocaViiij. — Seriba Ghattas. One male specimen, collected by Dr. 
Schweinfurth, preserved in alcohol in the Berlin Museum. 

"A new species, distinct from Eurydesmus mossamhicus and oxygonns 
in the simply curved falciform apical i)rocesses of the male genitalia." 

The genitalia of this species seem quite different from those of any 
other, and the species may prove to be geuerically distinct. For the 
present the size and habit seem to indicate affinity with Tycodesmiis. 


Eurydcsmuscaffrarius, Porat, Olursigtaf K. VetcDsk. Akad. Forli., No. 5, p. 13, 1872. 

Body strougly convex, glabrous above, setose below between the 
cox;e, scarcely attenuate posteriorly. 

Head with very few setigerous foveiie. Vertex medianly longitudi- 
nally sulcate, subgiabrous. Clypeus subglabrous, margin setose. 

Autenntie shorter than the breadth of the body, G mm. long. 

First segment with anterior margin laterally thickened, oblique, 
nearly straight or very slightly sinuate j posterior straight, sides curved 
forward, processes rounded. 

Segments glabrous, nearly smooth, or irregularly coriaceous under a 
lens; lateral carin^o thickened, somewhat ascending i)osteriorly, ante- 
rior angle rounded, posterior slightly acute, slightly i^rominent, more 
acute on segments lG-19; ventral surface between segments 6 and 7 
with a prominent triangular lamina. 

Repugnatorial pores rather dorsal than lateral, placed a little behind 
the middle of the carina. 

Last segment prolonged, apex truncate, transversely impressed near 
the apex ; setic few. 

Anal valves margined, with two pairs of setoe. Preanal scale large, 
simple, or indistinctly trilid, the median lacinia far the longest; setig- 
erous tubercles two. 

Legs of pairs 1-6 with a pul villus on the last joint; a triangular 
prominent lamina between segments G and 7. 

Legs sliorter than the breadth of the body, 5 mm. 

Copulatory legs nmch i)rotrudiug. spiral, setose, the external margin 
bidentate, with a lacinia near the intlexed apex. 

Color of alcoholic specimens testaceous. 

Length, 34 mm. ; breadth, G.5 mm. 

Local it i/. — Caffraria. 

This species is much larger than the type of the genus, and does 
not belong to the tropical fauna. From Porat's description, however, 
there seems to be no important point of difference from the present 
genus, except that the dorsum of Sphenodefimus rugulosus is some- 
what roughened. 

MARPTODESMUS,' new genus. 

Diagnosis. — Body of moderate size. 
Antennje with four olfactory cones. 
Segments dorsally smooth. 

Lateral carime medium; margins thickened, entire, 
llepugnatorial pores 11, dorsal on the thickened margins of segments 
5, 7, 9, 10, 12, 13, 15-19. 
Penultimate segment very short, surpassed by segment 18. 

'The generic name lias reference to the numerous secondary sexual characters. 


Last segment very short, triangular, the apex narrow. 

Sterna spined at the base of each leg. 

Sternum of segment 6 of male with two processes. 

Sternum of segment 15 of male normal. 

Male legs crassate and inferiorly tuberculate, the first six pairs witli 
a large, fleshy sole. 

Description. — Body of medium size, about four times as long as broad, 
oblong, very abruptly narrowed anteriorly, truncate posteriorly. 

Vertex smooth, sulcus distinct; i^ost-antennal sense organ very large, 
distinct from the antennal socket by less than half the diameter of the 
organ; post-antennal suture distinct; lateral margin subentire. 

Labrum with shallow emargination and three small rounded teeth of 
moderate length ; supralabral bristles very numerous. 

AntenuiTB filiform, second joint longest; joints 2, 3, 4, 5, G subequal; 
olfactory cones four, arranged in a square. 

Mouth parts probably as in the genus AulmJesmns. 

First segment three times as broad as long; anterior and posterior 
margins medianly straight and subparallel; lateral end rounded, the 
l^osterior corner broadly truncate, the anterior slightly so; the segment 
is much broader than the head, twice as long, and somewhat narrower 
than the exposed portion of the second segment. 

Segments smooth and shining, without markings. 

Lateral carime approximate, about one-fourth as wide as the body 
cavity, inserted half-way up; a fine raised margin broadest laterad, 
especially on poriferous and caudal segments. 

Below the carin;e the i)Osterior subsegments are finely and rather 
faintly striate longitudinally, somewhat prominent some distance above 
the insertion of the legs. 

Anterior subsegments smooth and shining, with faint, irregular, 
impressed lines. 

Supplementary margin short, longitudinally finely striate, not pecti- 

Eepugiiatorial pores opening subdorsally in a large, deep, rounded 
depression of the outer slope of an intramarginal ridge of segments 5, 
7, 9, 10, 12, 13, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19. 

Preanal segment very short; anal segment very short, the apical 
portion triangular, truncate at apex, and with four punctations there; 
twelve other punctations, ten located as in PI. IV, fig. 6, and two others 
lower down on the sides, below the level of the carina^ (PI. IV, fig. 7.) 

Anal valves with strongly elevated margins; two setigerous puncta- 
tions, the superior marginal, the inferior submarginal. 

Preanal scale semielliptic, a broad, rounded, setigerous prominence 
on each side of the middle, which is not pi oduced, but rather truncate. 

Sterna broad, and densely hirsute, except the first and last. 

Sternum of the fifth segment of male, with two large papilliform 
hirsute processes between the second pair of legs. 


Sternum of segmeut G with two similar processes between the anterior 
pair of legs 

Stem a of post genital segments of male with a stout, sharp, conical 
spine at the base of each leg, more i^ronounced on posterior segments 
and larger between the posterior j^air of legs of each segment. 

Sternum of segment 15 not diflerent from its neighbors. 

Legs of male crassate, hirsute, with long bristles, the joints in order 
of length 3, 2, 4, 5, C, 1. 

Second legs of male with the coxa' produced ventrad into a rounded- 
conic, somewhat recurved process; genital opening on the median face 
of the coxa, at the base of the process. 

Seventh pair of legs with a broadly conic process on the ai)ex of tlie 
intiated coxa, directed mesocephalad. 

Pregenital legs of male with the distal joint supi)lemented at apex 
by a cushion-like process as long as the very slender claw. 

Two distal joints of male legs roughened on the ventral face by 
papilliform tubercles, very large on postgenital legs. 

Male genitalia with a broad basal joint; second joint incurved at 
base, ungual portion subetpial in length with the other, slender, 
straight, bifid at apex. 

This genus is remarkable in the number of secondary sexual charac- 
ters, rivaling Scytonotus in that sort of specialization. Like ^Seyfouotus, 
it ai)i)ears to be very distinct from the related genera, though in liabit 
the resemblance to Aulodesmus is very striking. Approximations iu 
habit between members of widely different families are, however, too 
numerous among Diplopoda to warrant the inference of affinity except 
from a combination of the more constant structural characters. To 
indicate such an agreement for the present genus is not easy, but in 
spite of the difference in pore formula iu the numerous secondary 
sexual characters no genus suggests itself as having more in common 
with the present than Aulodesmus, agreeing as it does in habit, mouth 
parts, the small basal joint of the male genitalia, and in tlie tubercu- 
lation and membranous sole of the anterior male legs. 

In this genus the first segmeut is much more rounded laterally than 
in Aulodesmus, being without an apparent angle; the whole segment is 
more convex, making the ends more decurved; it is narrower in com- 
parison with the second segment. It is, furthermore, not subemargi- 
uate toward the ends, as in Aulodesmus. 

The greater convexity is shared by the entire body, which has the 
dorsum morearched and the cariuiie more depressed than in Aulodesmus. 

(PI. IV, tigs. 1-10.) 

A'ertex smooth and shining, sulcus transversely rngulose, not deeply; 
postautennal depression subvertically i ngulose near the lateral margin. 

Cly[)cus smooth and shining, a sharj), oblicjue de])ressi()n parallel to 
the lateial margin, halfwav between the margin and the antennal 


sockets^ below, a few scattering bristles, gradually longer; sui)ralabral 
bristles long and very numerous, a crowded row next tlie margin, other- 
wise without apparent arrangement. 

Antenna? sparingly hirsute, the distal joints moderately so; basal 
joint bulbous, the others, except the last, obconic, with equal diameters; 
length 4.5 mm.; diameter, O.L'5 mm.; length of second joint, 0.8 mm. 

Mentum, stipes, and lingual lamiu;e densely hirsute with short hairs- 
except distally ; stipes and lamin;ie with long bristles along the margin. 

First segment smooth and shining, a slight transverse depression in 
front of the middle; lateral ends with a hue raised margin. Medianly 
the segment is slightly and broadly emarginate. 

Subsequent segments like the first, slightly broader and longer to 
the fifth ; surface smooth and shining, very finely and regularly reticu- 
late; areolate under suflicient magnifying power. 

Lateral carinse irregularly rugulose inside the raised margin, more 
especially on posterior segments; on the first four segments the pos- 
terior margin is curved forward, while on subsequent segments it is 
turned more and more caudad and produced into a conical point until 
the projection of the eighteenth segment exceeds the nineteenth seg- 
ment in length (see PI. IV, fig. 6). 

Posterior segments with scattering longitudinal wrinkles above, the 
submarginal wrinkles more pronounced. 

Anal segment above irregularly rugulose transversely; setigerous 
punctations very inconspicuous. No setai were found, tliough their 
absence is probably accidental. 

Anal valves not inflated, vertically rugose, the margins thick, raised, 
but not so strongly compressed as to be bounded by a definite furrow. 

Preaual scale very thick, .somewhat rugulose on the edge, mostly 
smooth and shining. 

Sterna, especially the posterior, densely hirsute with fine, long hairs. 

Processes of the sternum of the fifth segment of males straight, erect 
subspatulate, flattened cephalo-caudad, armed at base with a few long, 
divergent bristles; naked and nearly smooth distad. 

Processes of the sixth segment similar in shape, armed with long- 
bristles on their inner faces, otherwise naked; in size they are slightly 
larger than those of the fifth segment. 

Legs of male crassate, more or less densely hirsute with very long 

Coxie of first pair of male legs approximate, moderately hirsute 
distad. Coxte of second male legs somewhat separated, conically pro- 
duced ventrad, and with irregular i>rominences caudad; naked except a 
few long bristles. Coxa? of third and subsequent legs widely separated, 
more or less hirsute. Coxfe of seventh legs of males prominent mesad, 
especially the anterior corner; these prominences, with the processes 
from the sternum, give protection to the genitalia. 

Pregenital legs of male with the claw much reduced, and a white 
membranous or fleshy sole projecting nearly as far as the claw. This is 


doubtless to assist id grasping the female; the same contrivance is 
found among the smooth lulida?. 

Postgenital legs of males with coarse, rounded, chitinous tubercles on 
the inner face of the apical joint; smaller tubercles also on the sub- 
apical joint. 

Male genitalia simple, the basal joint very small, almost hidden under 
the expanded reniform base of the apical, which is densely hirsute on 
its median face, and has some especially long bristles at the base of 
the ungual portion. This last is bifid nearly half its length, the divi- 
sions subequal, one strongly falcate, the other oblique and less falcate. 

Color in alcohol a faded light brown, the carimiB and ends of the 
anterior segments whitish. The posterior median part of each seg- 
ment is lighter than the rest, except the carinte, and the anterior part 
of the animal is lighter than the loosterior. Legs and antennae also 
light brown. 

Length, 24 ram.; width, 6 mm. 

Locality. — Tana Eiver, East Africa. 

Type, — One mature male in the National Museum collection. 


Legs 4-6 of male with the third joint crassate and enlarged below into a distinct 
tuberculoid process: Genus Cnemodesmiis, type C. thysanopus (Cook and Collins). 
Third joint of male legs not specially modified 

Dorsum slightly convex, the suture crenulate, carin?e well developed, all sharply 
produced at the posterior corners; legs and antennae short; sterna broad, all un- 
armed: Genus Orthomorpha, type 0. coarctata (Saussure). 

Dorsum strongly convex, the suture not crenulate, carina^ inconspicuous, not pro- 
duced excejit on a few subterminal segments; legs and anteunie long and slender; 
sterna narrow, especially the posterior of each segment of males; anterior sternum 
of fifth segment with one or two spinose processes 

Males slender and with long antenna? and legs; females robust, antennne and legs 
much shorter; sterna unarmed or slightly prominent, sternum of the fourth pair of 
legs witli two distinct conic spines ; coxa? of last pair of legs separated at base by at 
least the thickness of a leg; carin:e of all the segments distinct, slightly produced 
beyond the posterior margin on 'posterior segments: Genus Habrodcsmus, type H. 

]\rales and females subequal, both with very long legs and antenna?; sterna, espe- 
cially the posteiior of eacli segment, armed at the base of each leg with a distinct 
conic spine; sternum of fourth legs with a stout process, bideutate at apex; coxae 
of last pair of legs almost in contact at base; carin;e represented by rounded eleva- 
tions, not produced ; those of segments 3, 4, 6, 8, 11, and 14 indicated only by the supe- 
rior impressed line: Genus Scolodesmus, type S. grallator. 

Proc. N. M. 95 7 



Strongijlosoma hartmanni, Peters, Monatsber. d. K. Preuss. Akad. d. Wiss. zu 
Berlin, p. 534, 1864. 

"This beautiful species is, as regards tlie habit, the form of the carinae, 
and tbe great leugth of the auteuuae aud legs, very close to 8. aculea- 
turn, but is distinct in the coloration. Head, the middle of the first and 
the greater part of the remaining segments reddish-brown or blackish- 
brown ; the margin of the first segment, the posterior margin of the 
following segments, the carinte, two spots on the anterior subsegments, 
and the apex of the last segment ocher yellow ; antennae dark brown, 
yellow at the articulations ; legs and ventral surface grayish-brown." 

Length, 27 mm.; width, 2.3 mm. 

Locality. — Sennar. Three specimens in the Berlin Museum collected 
by Dr. Hartmann. 

The following notes were made on the type specimens: 

Closely related to the type of the genus. Segments with posterior 
broad yellow band and distinct transverse furrow. 

Sterna of posterior legs of each segment with conical spines. 

Antennae rather long, but not so much as in Scolodesmus. 

Genitalia ending in a spiral curve, but the point blunt and rounded. 


(PI. V, figs. 6, 7.) 

Strongylosoma aculeatum, Peters, Monatsber. d. K. Preuss. Akad. d. Wiss. zu 
Berlin, p. 81, 1885. 

Antennae long. 

Lateral carinae triangular, reflexed, acute at posterior corner. Last 
segment rostriform. 

Legs long, the third joint almost twice as long as the first and second 
taken together. 

Color: head, antennae, and dorsum vinaceo-fiiscous; legs, venter, and 
the apices of the carinae, pale yellow. 

Segments, 20; pairs of legs, 31 (the three anterior segments with a 
single pair each). 

j Leugth of female, 25 mm.; antennae, 4.5 mm.; last legs, 6.3 mm.; 
width of head, 2.2 mm.; width of body, 2.7 mm. 

' Locality. — Terra Boror, 18° south latitude. The type specimen is 
dried; it has the inferior carinae and transverse dorsal sulcus distinct, 
and the last segment much projecting. 



Dorsum densely beset with several (5 to 6) transverse rows of coarse granules: 
Geuus Scytodesmus, type S, kribi, Berlin Museum. 

Dorsum nearly smooth, finely granular, or with three rows of polygonal areas, 
each with a large tubercle or granule in the middle 

First three or four segments with one or more large tubercles or processes from 
the middle of the posterior margin : Genus Orodesmus, type 0. forceps, British 

Granules of third and fourth segments, if present, not conspicuously enlarged or 
coalesced into a process 

Posterior subsegmeuts faintly rugulose, apparently smooth and shining; no 
tubercles or granules; no trace of a transverse furrow: Genus Mimodesmus, type M. 
paraUelus, Berlin Museum. 

Posterior subsegmeuts either tuberculate or granulate, and with a distinct trans- 
verse furrow 

Apex of last segment broad, rounded, faintly emargiuate, not exceeded by mar- 
ginal tubercles : Genus Oxydesmus, type 0. Jlavomarginatus, Berlin Museum. 

Apex of last segment narrow, included in a distinct sinus between the posterior 
pair of marginal tubercles 

Carinte not distinctly margined, the pores located in a distinct depression, not in 
a bead-like, poriferous marginal callus: Genus Isodesmus, type I. immarginatus. 

Carinas distinctly margined, especially cephalad, and with a bead-like, poriferous 
marginal callus 

Fourth segment slightly, though distinctly, narrower than the third and fifth; 
cariniB coarsely dentate along the posterior margin, somewhat areate dorsally: 
Genus Anisodesmus, type A. ccrasinns. 

Fourth segment equal to the others ; carina) entire, not areate : Geuus Tylodesmus, 
type T. crassipes. 

ORODESMUS,' new genus. 
Oxydesmus, pro parte, of Karsh and Porat. 

Diagnosis. — Body moderately large. 

Anteuute with four olfactory cones. 

Segiiieiits dorsally granular-rugose, with three transverse rows of 

Segments 1-4 with some of the middle tubercles hypertrophied. 

Lateral carin;^ large, thin, more or less dentate at the lateral edge. 

Eepugnatorial pores 11, dorsal on the outer slope of the intra- 
marginal ridge of segments 5, 7, 9, 10, 12, 13, 15-19. 

Penultimate segment exceeding segment IS. 

Last segment broad, subquadrate, the apex strongly dentate; supe- 
rior lateral tubercle very large. 

Sterna without spines, ridges, or processes. 

Male legs somewhat crassate. 

Male genitalia not flexed, free. 

' The name alludes to the dorsal prominences. 


Description. — Body moderately large, about five times as long as 
broad, broadest about the fifth segment, tapering very gradually caudad, 
cavity circular. 

Vertex prominent, rough ; sulcus very deep. 

Antennie scarcely clavate; third joint nearly as long as second; 
joints in order of length 6, 2, 3, 4=5, 1, 7. 

Mouth parts probably as in Oxydesnins. 

First segment subcrescentic (shorter than in Oxydesmus), much 
broader than the head and slightly narrower than the second segment, 
with three transverse rows of distinct tubercles. 

Segments with dorsal surface granular rugose; three transverse rows 
of conic tubercles, each (except on some anterior segments) located in a 
distinct area. Posterior row of areas oblong, the others rounded or 

Segments 1-4 with the two middle tubercles of the last row coalesced 
and hypertrophied into a large conic process bifid at apex, the neigh- 
boring granules sharing more or less in the elevation. 

Lateral cariuie thin, inserted about three-quarters up, in width equal 
to about one- half the body cavity; anterior carinfe curved somewhat 
forward, the posterior with the corners more and more produced 
caudad. Margin more or less distinctly dentate or sinuate, with a dis- 
tinct intramarginal ridge. 

Repugnatorial pores opening dorsally in a depression between the 
margin and the intramarginal ridge of segments 5, 7, 9, 10, 12, 13, 
15-19, surrounded by a fine raised rim. 

Below the carinas the posterior subsegments are more or less tuber- 
culate along the margins and prominent above the insertion of the legs. 

Anterior subsegments finely coriaceous. 

Supplementary margin long, membranous, very finely striate longi- 
tudinally, not i)ectinate. 

Last segment rugose on its posterior portion, which is broad and 
subqnadrate; with three setigerous tubercles along the margin on each 
side of the truncate, minutely dentate apex. Two dorsal setigerous 
tubercles, two apical and two subai^ical. The lateral setigerous tuber- 
cles large, conic, especially the superior, which has the appearance of 
a carina. 

Anal valves with two setigerous tubercles, the upper placed on the 
raised margin, the lower somewhat removed from it. 

Preanal scale broadly triangular, with a prominent setigerous 
tubercle on each side near the apex. 

Second pair of legs of male with the coxte somewhat produced 

Male genitalia rising from a small aperture ; basal joint small, hirsute; 
apical portion large, twisted, complex, not inserted under the edge of 
the aperture as in Oxydesmus. 
Segments of adult, 20. 



Locality. — East coast of Tropical Africa. 

This genus lias evident affinity with Oxydesmus ; it may also be said 
that the two genera are more related to each other than either is to any 
third. They are, however, easily distinguishable by the curious proc- 
esses of the first four segments of Orodcsmus, the shape of its last 
segment, and the altogether different type of male genitalia, not to 
mention many minor or quantitative distinctions. 

All the East African species described under Oxydesmus seem to 
have their affinities here, rather than with the true Oxydesmi of the 
west coast. 

ORODESMUS FORCEPS, new species. 
(PI. IV, tigs. 13-16.) 

Vertex prominent, rugose, with a very deep sulcus. 

Antennse scarcely clavate, sixth joint thickest; when the animal is 
extended the antennie reach to the fourth segment. 

First segment broadly emarginate in the middle posteriorly, and on 
each side of the middle anteriorly. 

Segments 1-4 Avith the two middle granules of the posterior row 
coalesced and developed into a high conic process slightly bifid at apex. 
This process is inconspicuous on the first segment and largest on the 
fourth. Posterior part of fifth segment slightly more elevated than the 
following, the granules on each side and in front of the process i)ar- 
taking more or less in the elevation. 

Segments with their dorsal surface finely rugulose, the impressed 
lines between the areas distinct. 

Lateral carinse sinuate denticulate, with a prominent intramarginal 
ridge, sinuate opposite the pores, straight on other segments. 

Repugnatorial pores on the outer slope of the ridge, not facing 
directly upward. 

Last segment somewhat transversely rugose above, the superior 
lateral tubercles increased into a long spine. Marginal tubercles prom- 
inent, the anterior acute, the second broad, the third not so near the 
margin as in the following species, projecting obliquely upward. Dor- 
sal tubercles slightly behind a line which would connect the two ante- 
rior marginal. Apex medianly emarginate, bipunctate; two subapical 
setigerous punctations. 

Preanal scale triangular, on each side of apex a rounded tubercle. 

Male genitalia viewed from below appearing diftbrm and contorted; 
an elevated narrow ridge on the inner side apically is impressed with 
transverse lines; lower down it crosses to the other side (PI. IV, fig. 13). 
A side view shows (PI. IV, figs. 14, 15) small basal and apical joints, with 
the ungual x)ortion slender and i)edicel-like below, bearing a somewhat 
dumb-bell-shaped structure with a long curved spine projecting ventrad 
(or cephalad) and the apical end deeply excavate, the ends connivent, 
resembling a pair of forceps, whence the specific name. 


Color very dark wine-red, sliglitly paler on the posterior part of the 
segments and carinpe. 

Length, 42 mm.; greatest width, 8 mm. 

Locality. — East Africa. One male specimen in the British Museum. 

This species, rather than the following, is made the type of the 
new genus because the male is known. The two sjiecies are, however, 
closely related. From the above description some minor details are 
wanting which have been supplied in the case of the next species. 
In most of these the two species are more probably alike than different, 
but careful comparisons could not be made, for the descriptions were 
not made with both specimens at hand. 

ORODESMUS BICOLOR, new species, 

(PI. V, figs. 8-14.) 

Vertex without hairs, very prominent, densely rugose, the wrinkles 
somewhat longitudinal, below irregular and gradually becoming obso- 
lete. A very deej) and broad sulcus, the sides of which are rugose like 
the neighboring surface. Above and outside of the antennal sockets 
is a large oblique depression, in which the wrinkles are coarser, but not 
so dense. Post-antennal organ prominent, with a raised margin. 

Clypeus shining and nearly smooth, very sparsely hirsute below, ex- 
cept just above the labrum, where a transverse furrow contains a row 
of hairs. A broad, rather deep, obliquely oval depression subparallel 
to the margin below and laterad from antennal sockets. 

Labrum with a moderately deep three-toothed emargination, above 
which is a distinct transverse furrow with a row of very numerous, 
fine, decurved bristles. 

Antennae wanting. 

Stipes of gnathochilarium hirsute with long hairs along the anterior 
and lateral margins. 

First segment subcrescentic ; medianly convex anteriorly and broadly 
emarginate on each side of the convexity; anterior corners broadly 
rounded, the posterior jiointed, slightly less than a right angle. Lat- 
eral margins with three broad, rather indistinct teeth. Surface of seg- 
ment granular rugulose, with three transverse rows each of ftmr pointed 
conic tubercles, the surface about each somewhat elevated, but not 
divided into areas. The tubercles are confined to the middle of the 
segment, not extending to the carinae ; the first row, close to the anterior 
margin, is nearly straight, the tubercles close together, at equal dis- 
tances, with the middle ones somewhat larger and slightly farther ahead 
than the others. The second row has the tubercles much wider apart, 
at equal distances, with the middle ones considerably ahead of the 
others, but not noticeably larger. The posterior row, close to the pos- 
terior margin, is somewhat shorter than the anterior, the two middle 
tubercles very close together, very much the largest of the segment, 
and somewhat behind those of the same row. Near the end of the 
carinse is a well-pronounced ridge, starting from the posterior corner, 


regularly curved, anteriorly diverging from the margin. Around the 
entire segment is a well-defined, raised margin, broadest in front and 
broken into small, irregular teeth behind. 

Second segment somewhat broader and much shorter than the first, 
subsimilar in general shape except that it is deeply and broadly eniar- 
ginate in front instead of convex. There are three transverse rows, 
each of six tubercles, the two middle ones of the posterior row very 
close together, coalesced, forming a large subpyramidal a[)ically bifid 
process. The middle tubercles of the second row are also close together, 
somewhat enlarged and forming a part of the large process, as do also 
the pair of tubercles of the third row neighboring to the middle ones. 
The raised margin of the segment is carried up on the process, leaving 
a somewhat concave posterior face below it. 

Third segment slightly longer than the second, the process consider- 
ably larger, the two middle tubercles of the posterior row forming the 
apex, the next pair projecting about halfway down the sides. 

Fourth segment slightly longer than the third, the process somewhat 
smaller, about as high as that of the second segment, but broader. 

Fifth segment noticeably longer than the fourth, the process entirely 
disappeared, the four middle tubercles of the last row equal and at 
equal distances, with an evident transverse sulcus in front. All the 
tubercles of this segment located in subquadrate or hexagonal areas 
more or less defined by furrows. A tendency to areation is also api^ar- 
ent in the i^ receding segments, but the difference between this and 
the fourth segment is very abrupt. 

Subsequent segments similar; the tubercles becoming more numer- 
ous (8-12 in a row) and less elevated in middle segments, and again 
more prominent on the latter segments, especially along the posterior 

Penultimate segment with a row of ten sharp, conic, papilliform 
tubercles projecting upward and backward from its posterior margin. 
Surface of this and preceding segments more coarsely uneven than on 
middle segments, but still shining. 

Lateral carinas with three rather obscure teeth on segments 1-5; after 
that with three or four teeth. Intramarginal ridge gradually closer 
to the margin, until it becomes nearly obsolete on segments 11 and 14. 
On poriferous segments, however, it remains distinct, more or less arc- 
uate opposite the pore; posterior corner of carina thickened, especially 
on posterior segments. 

Eepugnatorial pores on anterior segments located slightly behind 
the middle of the segment, nearer to the ridge than to the margin; on 
posterior segments the pores are gradually farther back, and in a deeper 
and deeper depression midway between the ridge and lateral margin. 

Below the carinte the segments are irregularly rugulose, becom- 
ing granular, coarsely tuberculate along both margins of the subseg- 
ment below; prominent above the insertion of the legs, and with two 
large long-pointed tuberculate processes, the anterior larger, directed 


obliquely ventro-cephalad. On posterior segments these processes 
nearly disajjpear, the tubercles being smaller and smaller and confined 
to a row along" each margin, the posterior row extending nearly up to 
the carina. 

Anterior subsegments apparently smoom, but not shining; very 
minutely punctate-coriaceous, with occasional indistinct longitudinal 

Supplementary margin rather long, especially on middle segments, 
rather firm, faintly striate, not pectinate. 

Last segment above anteriorly like the anterior subsegments, the 
projecting posterior portion separated by a gentle transverse depres- 
sion or constriction, densely rugose, with eight well-pronounced tuber- 
cles, two on the upper surface and three along the margin on each side 
of the apex. The dorsal tubercles nearly on a transverse line between 
the posterior pair of marginal. The posterior pair of marginal tuber- 
cles directed somewhat upward. The apex itself is truncate, minutely 
four-dentate, or rather notched in the middle, and with a piliferous 
punctation on either side. A pair of subapical punctations somewhat 
farther apart than the apical, as in the species of Oxydesmus. On each 
side, below the level of the carinie, two large, conic, setigerous tubercles, 
the superior larger, appearing like a carina to the last segment. 

Anal Aalves moderately convex, with moderately elevated, bat not 
compressed margins; the superior setigerous tubercle located on the 
margin about five-sixths of the way to the top; inferior tubercle rather 
distant from the margin about half way up. Surface of the valves 
irregularly or subvertically rugose, especially in the more dei^ressed 

Preanal scale broadly triangular, thickened, with a prominent conic 
tubercle on each side, near the rounded apex, and not exceeding it. 
Surface very finely rugulose. 

Sterna smooth and shining, only impressed between the legs of either 

Color in alcohol dark vinous red, alternating with obscure pinkish. 
Head very dark vinous, nearly black, a spot above the antenna, and 
the labral region yellowish. Anterior segments somewhat lighter than 
the head, the carin;e and posterior crests reddish and yellowish. These 
median lighter spots become gradually broader, until near the middle of 
the body they unite with the yellow of the carinae, so that the posterior 
subsegment is yellow, irregularly infused, and stained with various 
shades of vinous along its anterior margin, and esjjecially at the base of 
the carinte. The carinse also have a very narrow margin of vinous not 
so dark as that of the dorsum; anterior subsegments uniformly dark 
vinous. Posterior segments merely reddish, darker than the middle. 
Posterior half of last segment red. Anal valves very dark, preanal scale 
somewhat lighter, ventral surface and legs vinous-red, lighter than 


Legs of female (PI. Y, fig. 11) proportioned as in Oxydesmus; basal 
joints scarcely hirsute, the last joint densely so. 

Length, about 35 mm.; width, 7 mm. 

LocaUty. — Tana Eiver, East Africa. 

Type. — National Museum collection, obtained by Mr. Chanler; one 
female specimen. 

(PI. VI, Figs. 8-10.) 

Intermediate between 0. mastopJiorus and 0. bicolor, more nearly 
related to the latter, with the description of which as here given it 
coincides, except in the following characters. 

First segment with anterior tubercles smaller and farther apart 
than in Plate Y, fig. 12. Median tubercles of posterior row not so large 
and not coalesced. 

Second and third segments also with median tubercles not coalesced; 
those of the middle (longitudinal) row larger than in fig. 12; the three 
median tubercles on each side, as in mastophorus, united into a longitu- 
dinal ridge, but separated medianly, though not so widely as in masto- 

Fourth and succeeding segments with the tubercles gradually smaller, 
the median not specially enlarged or coalesced. 

Segments with the three rows of dorsal areas very distinct, the sur- 
face of the areas coarsely granular rugose, much more than in 0. bicolor; 
tubercles also somewhat more prominent. 

Below the carinse the tubercles are much as in Plate Y, fig. 9; the 
process somewhat larger, but the individual tubercles less numerous 
and not so long. 

Posterior segments with the lateral margins distinctly narrower than 
in Plate Y, fig. 13, and the pore much closer to the edge. 

Preaual scale with median process shorter than in mastophorus. 

Color of dry specimen light dirty brownish with a pinkish tinge, 
very distinct on the carina} and posterior segments; legs, head, and 
antennte also pinkish. 

Animal with more of the aspect of 0. mastophorus than of O. bicolor; 
dorsum less arched than in 0. bicolor', about the same as in 0. mas- 

Length, 38 mm.; width, 6 mm. 

Locality. — A female specimen from Mombassa, one of the types of 
0. mastophorus, Gerstiicker, as is noted under that species. The pinned 
specimen is in the Berlin Museum. 


(PL VI, figs. 12-15.) 

Polydesmus mastophorus, Gerstacker, Deckeu's Keise, p. 517, 1873. 
Polydesmus (Oxydesmus) masto2)horus, Karsch, Troschel's Archiv, p. 45, 1881. 

Yertex with deep sulcus, on each side along the first segment rugose. 
Antenna? slender. 


First segment short, slightly bisinuate in front, more strongly tri» 
sinuate behind; posteriorly broader, the posterior corners sharply 
pointed and decurved; submarginal ridge like that of the following 
segments, its interior edge sharply defined. 

First four segments: the tubercles lying along the median line are 
very different from the others, which appear small and irregularly dis- 
tributed, and are conspicuously large and arranged in two longitudinal 
rows, three (tubercles) in each row. Those of the first segment are 
lower and isolated, those of the two following coalesce into two dentate 
ridges, those of the fourth segment highest. 

Subsequent segments ornamented with three transverse regular rows 
of tubercles; those of the posterior rovf more mammilliform, higher, and 
the remainder of the surface finely granulated. 

Lateral carinte projecting above the lateral middle of the body, dis- 
tinctly, though not strongly ascending, slightly higher caudad; the 
margins usually with five or six teeth; the first and second segments 
with three sharp teeth, the third with four; posterior corner on middle 
segments slightly angled, on the three segments next to the last with a 
gradually more prominent dentiform process. 

Last segment above granular rugulose, posteriorly with a quadran- 
gular process, rounded at apex, and on each side with three teeth, 
notched between ; above, on each side, a wart-like tubercle. 

Preanal scale with two blunt-conic setiferous tubercles; between 
them a shorter process. 

Color reddish-brown, the tubercles ferruginous or yellowish; margin 
of carina? yellow or light ferruginous. Clypeus on either side ferrugi- 
nous in the middle, with a broader yellow margin ; ventral surface ferru- 
ginous. Antennfe ferruginous, the apex brownish. Legs ferruginous 

Length, 44-47 mm.; width, 6^6| mm. 

Locality. — Two female specimens from Mombassa. 

The types of this species are dried specimens, preserved in the Berlin 
Museum, belonging to two distinct species. The following notes were 
based on the specimen, to which Gerstacker evidently gave the most 
of his attention, and which was the subject of his plate. The other 
species is here described as 0. unicolor: 

Vertex prominent hirsute, granular rugose. 

Clypeus, as described for Mcolor, rather smooth, hirsute, especially 

First segment shaped as in PI. V, fig. 12, but more emarginate pos- 
teriorly toward the lateral corners; tubercles in three rows, stronger 
than in fig. 12, especially the median. Eows 4, 6, 6, situated somewhat 
as in fig. 12, but the median tubercles wide apart; also those of pos- 
terior row, which are large, conico-ijapilliform. Margin more coarsely 
dentate than in 0. bicolor. 

Second and third segments also with all the median tubercles wide 
apart, much larger than the others, the posterior largest, and all three 



united into a longitudinal dentate ridge. On the third segment the 
tubercles of posterior row next the median ones also very large, but 
showing no tendency to coalesce with the others. 

Fourth segment with tubercles abruptly smaller and showing no 
tendency to coalesce; tubercles, however, larger than on succeeding 

Posterior row of tubercles stronger than the others, but all very 

Pores, especially on anterior segments, facing almost directly laterad. 

Length of type specimen, 43 mm. ; width, 6.5 mm. 

The habit of this species is quite distinct from all the others by rea- 
son of the square carinne and the stronger marginal teeth. Gerstiicker's 
figure gives a rather correct idea of the general effect. 

(PI. V, fig. 2; PI. VI, fig. 11.) 

Polydesmus (Oxydesmiis) pectinaius, Karsch, Troscbel's Archiv, 1881, pp. 36, 46. 

Vertex strongly rugose. 

Segments nearly iiat, above with two rather deep transverse furrows ; 
obsolete on segments 1-4, each segment with three rows of granule- 
bearing areas, the posterior row armed with seven to nine acute 

Fourth segment sparsely covered with irregularly arranged granules; 
in the middle of the posterior margin armed with a somewhat flattened, 
six-toothed, comb-like process, yellow in color and equal in length to 
the fifth segment; the two outer teeth of process shorter. 

Lateral carinje wing-like; those of segments 1 and 2 with margin 
oblique, three-toothed ; segment 4 four- toothed; subsequent segments 

Color of head and segments dorsally black ; carinas yellow (in alco- 
hol); antenna) and feet pale. 

Length, 43 mm. 

Locality. — Wito, East Africa. One female, collected by Dr. Fischer. 
Type in the Berlin Museum. 

This species is strikingly distinct from all others yet known in the 
possession of the remarkable process of the third segment. So pecul- 
iar a structure did this appear that I suspected that it was abnormal. 
An examination of the type and only extant specimen at Berlin shows 
that there is no ground for such a supposition. The following notes 
were made on the type specimen : 

First segment shaped like Plate Y, tig. 12 (0. bicolor), the tubercles 
similarly arranged, but with four in the middle row and eight in the 
last; none especially enlarged or coalesced. Anterior raised margin 
very distinct. 

Second segment also without special modification, except that the 
median tubercles of the last two rows are slightly larger than the 


Third segment with the median six tubercles of the last row and the 
median two of the middle row coalesced into a large, horizontal dentate 
and fluted process, projecting caudad, and entirely covering the median 
part of the fourth segment. The lateral tubercles of the process small. 

Fourth segment normal, as far as can be seen under the process (the 
specimen is dry). 

Eemainder of body resembling 0. mastophorus, but the dorsum less 
convex and smoother, the tubercles smaller and more broadly conic 5 
the surface of the areas only faintly granular; marginal teeth usually 
four instead of six, as in 0. mastophoriis. Anterior marginal tooth larg- 
est and most prominent. 

Last segment of type with apex injured. 

Length, 40 mm.; width, 6.75 mm. 

(PI. y, figs. 3,4.) 

Poljidesmns (Oxudesmiis) fixcheri, Karsch, Ber. iiber d. Natiirh. Museum z. Ham- 
burg, p. 133, 1884. 

Segments 1-3 armed with coarse granules, larger toward the middle, 
especially tiie two median. 

Segments dorsally divided into three transverse rows of tubercu- 
liferous areas. 

Lateral carintie with the anterior corners rounded, the lateral margin 

Male genitalium twisted, forked somewhat above the middle of its 
length; the inner fork apicallytaintly notched, broad and lamellar; the 
outer apically notched and terminating in a long, thin, pointed, strongly 
curved hook. 

Color black, the carinne margined with yellow, each segment with a 
yellow transverse spot on the middle of the posterior margin; last seg- 
ment black. On the middle segments the yellow spot covers the four 
middle a^eas of the two posterior rows. On the anterior segments the 
spot covers only two adjacent areas; on the first segment only the pos- 
terior areas, on the second and third segments two from all three rows 
are yellow. 

Length of adult male, 54 mm. 

Locality. — Massai Land, collected by Dr. Fischer. 

"This beautiful East African species belongs to the same group as 
effulf/ens, Karsch, also East African, and is to be distinguished from that 
species by its greater length and proportional breadth. The anterior 
corners of the carina are rounded in 0. Jischeri, and distinctly pointed 
in 0. effulgens. Last segment black in 0. Jischeri, yellow in 0. effulgens- 
While in 0. effulgens the yellow color is continuous from the under side 
of the carinae over the entire ventral surface, in 0. Jischeri the under 
side of the cariniB is black, and only the anterior margin is yellowish, 
as far as the legs extend." (Karsch.) 


Of all the species here referred to Orodesmus, the present seems to 
be most nearly related to the West African genus OxydesmuH^ and more 
especially to Oxydesmus togoennis, an undescribed form differing from 
the other West African species in the greater jaroportional width and 
the tendency toward enlargement manifested by the tubercles of the 
anterior segments. The coloration is also similar to that of 0. fischeri. 
The specimen belongs to the Berlin Museum. 


(PI. V, tig. 1.) 
Fohjdesmus (Oxydesmus) effulgens, Karsch, Troschel's Archiv, 1881, pp. 36, 46. 

Vertex strongly rugose. 

First segment anteriorly rounded. Segments having the appearance 
above of transverse oblong rectangles convex in the middle, each 
marked with three transverse rows of eight subquadrate areas, each 
armed with a tubercle in the middle; tubercles of the anterior and 
middle rows (located somewhat behind the middle) rounded, those of 
the posterior row tooth-like, directed caudad, situated on the posterior 
margin of the segments. 

Lateral carinaB wing-like, armed in the middle with a low tubercle. 

Last segment armed with up to four lateral denticules. 

Color black or fuscous-brown, the caringe and four median areas of 
the middle row yellow. 

Length, about 33 mm. 

Locality. — Maid, Somali Land, East Africa, altitude 2,000 feet. Spec- 
imens of both sexes collected by Hildebrandt and preserved in the 
Berlin Museum. 

Plate II. 

Aslrodesmus stellifer. 

Fig. 1. Tliird leg of male. 

2. Thirteenth leg of male. 

3. Thirty-first leg of male. 
4-7. Views of male geuitalium. 

8. Male genitalia in situ; also the ventral part of the sixth segment. 

9. Male genitalium, side view, drawn from a specimen in the British Mnsenm. 

10. Anterior view of the sternum of the sixth segment, showing the i)eculiar 

median process and two basal joints of the legs. 

11. Posterior view of the process mentioned. 

Aulodesmus laxus, 

12. Genitalium, median view, after Karsch. 

13. Same, lateral view, after Karsch. 


Platf: III. 

Astrodesmus stellifer. 

Fig. 1. Dorsal view of first three segments. 

2. Siibdiagrammatic cross section of a segment. 

3. Dorsal view of the last three segments. 

4. Lateral view of same. 

5. Preaual scale. 

6. Gnathochilarium, including hypostoma. 

7. Plan of the eighth joint of an antenna. 

8. Last three joints of an antenna. 

9. Ventral view of the fourteenth and fifteenth segments of male, showing the 

process of the fifteenth and the corresponding depression of the fourteenth. 

Aulodesmus oxygonus. 

10. Sixth and seventh segments, ventral view, after Peters. 

11. Fifteenth segment, ventral view, after Peters. 

12. Posterior view of a segment, after Karsch. 

13. Male genitalium, lateral view, after Peters. 

14. Curve of the tooth of same, ventral view, after Karsch. 

Tycodesmus falcatus. 

15. Genitalium, ventral view, after Karsch. 

16. Same, median view, after Karsch. 

Aulodesmus mossambicus. 

17. Posterior view of segment, after Peters. 

18. Genitalium, lateral view. 

Plate IV. 
Marptodesmus chanleri. 

Fig. 1. Dorsal view of head and first three segments. 

2. Antenna. 

3. Fifteenth leg of male, anterior view. 

4. Third leg of male, posterior view. 

5. End of last joint of same, more magnified, anterior view. 

6. Last five segments, dorsal view. 

7. Last four segments, lateral view, 

8. Preanal scale. 

9. Male genitalia in situ and ventral parts of sixth and seventh segments. 

10. Lateral view of male genitalium, more magnified. 

Astrodesmus htridus. 

11. Genitalium, lateral view. 

12. Same, ventral view. 

Orodesmus forceps. 

13. Male genitalia, in situ. 

14, 15. Lateral views of male genitalia, more magnified. 
16. Last three segments, more magnified. 




Plate V. 
Orodesmua effulgens. 
Fig. 1. Male genitalinm, after Karscb. 

Orodesmus pectinatus. 

2. Third and fourth segments, after Karsch. 

Orodesmus fischeri. 

3. Male genitalium, after Karsch. 

4. Same, apex of slender arm. 

Orth onwrph a vicaria. 

5. Male genitalium, after Karsch. 
Habrodesmiis acuJeatus. 

6. Lateral view of three segments. 

7. Last segment, ventral view. 

Orodesmus hicolor. 

8. Posterior outline view of third segment. 

9. Posterior outline view of one of the middle segments. 

10. Lateral view of last two segments. 

11. Normal leg of female. 

12. Head and first two segments, dorsal view. 

13. Last three segments, dorsal view. 

14. Last segment, ventral view. 

Plate VI. 

(Drawn from type specimens in the Berlin Museum.) 

Aulodesmus mossamiicus. 

ITig. 1. Last three segments, dorsal view. 

2. Male genitalium, lateral view. 

3. Same, median aspect, the anterior side toward the right. 

Aulodesmus oxygonns. 

4. Last three segments, dorsal view. 

5. Male genitalium, lateral view. 

6. Same, median view, the anterior side toward the left. 

7. Apex of process of sixth segment. 

Orodesmus unicolor. 

8. Last segment and part of penultimate, dorsal view. 

9. Parts of tenth and eleventh segments, showing sculpture and location of 


10. First three segments, dorsal view. 

Orodesmus pectinalus. 

11. Segments 2-4, dorsal view, showing remarkable process of the third segment. 

Orodesmus mastophorus. 

12. Antenna. 

13. Tenth and eleventh segments, dorsal view. 

14. Last segment and part of the penultimate, dorsal view. 

15. Preanal scale. 



Species of Diplopoda from East Africa 

Figs. 1-11. Astrodesmus ateUifer 
Figs. 12,13. AuJodesnum Inxiis 

For explanation of plate see page 109 



Species of Diplopoda from East Africa 

Fici.s. 1-9. Astrodesmiis stellifer 
Figs. 10-14. AiUodesnius oxygonus 

Figs. 1.5,16. Tycodesmus falcatus 
Figs. 17. 18. Aulodesimis mossambicus 

For explanation of plate see page 110 



Species of Diplopoda from East Africa 

Figs. 1-10. Marptodesmiis chanleri 
Figs. 11.12. Astrodesmus luridiis 
Figs. 13-16. Orodesmus furceps 

For explanation of plate see page 1 10 



Species of Diplopoda from East Africa 

Fio. 1. Orofles))ius effulf/ois 
Fig. 2. OnidesmiiN pectiiKitHx 
Figs. .S. 4. OriHlesnnis fischeri 

Fig. r>. Orthomor})Iia vicnrin 
Figs. 6,7. Hahrodcxnnis nctdeatus 
Figs. S-14. Oioilesmus bicolor 

For explanation of plate see page 111 



Species of Diplopoda from East Africa 

Figs 1-3. Aulodesinni,- mosaainhicns Fms. 8-10. Orodexmiis unicolor 

Figs. 4-r. Anlode.imus oj:y<jonus Fig. 11. Orodesmiia pcctntatus 

FiG.s. l;i-1.5. Ororh'sinus maxtophorus 

For explanation of plate see page 111 


By Barton W. Everiiann aud William C. Kendall. 

A RE-EXAMINATION of tliG Specimens of pipefish from Corpus Cbristi 
wbicli we referred, ^Yith Ijesitatiou, in an earlier paper,' to Siphostoma 
fuscum (Storer), has convinced us that tbey cannot belong to that 
species, but represent a species hitherto undescribed. 

Tiji)e.—Mi\\e and female, No. 47300, U. S. N. M. 

Locality. — Shamrock Point, Corpus Christi, Texas, where 130 speci- 
mens were obtained November 29, 1891, by Messrs. Evermann, Scovell 
and Gurley, of the U. S. Fish Commission. 

Allied to SipJtostoma affiiie (Giinther). 

Description of female. — Head, l^; depth, 11; snout, 2^; D. 34, on 
4+4 rings; its height 2 in base, which equals head. Rings, 16-|-32. 
Nape slightly carinated. Color in alcohol, alternately annulated with 
light olive brown and dirty white; the dark color on joints, the white 
on the bodies of rings; dark color wider than white on trunk, narrower 
on caudal portion; white anuulations on trunk between lateral and 
latero-ventral keels indicated by two narrow white lines with narrow 
black lines on either side and between, these i)ortions of the whitish 
rings showing as silver bars in life and fresh alcoholic specimens; upper 
part of opercles dusky ; a dark bar extending from anterior edge of eye 
to end of snout; ventral keel, throat, lower part of opercles and snout, 
plain, whitish; dorsal with dark wavy diagonal bars. Other speci- 
mens vary in color from somewhat lighter to considerably darker than 
the above, the darker ones having some white mottling on throat, oper- 
cles, and beneath snout. Other females differ in the much less depth, 
lower dorsal fin, and in the color, which ranges from almost plain olive 
through forms with reddish mottled appearance to brownish; fewer 
light-colored anuulations and no distinct white or silver bars on sides. 

^The Fishes of Texas and the Rio Graude Basin, considered, chiefly, with reference 
to their geographic distribution. Bull. U. S. Fish Comiu., XII, 1892 (February 0, 
1894), 109. 

Proceedings of the United States National ISInseuui, Vol. XVIII— No. 1043. 

Proc. N. M. 95 8 113 


Description of male. — Head, 7^; depth, 22^; snout, 2\; D. 33, on 
4+4 rings; its height 2% in its base, which equals head. The male 
differs from the typical female in the much less depth, lower dorsal fin, 
and in the coloration, all of which characters are those of the shallow 
females. There is in the male, as in the female, considerable color 
variation, but there are never any distinct white or silvery marks on 
the sides. Of the 130 specimens, 114 are females and young, 16 being 
adult males. Some of these were called by us Sipliostoma fuscum, in 
the "Fishes of Texas and the Eio Grande Basin." ^ 

A re-examination of these specimens and of another lot of the same 
kind which had been misplaced at the time of the first examination 
shows this identification to be incorrect and the fish probably identical 
with Siphostoma affine of Jordan and Gilbert and subsequent authors. 
But the range of characters in the large series examined by us seems 
insufficient to permit the identification of this species with Sygnathus 
affinis, Giinther.2 

The specimens from the coast of the Gulf of Mexico referred to 
Siphostoma affine by most recent writers, belong apparently to this 
species rather than to the Sygnathus afinis of Giinther. While the 
differences between the two are not great, they appear to be constant 
in a large series of specimens. 

In the following table we give the results of detailed examination of 
29 specimens of this species : 

Table showing variations in specimens of Sijyhostoma scovelli collected in Texas. 


Dorsal fin. 







in base. 









4 + 44 













16 + 33 



2 + 




16 1-33 





















4 + 4i 






16 + 31 

4 + 4 






16 + 32 




















16 + 30 

4 + 4 





















































4 + 4 




















16 + 32 



• 3 





i + H 




















16 + 32 








3 + 5 






' Bull. U. S. Fisli Comm., 1892, 109. 
2 Cat. Fishes Brit. Mus., 163, 1870. 




We have examined 13 specimens obtained by Dr. J. A. Hensliall on 
the west coast of Florida, and identified by him as 8. affine, and find 
them to agree perfectly with the Corpus Christi specimens, as may be 
seen from the following table. The first eleven of these specimens were 
obtained at Marco, Florida j the other two at Key West: 

TaUe showing variation in specimens of Siphostonia scovelli collected in Florida. 




of dor- 
sal tin 

in base. 









16 + 31 



16 + 26' 




16 + 30 







3 + 5 































' Mutilated. 



By Leonhard Stejneger, 

Curator of the Department of Eeptiles and Batrachians. 

Among- the many valuable and interesting reptiles collected by Dr. 
Gustav Eise'n at Fresno, California, and presented to the National 
Museum many years ago, there are a number of small snakes belonging 
to the opisthoglyph genus Tantilla, which have hitherto been referred to 
Tantilla nigriceps. A recent examination of these specimens has con- 
vinced me that they do not belong to Kennicott's species, being in fact 
undescribed. This species I i^ropose to name in honor of the gentle- 
man who collected them. 

TANTILLA EISENI, new species. 

Diagnosis. — Supralabials seven ; j>osterior nasal in contact with x)re- 
ocular; temporals elongate, 1 + 1; first pair of sublabials not in con- 
tact behind mental; ventrals, 170-181; subcaudals, 58-65; head 
blackish, bounded behind by a white collar about three scale lengths 
from parietals. 

Hahitat. — San Joaquin Valley, California. 

Type.— 1^0. 11766rt, U. S. N. M.; Fresno, California; Dr. G. Eisen, 

Description of the type. — Head very flat above, rather broad across 
the anterior temporals; eyes small; rostral wider than high, the por- 
tion visible from above longer than the internasal suture; internasals 
short ; prefrontals nearly twice as large as internasals, their lower border 
wedged in between i^osterior nasal and preocular, but not in contact 
with supralabials; frontal rather long, six-sided, angular in front and 
behind, the lateral borders nearly parallel; supraoculars rather small, 
half as wide as frontal; parietals long and narrow, nearly as long as 
their distance from tij) of snout; nasals long, the posterior in contact 
with preocular, which is but slightly shorter; no loreal; one preocular; 
twopostoculars; temporals long, 1+1; supralabials 7, last one largest, 
third and fourth entering eye; sublabials 7, four in contact with first 

Proceedings of the United States National Museum, Vol. XVIII— No. 1044. 





pair of cliiu shields; first pair of sublabials not in contact behind men- 
tal; 15 rows of smooth scales; 4 rows of scales between posterior chin 
shields andventrals; ventrals 176; anal divided; subcaudals, C2 + 1. 
Color (in alcohol) nuiform pale flesh color, slightly darker grayish 
brown above; top of head, lores, temples, and nape for a distance 
of 3 scale-lengths back of the i)arietals, dark grayish-brown; behind 
this a narrow white band, one scale-length wide, bordered behind by 
a few dark-brown dots. Total length, 3G5 mm. ; tail, 82 mm. 

Bemarls. — The iiresent species differs from all onr Korth American 
Tantillas with seven supralabials, in being proportionally much longer 
and slenderer, and the number of ventrals and subcaudals is greatly 
in excess of that of our other species. 

The characters of this interesting novelty are fully corroborated by 
six additional specimens in the Museum as shown by the following list: 

List of specimens of Tantilla eiseni. 

U. S. Nat. 







Eisen . : . . . 




61 + 1 
59 + 1 













By Robert Ridciway, 

Curatoi' of the Department of Birds. 

The very interesting addition to tlie avifauna of Mexico described 
below, was obtained by purchase from Mr. Franlv B. Armstrong, of 
Brownsville, Texas, and w<as at first supposed to be the Geothlypis cucul- 
laia of Salvin and Godman,' but when compared with specimens of that 
species belonging to the division of ornithology and mammalogy of 
the Department of Agriculture, was found to be exceedingly distinct, 
G. cncuUata being intimately related to G. hairdi, Nutting,^ of Eastern 
Nicaragua and Costa Rica, while the new species from Tampico is more 
closely related to G. beldingi, Ridgway,^ of Lower California. This close 
relationship to a Lower Californian species is remarkable, since no form 
related to them occurs, so far as known, in the intervening territory. 

The new species may be characterized as follows: 


Specific characters. — Similar to G. heldingi, Ridgway, of Lower Cali- 
fornia, but much smaller, with the broad yellow band, bordering the 
hinder edge of the black " mask," more sharply defined and deeper 
yellow, and the coloration throughout more intense. More like G. 
melanopSj Baird, in size, but still smaller, and readily distinguished by 
the clear yellow instead of -white postfrontal and postauricular band. 

Geographic range. — Eastern Mexico (Alta Mira, near Tampico, State 
of Tamaulipas). 

Ti//;e.— No. 135180, F. S. N. M. ; adult male, from Alta Mira, near Tam- 
pico, Tamaulipas, Mexico, collected by F. B. Armstrong, December 5, 
1891. A frontal band (about 0.27 of an inch wide), lores, orbits, malar 
region and auriculars black, forming a sharply defined ''mask;" behind 
this a well-defined baud (about 0.15-0.18 of an inch wide), of clear 

' Ibis, April, 1889, p. 237. Type from Cofre de Perote, State of Vera Cruz. 

2 Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., YI, p. 398, 1883. Type from Los Sabalos, Nicaragua. 

3 Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., Y, p. 344, September .5, 1882. 

Proceedings of tbe United States National Museum, Vol. XVIII— No. 1045. 



canary-yellow, inclining to light chrome- yellow 5 rest of upper parts ■' 
uniform olive-green, browner anteriorly, especially on occiput. Under 
parts intense yellow, paler, more lemon-yellow on belly and under tail- 
coverts, the sides and flanks yellowish olive-brown. Maxilla black, 
brownish on tomium; mandible blackish brown terminally, whitish 
basallyj legs and feet rather dark horn-color. Length (skin), 4.90; 
wing, 2.10; tail, 2.08; exposed culmen, 0.50; tarsus, 0.83; middle 
toe, 0.55. 




By Philip P. Calvert. 

The Odonata collected iu Zanzibar and the Kilimanjaro region in 
1889-90 by Dr. W. L. Abbott were sent by him to the United States 
National Museum at Washington in two lots. Thanks to the kindness 
of the authorities of the Museum, I have had the opportunity of study- 
ing them, with the results set forth in the following pages. The total 
number of specimens is sixty-four, representing thirteen species. Of 
these, four species are here described as new, viz: Orthetrum trun- 
catnm, 0. ahhotti, Acschna rileyi, and Disparoneura, ahbotti. Three 
other species, Trithemis/Hrnigaria, Rambur, Orthetrum brachUile, Beau- 
vois, and Anax rutherfordi, McLachlan, have hitherto been known 
only by brief descrii^tions or by but one sex ; the present opportunity 
has been seized to render our knowledge of them more complete. 


Lihellula flavescens, Fabhicius, Eut. Syst. Suppl., p. 285, 1798. 
Paniala flavescem, Haoen, Syn. Neur. N. Aiuer.. p. 142, 1861; Stett. Eut. Zeit., 
XXVIII, p. 215, 1867; Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist., XVIIl, p. 63, 1875.— Kikby, 
Cat. Odon., p. 1, 1890. 
Lihelhda viridula, Beauvois, Ins. Afr. Amer., p. 69, Nevr., pi. in, fig. 4, 1805-1821. — 

Kambur, Nevropt., p. 38, 1842. 
Lihelhda analis et terminaUs, Burmeister, Haiulb. Eut., II, p. 852, 1839. 
LibcUuIa SparshaUii, Curtis, Guide, p. 162.— Selys, Monog. Lib. Eur., p. 36, 
1840; Revue Odon. Eur., p. 322, 1850. 
Locality. — One female in the National Museum collection, from Kili- 
manjaro. This species, as is well known, is distributed all over the 
world, except Europe. 

TRAMEA LIMBATA, Desjardins. 

LibelhtJa limbata, Desjardins, Rapport Soc. Maurice, I (1832); ISull. Soe. Eut. 

France, IV, p. 4, 1835. 
Tramea limbata, Kirby, Trans. Zool. Soc. Loud., XII, p. 318, 1889; Cat. Odou., 

p. 4, 1890. 
Lihellula mauriciana, Rambur, N6vr., p. 34, 1812. 

One female in the National Museum collection, obtained at the Sey- 
chelles by Dr. W. L. Abbott, belongs, I believe, to this species. It differs 

Proceediugs of the Uniteil Statt-.s National Museum, Yol. XYIII— Xo. 104fi. 



from Rauibur's description only in having the posterior angle of the 
lateral lobes of the labium liiteous, not black, and the articulations of 
the abdomen are blackish, especially at the sides. 

Additional details: Appendages longer than the last two, but not as 

long as the last three, abdominal segments. 
Basal spot of hind wings deeply cleft ex- 
teriorly at the basilar space, reaching out- 
ward in the subcostal space to the first 
antecubital; in the median space not as far 
as the triangle except by a slender limb 
along the postcostal vein to the posterior 
y ^ angle; no clear space within the spot along 
-Fi^A^ Fi<^.2. ^^*3 ^^1^1 margin, but just beyond the apex 

TRAMEA LiMBATA, Female. of the membranule is a paler area, where 

(DBas-ofr.ghth.ndwmg; (2) Ventral sur fhC CCllS, liliC tllOSC bclOW tllC pOStCOStal 

face of Inst two abilominal segments. . - • ii -r-i 

vein, are clearer in the center. Front wmgs 
with 11-12 antecubitals, 9-10 xDostcubitals, triangle with one cross 
vein. Hind wings with 7 antecubitals, 11-12 postcubitals. Pterostigina 
luteons, longer on front than on hind wings. 

Measurements. — Length, 40 mm. Abdomen (including appendages), 
31. Front wing, -i;). Hind wing, 41. Pterostigma, 3 (front), 2 (hind). 
Appendages, 3.G. 


Zygomix f lucUfera, Selys, Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg., XII, p. 96, 1869 ; Ann. Mag. Xat. 

Hist. (4), III, p. 273, 1869.. 
Schizomjx lucUfera, Kar.sch, Berl. Ent. Zeit., XXXIII, p. 281, 1890.— Selys, Ann. 

Soc. Ent. Px'lg., XXXV, p. ccxxvi, 1891. 
ScMzopygu hicti/era, Kirby, Cat. Otlon., p. 184, 1890. 

^[ale. — Vertex truncate, dark metallic blue. Frons with a median 
groove superiorly, dark metallic blue, a yellow spot on each side infe- 
rioiiy. Nasus black in the middle, yellow on each side. Rhinarium and 
lips black; occiput brown. 

Protliorax blackish; posterior lobe very small; its hind margin 
entire, rounded. 

Thorax dark metallic blue; a humeral stripe and five or six spots on 
the sides, yellow. 

Feet blackish; femora somewhat reddish, llairc of the feet short, 
14-15 pairs on liiud tibne. 

Abdomen black, rather slender, very little swollen at the base, taper- 
ing gradually to apex; 2 and 3 each with a supplementary carina, that 
of 3 forming an obtuse angle, directed forward, on the <lorsum of the 
segment; 4 with a slight indication of a supplementary carina. 

Superior appendages not as long as the last two segments, black; 
viewed from above, straight, slightly thickened on the inner side before 
the apex, which is moderately acute; viewed from the side, -each is 
directed downward, thickened inferiorly in the apical half with 3-4 


denticles on the basal side of the thickening, apex acute. Inferior 
appendage about one-eighth shorter than the sai)eriors, dark brown; 
viewed from below, triangular; apex slender, about one-tenth as wide 
as base, moderately acute, extreme tip upcurved. 

Genitalia of 2 not prominent. Anterior lamina rather tlat, a small 
tubercle and a depression on each side; apex rounded, entire. Hamule 
projecting farthest, its apex bifid, so that the anterior (internal) branch 
forms a distinct, rounded, and somewhat slender hook ; posterior branch 
not developed. Genital lobe rather narrow, not projecting as far as 
lamina or hamule. 

Wings hyaline, reticulation blackish, Pterostigma dark brown, trap- 
ezoidal, its external side forming a more acute angle with the costa 
than the internal. Membranule pale-brownish. Sectors of the arculus 
distinctly stalked; no hypertrigonals; one median cross vein ^ placed 
distinctly nearer the base than the first antecubital; discoidal triangles 
free (with one cross vein in the right front wing of one male), that of 
the front wing placed a short distance (1,5 mm.) beyond the apex 
of that of the hind wing; nodal sector distinctly waved beyond the 
middle. Front wings with 10-11 antecubitals, the last one not contin- 
uous; 9-10 postcubitals; internal triangle of one 
or two cells, hardly distinct from adjacent cells; 
two or three posttriangular cells; then two rows. 
Hind wings with (1-7 antecubitals, 11-12 [)ost- 
cubitals,no internal triangle, inner side of discoidal rig. 3. 

triangle slightly nearer the base than the pro- schizonyx h-ctifera, 
longation of the arculus; two or three rows of post- ^ '^' 

. • 1 n j_ n j_t 1 • 1 *j_ T J Side view of genitalia of second ab- 

triangular cells; sectors of the truxngle united at do,„inai seemem. 

their origin. 

Measurements. — Length of male, 45 mm. Abdomen (including ap- 
pendages), 33. Front wing, 38. Hind wing, 37. Distance of nodus 
from base on front wings, 20; on hind wings, IG. Pterostigma, 2. 
Superior appendages, 2, 

Locality. — Two males in the National Museum collection, obtained at 
the Seychelles by Dr. W. L. Abbott. 

The female is unknown to me. 

The generic characters of Schizonyx, as drawn up by Dr. Karsch- 
and Baron de Selys,^ are as follows: Eyes with a small projection 
on their hind margin as in the CorduUna ; cardinal cell triangular 
[=discoidal triangle]; in the front wings placed as in the LibeUn- 
lina, with the acute angle directed backward, free; internal trian- 
gle of front wings two [or one] celled; two rows of posttriangular 

'One cross veiu iu the space called " median" by Baron de Selys in the Monog, 
C4oniiih., pi. 22, but '' sous-median " in his paper in Vol. XXXV, Ann. 8oc. Ent. 

-Berl. Ent. Zeit., XXXIII, p. 281, 1890. 

3 Ann. Woe. Ent. Belg., XXXV, p. ccxxvi, 1891. 


cells in the front wings; anal angle of hind wings of male rounded, no 
internal triangle on the hind wings; tooth on tarsal nails shorter than 
the apex of the nail itself; nodus [slightly] nearer the apex than the 
base [of the front wings] ; front wings with 10 [-11] antecubitals, 
the last one not continuous; only one median cross vein in all four 

With these characters the present specimens agree, the slight modi- 
fications which I have inclosed in brackets being of little importance. 

In Dr. Karsch's "Beitrage zur Kenntniss der Arten und Gattungeu 
der Libellulinen,"' he has placed the genera Schizomjx, Karsch,and its 
ally Zygony.Vj Selys, in that "Abtheilung" (of Brauer's fourth group) 
characterized by having the sectors of arculus separated at their origin 
or arising from a very short stalk. It would appear, however, that 
at that writing at least, Dr. Karsch had not seen any specimens of 
Zygonyx or Schizonyx^^ nor did any then published description mention 
this detail of venation. Baron de Selys ^ says of Zygonyx, " secteurs de 
Tarculus sondes a la base en une seule tige," and mentions no differ- 
ence in this respect for Schizonyx. The specimens of 8. luctifera above 
described have the sectors of the arculus as distinctly stalked at their 
origin as in OrtJietrum, 3facrothemis, or other undoubtedly long-stalked 
genera. Schizonyx would thus fall within the group Scapanea to 
Uniamo of Dr. Karsch's arrangement. On the other hand, the position 
of the discoidal triangle of the front wings, in being situated a little 
beyond that of the hind wings, as well as the trapezoidal form of the 
pterostigma, indicates some affinities with the group of Tramea, Hagen. 
Of the nine genera recognized by Mr. Kirby and Dr. Karsch as belong- 
ing to this group, the tropical American Miathyria, Kirby, most 
approaches Schizonyx, but differs from the latter in having no small 
prominence on the hind margin of the eyes, nodal sector not waved 
beyond the middle; front wings with 7-9 antecubitals, 5-8 j)ost- 
cubitals; hind wings with 4-5 antecubitals, 6-9 jiostcubitals, and pro- 
portionately wider at base than in Schizonyx. 


FalpopUm-a vestUa, Eambur, Nevropt.,, p. 132, pi. 3, fig. 2b, 1842.— Brauer, Verlul. 
k. k. zool.-bot. Gesell.j Wieu, XVIII, p. 716, 1868.— Selys, Euum. Odon. 
Madag. (ill Pollen & Van Dam's Reokercbes sur la Faune de Madag., S'"" 
part., l"-" livr.), p. 20, 1869.— Kirby, Cat. Odon., p. 9, 1890. 

PaJpopJeura confusa, Eambur, Ndvropt., p. 133, pi. 3, fig. 3c, 1842. 

Locality. — One male in the Xational Museum collection, from Zanzibar. 

1 Berl. Ent. Zeit., XXXIII, 1890, p. 356. 

-For Zijgonyr, I infer this from the general tone of bis article in Berl. Ent. Zeit., 
XXXIII, pp. 280-284, and for Schizonyx are bis own words, "der mir uubekauuten 
Schizonyx luciifera" (Berl. Ent. Zeit., XXIII, p. 282). 

3 Ann. See. Eut. Belg., XXXV, 1891, p. ccxxviii. 



Lihellula ferrugar'm, Rambur, Nevropt., 13.82,1842. 
Triihemis ferrugaria , KlKUY, Cat. Odou., p. 19, 1890. 

Locality. — Seven males and two females, from Kllimaujaro. 

Male. — Vertex, froiis, iiasus, and occiput reddish brown. Tij) of ver- 
tex sliglitly concave from side to side. Frous very similar to that of 
LlbcUnJa crythrmt, Brulle; deeply grooved on tlie median line, forming 
a well-marked tubercle on either side, which is separated from the ver- 
tex by a transverse groove. Ehinarium, labrum, labium, and rear of 
head ocher brown. 

Thorax brown. Hind margin of prothorax more or less bilobed. 

Feet light brown or reddish, spines black. 

Abdomen trigonal, not inflated at the base when viewed from above, 
and but little when viewed from the side, gradually tapering to the 
apex; brown (probably red- 
dish in life), marked with 
black as follows: A line on 
the dorsal carina of the mid- 
dle third of 3 (and sometimes 

of 2), of the basal half of 4-7 i,i„.4. rig. 

and of the greater part of 8; trithemis ferrugaria. 

a median dorsal spot or Ime (4)S,dev,ewi,reen,taha, male-, (S) side v.ew of l^ist two abdomlnslseg- 
i. J? ri '"<="''' a'"' ''ulvar lamina, female. 

on the greater part ot 9; a 

line on the middle of the lateral carin;i^ of 3-8. Venter black. Some- 
times a black spot on sides of 2. Two and three with the usual median 
transverse carina each. 

Genitalia of 2 a little prominent, very similar to those of erythra'a, 
Brulle. Anterior lamina short, margin entire, straight. Hamule with 
the internal branch rather slender, simple, curved inward and back- 
ward, apex acute; external branch longer, thicker, somewhat lamellate, 
directed backward, concave from side to side anteriorly; apex broad, 
moderately acute, extreme tip being on the postero external side and 
directed outward. Genital lobe projecting as far ventrally as the 
external hanuilar branch, apex rounded. 

Superior appendages reddish, a little longer than 0; straight, dilated 
on tlic inner and lower sides before the apex, which is acute, and bear- 
ing on tlie lower surface 8-10 black denticles. Inferior appendage 
J-ji shorter, about half as wide at its base as it is long, tapering grad- 
ually to the apex, which is slightly ui^curved, ending in the usual two 
denticles, which reach beyond the last denticle on the superiors. 

Wings hyaline; reticulation reddish brown near the anterior margin, 
becoming blackish posteriorly. Pterostigma light brown. Mem- 
branule gray. Front wings with a yellowish tinge at extreme base. 
Hind Avings with a ferrugineous basal spot, extending outward to the 
arculus and from the anterior margin nearly to the posterior. Sectors 




of the arculus stalked; one cross vein in the median space/ j)laced 
nearer the base than the first antecnbital; no hyi^ertrigonals; nodal 
sector aluiost straight. Front wings with 10-12 antecubitals, the last 
one not continuons, 6-9 i^ostcubitais ; triangle with one cross vein; 
internal triangle of three cells, three rows of posttriaugular cells. 
Hind wings with 8-9 antecnbitals, 7-10 postcnbitals, triangle free, no 
internal triangle, two rows of posttriangnlar cells, sectors of the tri- 
angle arising from the same point.'^ 

Female. — Vertex and frons shaped as in male, luteons. Occiput dark 
brown. Nasus, rhinarinm and lips yellow. Eear of head, thorax, feet 
and abdomen luteons. Hind margin of prothorax slightly truncate, 
with a trace of a median emargination. Thorax paler on the sides. 
Abdomen with black marks similar to those of male. Appendages 
simple, straight, luteons, not quite as long as 9. Vulvar lamina j^ro- 
duced a little beyond the apex of 10, its margin entire; apex rounded. 
Wings similar to those of male; basal ferrugineous si^ot on hind wings 
not extending as far toward the posterior margin. Front wings with 
10-11 antecubitals, 8-9 postcnbitals. Hind wings with 8-9 antecnbi- 
tals, 7-9 postcnbitals.^ 

Measurements of Trithemis f err ug aria. 

Total lengtli 
Front wing. 
Hind wing.. 





34 -37 


21 -22 


28. 5-31 

30-30. 5 

20. 5-30 

28-28. 5 

3 - 3.5 


* Here, a.s always, I include the appendages. 

Rambur has described only the male of this species. His description 
is mainly comparative, noting the differences from T. erythra'ci, Brulle 
(T.ferruginea, Vander Linden) as follows: 

A little smaller than T. ferruffinea, resembliug it extremely; of a lighter color, 
red, depending on the age. Head having the face and the vertex a little less pro- 
jecting. Posterior lobe of the prothorax sensibly projecting, slightly notched in 
the middle (projecting in T. ferruglnea). Abdomen much less broad, less depressed, 
trigonal, narrow posteriorly, reddish, having small, black, long, and narrow spots 

'Variations: One male has two such median cross veins in left front wing and in 
both hind wings, and has triangle of right hind wing with one cross vein. Another 
male has two median cross veins in right hind wing, and the triangle of left hind 
wing with one cross vein. A third male has two median cross veins on left hind 
wing. A fourth male has both hind wings with two median cross veins. The 
additional median cross vein is always on the outer (apical) side of the normal. 

-Variation: On right hind wing of one male the upper sector of the triangle 
arises from the lower sector a short distance from the origin of the latter. 

^Variations in venation of these two females; One has right hind wing with tri- 
angle having one cross vein, and both hind wings with the sectors of the triangle 
separated a short distance at their origins. The other has the left hind wing with 
two median cross veins. 


ou the lateral and dorsal border; hamules having the internal branch longer and 
the external shorter; substylar piece [ = inferior appendage] narrower. Wings 
transparent, with the veins red and the base a little spotted with reddish yellow; 
pterostigma smaller, ferrugiueons ; ten to eleven veins in the first costal space; 
membranule reddish, a little obscure. 

These differences hold good for the j)resent specimens. The size of 
T. erythnva is: Total length, male, 37-41.5; female, 33-38; abdomen, 
male, 23-27.5; female, 20.5-25.5 ; hind wing, 26-30.5, pterostigma, 3.5-4. 
The fifth abdominal segment at aj^ex measures nearly 4 mm. in T. cry- 
thra'cij 2 mm. in T. ferrugaria. The internal hamular branch does not 
appear to me to be longer than in T. erythra'a, but the external brauch 
is proportionately shorter. A figure of the genitalia of a male speci- 
men of T. ferrugaria accompanies this paper. A similar figure for T. 
erythra'a accompanies my report on the Odonata of the United States 
Eclipse Expedition to the Congo. 

The female of T. ferrugaria, may easily be distinguished from that of 
T. erythrwa, as the latter has the vulvar lamina more nearly at right 
angles to the abdomen and reaching backward no farther than the 
middle of the ninth abdominal segment. 

A comparison of specimens of T. ferrugaria and T. erythrwa with the 
generic characters given by Mr. Kirby^ for Trithemis and Grocothemis, 
to which these species are respectively referred by him,^ shows the only 
diftereuce to be that Trithemis has the "abdomen moderately slender," 
while Crocothemis has the "abdomen stout." I have not been able to 
detect any other generic character between these two species. In 
view of their close relationship, as shown above, the claims of Crocothe- 
mis to generic rank may well be doubted. 

Genus ORTHETRUM (Newman) Karsch. 

The three following species agree with the characters laid down for 
Orthetrum by Dr. Karsch,^ viz : 

Last antecubital continuous, hind wings with only one cross vein in 
the median space, sectors of the arculus distinctly stalked, Ijasal side 
of the cardinal cell [i. e., discoidal triangle] in the hind wings in the 
prolongation of the arculus; nodal sector strongly waved beyond the 
middle; membranule large, vertex in the male distinctly bifid, discoidal 
field of the front wings of three to five rows of cells varying according 
to the size of the species; sides of the eighth abdominal segment in 
the female dilated, frons anteriorly fiat, shieldlike, marginate; abdo- 
men thin, often very slender, often swollen at the base; hind tibite 
with a few (5-8) widely separated, very strong spines on the outer, 
under side. 

Dr. Karsch adds that the upper sector of the triangle in the hind 
wings arises on the outer side of the triangle always distinctly removed 

' Trans. Zool. Soc, I^ondon, XII, pp. 278, 279, 1889. 
-Cat. Odou.,pp. 19, 21. 


from tbe liiud augle. A comparisou of flfty-oue specimens of twelve 
species of Orthetriim now available shows this character not to be gen- 
eric. Only nine specimens, representing four species, can be said to 
have the sectors of the triangle distinctly separated at their origin j the 
remaining forty-two specimens, representing nine species, have the sec- 
tors more or less united. It is only fair to state, however, that among 
these latter are some specimens which j)uzzle me to say whether the 
sectors are to be spoken of as united or separated. Moreover, there 
are specimens which differ in this particular, in the right and left hind 
wings; and of at least two species, specimens occur having sectors 
united and others with the sectors separated. 

The terms "shield-like, marginate," applied to the frons, refer to the 
demarcation of the anterior face from the sides by a vertical carina on 
each side, the two carime being united at their lower ends by a hori- 
zontal carina just above the suture, separating the frons from the uasus. 


A[((Je. — Vertex dark brown. Frons anteriorly and superiorly dark 
olive brown, sides yellow, a black line in front of the eyes. Epistoma, 
lips, and occiput luteous; meutum varying from luteous to black. 
Nasus sometimes of the same color as the frons, 

Prothorax brownish; posterior lobe as broad as the median lobe, its 
hind margin slightly emarginate at the middle. 

Dorsum of thorax somewhat luteous, a rather narrow antehumeral 
black stripe reaching the anterior margin below, and almost the wing 
bases above; summit of the median carina, edges of antealar sinuses, 
etc., black; a longitudinal dorsal interalar whitish stripe. Sides red- 
dish-brown, an oblique pale-yellow stripe immediately behind the first 
and second lateral sutures, not reaching the bases of the feet below, 
clearly defined in their lower halves by a narrow circumscribing black 
stripe; upper halves not circumscribed, ill defined. Behind the second 
yellow stripe the color of the sides is pale olive. Pectus obscure, lute- 
ous. Latero-ventral nietathoracic carina of same color as sides in 
younger males; black in older ones. In older males the colors of the 
thorax are more or less concealed by pruinose.. 

Feet black, u^jper surface of first femora and first and second tibine 
luteous in younger males. 

Abdomen viewed from above somewhat dilated at the base; moder- 
ately narrowed at the base of 4, gradually becoming slightly wider to 
the apex of 0; thence narrowing very slightly to the apex; viewed 
from the side, noticeably dilated at the base, but not constricted; 
pruinose in all the specimens examined. 

Superior appendages black, not as long as the last two segments; 
viewed from above, straight, only slightly dilated before the apex, 
which is moderately acute; viewed from the side, each is directed 
downward, thickest at two-thirds its length, lower side with 7-8 den- 
ticles; apex hardly upcurved. Inferior appendage two-thirds as long, 


luteous, edged with black, broad; apex emarginate when viewed from 
below, ending in two upcurved denticles which do not reach the last 
denticle on the superiors. 

Genitalia of 2 moderately prominent. Anterior lamina slightly more 
prominent than hamnle or genital lobe, its apex slightly emarginate in 
the middle. Hamule bitid, branches widely divergent; internal branch 
when viewed from the side considerably thicker than the anterior 
lamina, its apex almost truncate, somewhat hooked on its outer side, 
a little less prominent than the anterior lamina; external branch much 
shorter, lying against the ventral margin of 2; apex rounded. Genital 
lobe rather broad, about as prominent as, or less so than, the internal 
hamular branch. 

Wings hyaline, somewhat smoky; reticulation black, costa luteous 
anteriorly. Hind wings only with a small yellowish cloud alongside 
the membranule, never extending outward 
farther than a single cell. Pterostigma 4-5 
times as long as wide; bright ocJier yellow. 
Membranule cinereous, whitish at the base 
and along tlie alar side. Front wings with 
11-14 antecubitals, 8-11 postcubitals, one 
hypertrigonal, one median cross vein, triangle Fig. 6. 

with one cross vein, three rows of posttriangu- orthetrum trunc.\tum. 
lar cells, internal triangle of three cells. Hind 

wings with 9-10 antecubitals, 9-12 postcubitals, no hyj)ertrigonals; 
triangle free, median cross vein placed nearer the base than the first 
antecubital; two rows of posttriangular cells increasing, no internal 
triangle; sectors of the triangle united at their origins.' 

The female is unknown to me. 

Measurements. — Total length, 40.5-43 mm. Abdomen, 27-30. Front 
wing, 30-33.5. Hind wing, 29-32.5. Pterostigma, 3-3.25. Width of 
abdomen at base, 2.5; at base of 4, 1.5; at apex of 6, 2. 

Locality. — Six males in the ISTational Museum collection, from Kili- 

At first, 1 had referred these specimens to 0. chrysostigma, Burmeister 
{(). harbara, Selys). Mr. W. F. Kirby has kindly compared a tracing of 
the accompanying figure of the genitalia of O. truncatum with a male 
O. chrysostigma in tlie British Museum, with the result that the latter 
has the anterior lamina very short and slender (much less prominent than 
the hamule and less than tlie genital lobe); the hamule decidedly 
more i)rominent tliaii the genital lobe, and in general "the genitalia 
agree with M. Albarda's ^ description as far as it goes." There are 

'Variations in reticnlation in the front wings: One male has no liypertrigonals in 
left wing; another has two cross veins in the right wing; a third, has the internal 
triangle of two cells in the l«ft wing. In the hind wings, the posttriangular series 
soiuetiraes commences with throe cells. 

2Cf. Albarda, Ann. Soc. Kiit. Belg., XXXI, p. li), 1887. 

Proc. X. M. 95 9 


also some dififerences in color from 0. chrysostigma, but these are of 
comparatively little importance. 

It is quite possible that tlie two species of Orthctriim described as 
new iu tbis paper are iu reality identical with some of the species 
described by Burmeister or Eambur. As, however, I am unable to 
point out such an identity from the existing descriptions, it seems bet- 
ter to describe and figure the present material under new names than 
to run the risk of erroneous identifications. It is hoped that the present 
descriptions and figures will sufficiently characterize the species in 
question, so that those ha\'ing access to types of previously described 
species may perceive the identity, if it exist. The genus Orthetruiu is 
a difficult one, and a revision of its species, based on abundant material, 
is greatly to be desired. I would suggest that the most reliable specific 
characters are to be found in the genitalia of the male and the vulvar 
lamina of the female, on the lines adopted by M. Albarda. 


Hbelhtla hracliialis, Beauvois, Ins. Afr. Amer., p. 171, Neur., pi. 2, fig. 3, 1805. — 
Eambur, Nevr., p. 62, 1842.— Selys, Auu. Soc. Ent. Belg., XXXI, p. 21,1887.— 
GerstXckek, Mitt. Naturh. Mus. Hamburg, IX, 1, p. 5, 1891. 

Orthetrum brachiale, Kirby, Cat. Odon., p. 36, 1890. 

Male. — Vertex dark brown or black. Frons roughly punctate, vary- 
ing from light olive green to dark brown, according to age; the carinae 
margining the "shield" are yellow in younger individuals; of the same 
color as the frons in older ones. Kasus and rhinarium light olive green 
to obscure luteous, according to age. Labrum obscure lute<ms, its 
margin sometimes black. Labium varying from luteous, unsj)otted, to 
the mentum black; lobes with a black spot on the inner margin. Occi- 
put dark brown or black. 

Prothorax pale green with small brown marks in younger males, 
pruiuose in older; hind margin more or less emarginate in the middle. 

Thorax (in dry specimens at least) light green in young males; brown 
and paler on the sides in those somewhat older; median dorsal carina 
blackish at ajiex ; dorsum of thorax somewhat darker alongside of this 
carina, and occasionally forming a complete stripe from the anterior 
border to the antealar sinus ; a blackish antehumeral stripe not reacliing 
the anterior mesothoracic border below nor the antealar sinus above; 
a complete humeral stripe in the young males, giving off an anterior 
branch halfway up, in older males the humeral stri^je exists only near 
the feet; a short black in front of the spiracle, and on the lower 
part of tbe second lateral suture; latero-ventral metathoracic carina 
shining black. In old males the thorax is almost entirely pruinose. 

Feet black, trochanters, bases of femora, front femora interiorly, 
second tibiae superiorly, often pale. 

Abdomen, viewed from above, inflated at the base, compressed, nar- 
rowing to the base of 4, thence widening to G, thence tapering to ajjexj 




Fig. 8. 

10 as wide or wider than base of 4. In the young males the colors are : 

1 light olive green, dorsum with a dark brown spot each side; 2 similar, 
dorsal spots, darker in front of and widest at the black, transverse 
median carina; 3 and 4 light brown, dorsum with a darker stripe each 
side reaching the apex but not the base; 5 and 6 blackish, with a light 
brown spot on each side of dorsum at middle; 7-10 black dorsally; 1-4 
light brown ventrally; 4-7 blackish ventrally, an elongate brown spot 
on the middle, each sideof the venter; with age, the abdomen becomes 
more and more lu'uinose. 

Superior appendages about twice as long as 10, yellow in young, 
darker and even black in older males; viewed from above, each append- 
age is straight, dilated on the inner side before the apex, which is 
acute; viewed from the side, each is directed downward (but the apex 
slightly upward), with 8 or 9 denticles on the underside. Inferior 
appendage about a third shorter, luteous; viewed from the side, 
it forms a dorsally 
concave curve from 
base to apex, end- 
ing in the usual two 
denticles, which do 
not reach as far as 
the last denticle of 
the superiors (in 
only one male do 
they reach farther) ; viewed from below, the appendage is broad, trian- 
gular; apex black, truncated, slightly emarginate. 

Genitalia of 2 prominent. Anterior lamina much as in 0. bninnea, 
with sides rounded to the apex, which is truncated and (usually) slightly 
emarginate. Hamule with apex bifid, branches parallel, of equal 
length;^ internal branch rather slender, apex slightly hooked and 
directed outward; external branch twice as thick, apex rounded; geni- 
tal lobe as pronounced as in 0. ccerulescens, broad, apex rounded; the 
internal hamular branch projects slightly farther than the anterior 
lamina or the genital lobe. 

Wings hyaline, with a slight smoky tinge, especially near the apex. 
Eeticulation dark brown, costa yellowish anteriorly as far as the 
pterostigma. Hind wings with a small rufescent basal spot reaching 
from the submedian to the apex of the membranule and outward for 
one or two cells. Pterostigma dark brown, four times as long as broad. 
Membranule blackish brown, whitish at extreme base. Front wings 
with 12-16 antecubitals, 8-12 postcubitals, one hypertrigonal; triangle 
with one cross vein, internal triangle of three cells, three rows of post- 
triangular cells. Hind wings with 9-13 antecubitals, 10-13 postcubitals, 
no hypertrigonals, sectors of the triangle united or a little separated at 


(7) Side view oflast thr 


ibdominul segments, female; (8) Side 

' Owing to the oblique position of the hamnle, however, the internal branch 
appears more prominent than the external. 




their origin ; ' two (or three) rows of posttriangular cells ; triangle free, 
no internal triangle. 

The female differs from the male as follows: 

Colors agree generally with those of younger males. 

Abdomen a little dilated and compressed 
at base, thence gradually tapering to the 
apex; .VG like 5-6 in the male; lateral 
margins of 8 dilated as much as in 0, 
quadrupla., Say: 10 yellow. 

Vulvar lamina not projecting beyond the 
apex of 8, its margin entire, but slightly 
bent at the middle toward the abdomen, 
thus having the appearance of being emar- 
ginate; this bent portion has a very small median carina. Median 
ventral carina of 9 well developed. 

Appendages yellow, more than twice as long as 10, but hardly as 
long as 9; apices acute, slightly brownish; tubercle between them yel- 
lowish, not quite half as long. 

A very young male and female belong also to this si^ecies; they have 
the greater part of their bodies luteous, as in young imagoes of 0. 
cceruleseens, etc: 

Fig. 9. Fig. 10. 

(9) Ventral view of apical margin of vulv 
lamin-i; (10) Apical margtn of vulvar lanirn 
viewed froin behind. 

Measurements of Ortheirum hracliiale. 



Total length 

41. 5-48. 5 
28 -33.5 
32 -37 
31 -36 

3 - 3.5 






3- 4 

Locality. — Two males and one female in the National Museum collec- 
tion, from Zanzibar (one of these also marked ''Taviite, Jan., '89"); 
fourteen males, one female in the NTitional Museum collection, from 

As indicated, the identification of this species as 0. hracliiale is some- 
what doubtful; I have relied chiefly upon Baron de Selys' brief com- 
parative description.^ No detailed description of 0. hrachialc has 
hitherto been published. Dr. Hagen kindly examined one male and the 
female of the specimens from Zanzibar, and in September, 1890, wrote 
to me of them : " It is, I believe, the same species quoted by Burmeister 
(p. 857) as L. sahina (not published) from the Comores Isles, perhaps 
= L, harharaf .''"' L. sahina, Burmeister, is not sahina, Drury, and the 
present species is not harhara, Selys {=chrysostigm'a, Burmeister). Dr. 

'Variations iu reticulation: Two males have no hypertrigonal in the right 
front wing: one has two hypertrigonals iu the left front wing; two have a cross 
vein in the discoidal triangle of the left hind wing. 

2 Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg., XXXI, p. 21, 1887. 


Hagen's subsequent illness has prevented me from seeking further aid 
from him. In my report on the Odonata collected by the United States 
Eclipse Exj)edition to the Congo, I described a species under the name 
of capensis. I am now doubtful whether it is distinct from the present 
si^ecies, but the specimen is no longer before me.' 


Wings hyaline, reticulation brownish, costa and some cross veins 
near base, yellowish; an extremely small fulvous cloud at base of the 
lojig veins; pterostigma yellow, its veins black, surn;iounting 2-3 cells; 
membranule whitish, darker on its free border. Front wings with 
12-13 antecubitals, 9-10 postcubitals, one hypertrigonal; median cross 
vein more distant than first autecubital. Hind wings with 10 ante- 
cubitals, 9-10 postcubitals, no hypertrigonals, median cross vein nearer 
than the first autecubital; sectors of the triangle distinctly separated 
at their origins. Three rows of posttriangular cells in all four wings. 

Male. — Vertex black, apex truncated. Frons, uasus, and rhinarium 
pale green; frons darker anteriorly between the two vertical carinae 
and at the middle of the upper surface. A black line in front of the 
eyes. Lips yellow. Occiput black, rear of head yellow. 

Prothorax pruinose, its hind margin slightly bilobed. 

Thorax pruinose, median dorsal carina black; an oblique greenish 
yellow band on the sides just behind the spiracle followed by a black 
oblique band at the second lateral suture; posterior to this latter band 
the color is light green; latero-veutral metathoracic carina greenish. 

Abdomen rather slender ; viewed from above, base moderately inflated, 
becoming narrower to the base of 3, thence widening to 6, thence nar- 
rowing to apex; black, pruinose, some pale spots on the sides of 1, 2, 
and base of 3. 

Superior appendages not as long as the last two segments, black, 
slender, straight, denticulated below, apices moderately acute. Inferior 
appendage one-fourth shorter, obscure luteous, edged with black, rather 
broad, its apex broad (one-third of length), rounded when viewed from 
below, ending in two denticles directed upward, not reaching as far 
as the last denticle of the lower side of the superiors. 

Genitalia of 2 prominent. Anterior lamina more prominent than 
any other piece, swollen anteriorly when viewed in profile, the swollen 
portion covered with minute denticles; apex distinctly emarginate 

' One male of the lot of hrachiale from Kilimanjaro has the following imperfections 
in structure: The left hamule is normal, hut the right hnmule is entirely ■wanting, 
apparently not having developed. The anterior lamina is apparently represented 
only by a tubercle, better developed on the right side, and not ])rojecting as far as 
the level of the point of bifurcation of the left hamule. The left superior appendage 
is normal, but the right one is nearly a third shorter, although with the same acute 
apex as these appendages normally have, and bears no inferior denticles. The left 
lateral margin of 8 is dilated as in the female, and there is a rudiment of a sianiilar 
dilatation on the right side. In all other particulars this male seems to be normal. 


from side to side. Hainule with its apex bifid; internal branch, rather 
slender, apex blunt, external branch shorter, twice as broad, apex trun- 
cated. Genital lobe not as prominent as the internal hamular branch. 
Feet black, femora yellow superiorly. 

Female. — Face and lips luteous, a black line 
in front of the eyes. Vertex and occiput dark 
brown. Rear of the head luteous. 

Thorax luteous ; summit of the median dorsal 
carina, a short line at the summit of the first 
Fig. 11. and second hiteral sutures, rim of the spiracle 

oRTHETRUMABBOTTii.Maie. aud margius of autcalar siuus, black. 

s.deviewo een.ta.a. Abdomcu of alffiost CQual wldtli throughout, 

luteous, carinse and anterior sutures black; a lateral marginal black 
stripe on 4-7 ; dorsum of 8 black with a luteous stripe each side, except 
at apex; dorsum of 9 black; dorsum of 10 black with two small apical 
luteous spots. Lateral margins of 8 somewhat dilated (about as much 
as in 0. hrunnea). 

Appendages straight, simple, black, a little longer than 10; tubercle 
between them luteous. 

Vulvar lamina simple, margin straight, entire, not projecting farther 
than the apex of 8. 

Feet: Femora superiorly luteous, inferiorly black ; tibite superiorly 
bright yellow, inferiorly black ; tarsi black. 

Measurements of Orthetrum abbottii. 

Total length 


Front wing 

Hind wing 

Sniicrior iijuiendagea. 


Pttrost iiitiia 

















Locality. — One male and one female in the National Museum collec- 
tion, from Kilimanjaro. 


LiheUiila wrightii, Selys, Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg., XII, p. 96; Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. 

(4), III, p. 272, 1869. 
Orthetrum wrightii, Kirby, Cat. Oclon., p. 182, 1890. 
Lihellula desjardinsii, Selys, in Pollen «&. Van Dam, Faune Madag., Ins., p. 22, 

1869; Kev. Mag. Zool., 1872, p. 182. 

3Iale. — Face i)ale olive or luteous. Frons blue black anteriorly and 
on the sides, which is continuous, with a black stripe in front of the 
eyes and vertex, the black thus inclosing a pale olive spot on the upper 
surface of the frons, and also a small yellow spot on the sides inferiorly; 
below the horizontal carina luteous. Labrum luteous, free margins 



edged with black, and traversed by a median black stripe. Labium: 
Mentum and inner margin of lobes black, remainder of lobes yellowish. 
Vertex and occiput black. Eear of eyes luteous, with two black spots. 

Anterior and middle lobes of prothorax black, their anterior margins 
yellowish. Posterior lobe obscure yellowish, barely notched in the 
middle of the hind margin. 

Thorax yellowish brown, with black stripes as follows: A broad 
median dorsal reaching- theantealar sinuses, an antehumeral not reach- 
ing the sinus; a broader humeral; an oblique lateral, in which the spi- 
racle lies, and which is closely connected with a similar parallel stripe 
in front of itself; a stripe on the second lateral suture, and an incom- 
plete oblique stripe behind the suture; these stripes are more or less 
confluent below; the median dorsal and antehumeral are connected 
inferiorly by a transverse anterior mesothoracic stripe. Latero-ventral 
metathoracic carina black. Interalar pieces mostly yellowish. Pectus 
obscure luteous. 

Feet black, coxaj marked with luteous, first femora luteous inferiorly. 
Hind tibia^, with 7 outer, 10-11 inner spines. 

Abdomen shaped as in 0. hrachiale, Beauvois; black, marked with yel- 
lowish or reddish brown, as follows: 1 with a small dorsal and a small 
lateral spot; 2 with a larger dorsal and two 
lateral spots; 3 with two pairs of dorsal spots, 
one pair smaller and in front of the middle trans- 
verse (supplementary) carina, the other larger 
and behind the carina, and a lateral spot; 4-0 
with a dorsal spot on each side of longitudinal Fie. 12 

carina, near the middle of the segments; on 5 orthetrum wrighth, Male. 
and G each spot is almost divided longitudinally s,de v,ew of genuai.a of se<„nj ai.. 
into two; 3-8 with a ventral spot on each side. 

Superior api)endages yellowish, not as long as the last two segments; 
of the shape described for 0. truncatum; inferior denticles very small. 
Inferior appendage yellowish, similar to that of 0. trunvatnm. 

Genitalia of 2 rather prominent, black. Anterior lamina longer than 
any other piece, its apex rounded, barely notched ; viewed from the side 
it is quite slender. Ilamule with apex bifid, branches approximately 
of equal length when viewed laterally; internal (anterior) branch slen- 
der,, with a very acute apex directed outward; external branch much 
broader, somewhat lamellar, apex broad, truncate, angles rounded. 
Genital lobe rather broad, rounded, projecting equally with the inter- 
nal hamular branch. 

Wings hyaline, oidy the faintest tinge of j^ellow at extreme base of 
posteriors. Pterostigma dark brown. Membranule cinereous, slightly 
whitish at base. Reticulation black. Front wings with 12-13 ante- 
cubitals, postcubitals, one hypertrigonal ; discoidal triangle of two 
cells; internal triangle ot three cells; three rows of iiosttriangular 
cells; one median cross A'ein. Hind wings with 10 antecubitals, 10-11 
postcubitals, no hypertrigonals, one median cross vein (2 in left wing), 


triangle free, two posttriaugular rows; inner side of triangle lying 
sligbtly beyond the arculus (a distance equal to that part of the areu- 
lus from its lower end to the origin of its sectors); sectors of the tri- 
angle united at their origin. 

The female differs from the maie as follows: 

Lower half of median dorsal carina yellowish. Yellow of thorax 
brighter. Abdomen shaped much as in the female of 0. hrachiale; 2 
with a small dorsal yellow s])ot in front of the spot corresponding to 
that described for the male; 7 with a small lateral spot; 10 with a small 
dorsal spot. Sides of 8 dilated. Appendages a little longer than 10, 
yellow, straight, apex acute. Vulvar lamina not prolonged beyond 
apex of 8; margin entire, not bent in the manner described for 0. 
hrachiale. Front wings with 13-11 autecubitals, 8-9 postcubitals. 
Hind wings with 10-11 autecubitals, 11) postcubitals, one median cross 
vein, inner side of triangle in prolongation of arculus; sectors of tri- 
angle separated (right wing) or united (left wing) at their origins. 

Measurements of Orthefrum ivrigMii. 


Total length 

Abdiimeu ( 

Frout wing 

IlMid wing 


Superior appendages , 
















Locality. — One male and one female in the National Museum collec- 
tion, from the Seychelles, collected by Dr. W. L. Abbott. 


Gomphus cognatus, Eambur, ^'ev^., p. 167, 1842. 

Onychoijomplim cognatus, Selys, Bull. Acad. Roy. Brux., XXI, Pt. ii, p. 38 (Syn. 

Gomph., p. 19), 1854; Monog. Gomph., p. 56, 1858. — Karsch, Ent. Nach., XVI, 

p. 377, 1890. 
Lindenia cognata, Kirby, Cat. Otlon., j). 59, 1890. 

Two males in the National Museum collection, from Kilimanjai'O, 
belong to this species, but differ from the description of the male given 
by Baron de Selys ^ as follows: 

The dark marks of the face and lips are brown. In one male the 
"large raie transverse en avant, au sommet du front" is wanting. 

There are no spines on the occiput. 

There is a group of 6-8 black denticles on each side of the upper 
surface of the frons. 

The thoracic stripes are brown; the median dorsal bands are not 
broad and do not join the antehumeral bauds; there is a stripe on the 
second lateral suture, and a stripe from the spiracle to between the 

' Monog. Gomph., p. 57. 



second and third coxre; tlie huineral stripe is narrow and not well 

The coloring- of abdominal segments 2-7 is more like that of the 
female of the Stockholm collection than of the male. 

Stripes on the feet brown, rather ill defined. 

Antecnbitals 11-12 on front wings, 8-9 on hind wings, 0-8 i^ostcu- 
bitals on all wings. First and fifth antecnbitals thicker on all wings. 
No subcostal cross vein (of Karsch). Three cells after the triangles, 
then two rows. 

Afeasurements. — Total length, 43 mm. Abdomen, 33. Front wing, 
26-27. Hind wing, 25-20. Ptero'stigma, 3.5. Superior appendages, 3. 

One male has lost the last four abdominal segments. 

In spite of the diflereuces described above, I believe these specimens 
to belong to 0. eognatus (Eambur) Selys, because the ai)pendages, the 
size of the body, and the pterostigma agree with the description 
thereof. The most serious differences are the absence of the occipital 
spines and the presence of the frontal denticles. 


Anaxrutherfordi, McLachlan, Ent. Mo. Mag., XX, p. 128, 188.S. — Kirhy, Cat. Odon., 
p. 85, 1890. 

Female. — -Frons, nasus, and rhinarium pale greenish yellow; no spot 
on the frons. Labrura and labium a little more obscure. Free margin 
of the labrum slightly edged with blackish. Mandibles exteriorly pale 
yellow, their tips black. Vertex blackish, its tip light brown, forming 
a crescent, concave anteriorly, when viewed from above. Occiput and 
rear of the head brownish yellow; hind margin of the occiput concave. 

Colors of the thorax changed; perhaps greenish on the side, darker 
on dorsum. 

Abdomen stout, base inflated, thence tapering gradually to 7, apex a 
little wider. A sniiplementary lateral carina on 6-10, but faintly 
marked on and 10. Between the two lateral eariiiM' of each side of ()-9 
are some blackish marks. A cluster of fine black denticles on the 
median apical dorsum of 2; ventral apex of 10 with numerous slightly 
larger black denticles. General color of the abdomen reddish brown 
in the dried specimen ; a basal black spot on 1 ; an apical black spot 
on 2-8, interrupted and divided into two spots by the dorsal carina on 
5-7; a median dorsal black spot on 9; 10 paler than the preceding- 
segments, apparently unspotted. 

Appendages leaflike, reddish brown, a little longer than the last two 
segments, apices moderately acute. 

Femora reddish, tibise and tarsi black. 

Wings hyaline, smoky along the posterior margin. Eeticulation 
reddish brown about as far as the nodus, then becoming dark brown or 
black; the costa remains a light brown, however, for nearly its entire 
length. A yellow cloud at the base of all the wings between the costa 


and the postcostal, not reacliing as far as the first antecubital. Ptero- 
stigma dark reddish brown, surmounting 3-4 cells, its internal vein 
prolonged to the principal sector. Membranule with basal half white, 
apical balf cinereous. Front wings with 21 antecubitals, the 1st and 
7th thicker than the others; 11 R, 10 L postcubitals, 4 hypertrigonals; 
triangles of cells, 2 cells being on the inner side; internal triangle 
present, with one cross vein; three other median cross veins, all nearer 
the base than the arculus; subnodal sector with six inferior branchlets 
(including the inferior terminal fork); arculus joining the median nerve 
at the second antecubital. Hind wings with 15 E, 14 L antecubitals, 
1st and 7th thicker; 12 E, 14 L postcubitals, 4 E, 3 L hypertrigonals, 
triangle of 6 E, 5 L cells (but with a rudiment of the vein forming the 
6th) as in front wings; internal triangle present, with one cross vein; 
two other median cross veins, nearer than the arculus; subno<lal sector 
and arculus as above; no anal triangle. 

Measurements. — Length, 70 mm. Abdomen, 59. Front wing, GO. 
Hind wing, 59. Appendages, 5.5. Pterostigma, 5.5. Breadth of 
head, 10.5 

Locality. — One female in the National Museum collection, from Kili- 

The female of this species has not hitherto been described. Mr. 
McLachlan's types were two males from Sierra Leone. The female 
above described seems to belong to the same species. The two males 
are stated to agree in Size with A. speratus., Hagen,' whose measure- 
ments are: Length, 72 mm.; abdomen, 51; wings, 56; pterostigma, 5.5; 
appendages, 7; alar expanse, 116; width of head, 10.5. The present 
female is somewhat larger, but a greater range of size is known for 
other species of Anax [JoiKjipes., jioiius, etc.). That A. rntherfordi 
should be found at a locality so distant from Sierra Leone as Kiliman- 
jaro is in accordance with the strong powers of flight possessed by the 
species of Anax and with what we know of the distribution of other 
African species of this genus. Mr. McLachlan^ records A. fjoliatlt, 
Selys, from Abyssinia and from Jellah Caflee, in West Africa. The 
tyi^es of Selys came from Madagascar. Hcmianax ephippigerus^ Bur- 
meister, occurs in the Congo and Senegal countries, Morocco, Algeria, 
Egypt, Western Asia, Turkestan, Arabia, the Himalayas, in Moldavia, 
and occasionally elsewhere in Europe. ^ 

^SCHNA RILEYI, new species. 

Female. — Frons, nasus, rhinarium, and lips brown. Frons darker 
above, with a yellow half ring inclosing a nearly round dark-brown 
spot which reaches to the vertex; a yellow line in front of the eyes 
becomes confluent with this half ring, which latter is slightly inter- 

'Verhd. zool.-bot. Gesell. Wien, 1867, p. 46. 

2Eut. Mo. Mag., XXI, p. 131. 

3 Selys, Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg., XXXI, p. 37, 1887. 



rupted anteriorly, so that the inclosed round spot becomes confluent 
with the brown of the frons at this point. Vertex dark brown, with a 
crescentlike yellow tip; concave anteriorly. Occiput triangular, yel- 
low above and behind, its lateral angles and the rear of the head black. 

Thorax brown, dorsum with a short aiitehnmeral yellow line from 
the anterior mesothoracic border halfway up to the antealar sinus; a 
very narrow yellow humeral line, slightly wider at the sinus. Sides 
with two broad oblique yellow bands, margined with shining black, 
one beginning under each pair of wings, but not attaining tlie bases of 
the feet. Antealar sinuses and some spots on interalar space yellow. 

Feet: Bases and femora reddish brown, apices of femora, tibiae, and 
tarsi black. Spines of the hind on the inner and outer sides 
equal in number and length. 

Abdomen distorted in this specimen, but apparently inflated at the 
base, thence gradually tapering to the apex; brown in the dried con- 
dition and marked with yellow as follows: A trans- 
verse stripe margined with black on each side, near the 
middle of the dorsum of 2, but not meeting on the me- 
dian carina; 3-7 with a median dorsal triangular spot 
a little in front of the middle of the segment; 2 and 3 
at base and 6-9 with a lateral spot; no supplementary ^schna rileyi. 
lateral carinas; 10 denticulated ventrally. frons and vertex, v,e»ed 

Appendages brown, leaf-like, a little longer than the 
last two segments; rather narrow, with a slight dorsal longitudinal 
carina; apices rounded. 

Wings hyaline, reticulation dark brown, costa yellowish anteriorly 
to some distance beyond the nodus. Pterostigma yellow-brown, sur- 
mounting 3-3i cells; internal vein prolonged to principal sector. Mem- 
branule white, apical third grayish. Subnodal sector with three infe- 
rior branchlets (including the terminal one). Upper sector of the 
arculus arising perceptibly above the middle of the arculus, which 
latter meets the median vein at the level of the third costal antecubi- 
tal on the front wings. Two hypertrigonals (three on left hind wing). 
Triangle of four cells, two on the inner side. Internal triangle pres- 
ent, with one cross vein; four other median cross veins on the front 
wings, three other on the hind wings, all nearer the base than the 
ar(;ulus. Front wings with 17 R 10 L antecubitals, flrst and seventh 
thicker; 12 II 11 L postcubitals, five posttriangular cells, then two rows 
increasing. Hind wings with 10 antecubitals, first and sixth thicker; 
13 R 12 L postcubitals; four posttriangular cells, then three rows 

Locality. — One female in the National Museum collection, from Kili- 
manjaro. The male is unknown to me. 

The coloration of the superior surface of the frons (Fig. 13) is char- 
acteristic of this species. 1 have named it after the late Dr. C. V. Riley, 
United States Entomologist, to whom I am indebted for the opportunity 
of studying several collections of Odouata. 



Calopteryx iridipennis, Burmeister, Handb. Ent. ii, p. 827, 1839. — Walker, List 
Neur. Ins. Brit. Mus., p. 609, 1853. 
Eupha:a iridijjennis, Ramcur, Nevr., p. 232, 1842. 
Phaon iridipennis, Selys, Syn. Calopt., p. 24, 1853; 4e Add., p. 
13, 1879; Monog. Calopt., p. 70, pi. 3, figs. 3, 4 (wings), 1854; 
Emmi. Odon. Madag., p. 24, 1869.— Kirby, Cat. Odon., p. 
Fig. 14. 101,1890. 

PHAON iRiDiPEN Odg male iu the Katioual Museum collection, from 
Nis.maie. Zanzibar, bclouging to the typical form, P. iridipennis, 
""mtiappenir.''"'''' havlug a pterostigma. 


Male. — Black with the following markings : 

A yellow band running across the front of the head from eye to eye, 
just above the ei)istoma. 

Labium and palps yellow, except the tips of the palps which are 

Anterior, posterior, and lateral margins, a small double spot on the 
middle of the prothorax, and sometimes one on each side, yellow. 

Thorax with a narrow antehumeral stripe, not attaining the antealar 
sinus, a broad oblique band in which lies the spiracle; all the side pos- 
terior to the black stripe which lies uj)on the whole length of the second 
lateral suture, and the pectus, greenish, 

Coxte, trochanters, and femora mainly yellowish, the black upon the 
latter reduced to a superior stripe, which, however, occupies nearly the 
entire second and third femora at their apices, and nearly all the first 

Abdomen: A narrow longitudinal median dorsal stripe on 2, reaching 
from the base to a little more than half its length; a narrow basal ring 
on 3-6 interrupted on the median line; apical dorsum of with a tri- 
angular spot whose truncated apex, directed forward, is distant from 
the base of the segment by about one-fourth the segmental length; 
dorsum of 10 ; inferior lateral margins of 1-8, confluent with the basal 
rings on 3-0, all yellow. 

Superior appendages yellow, of the length of the last segment, taper- 
ing slightly from base toapex,which latter is slightly thickened interno- 
inferiorly; each appendage apparently bears an intero-inferior basal 
tooth. Inferior appendages a little longer and darker than the superi- 
ors, moderately slender and curved somewhat toward each other in 
their apical halves. 

Wings hyaline, yellowish, Pterostigma black, rhomboidal, surmount- 
ing one cell. Median sector arising from the vein of the nodus, the 
subnodal a short distance after. Lower sector of the triangle aris- 
ing from the posterior margin of the wing about as far behind the 


postcostal cross vein as tlie latter is long, and ending- near the middle 
of the cross vein one cell after the vein which terminates the quadri- 
lateral and the space under it.' Sixteen i^ostcubitals on the front 
wings, thirteen on the hind wings. Superior sector of the triangle 
ending on the posterior margin at about the sixth cell after tlie 

2Ieasurcments. — Total length, 47 niuj. Abdomen, 41. Front win'>- 
26. Hind wing, 25. Superior appendages, 0.0. Pterostigma, 1. 

Locality. — Two males in the National Museum collection, from Kili- 
manjaro; the last seven abdominal segments of one of them are want- 
ing. The female is unknown to me. 

In his "Kevisiou du Synopsis des Agrionines,'"- Baron de Selys 
arranges the species of Disparoneura in two divisions, of which the 
first is characterized by the "median sector arising from the rein 
of the nodus, the subnodal a little after. The rudiment of the lower 
sector of the triangle parting from the posterior border a little more 
remote than the hasal postcostal nervule and ending at the middle of the 
vein which terminates tlie space under the quadrilateral." The second 
division has the "subnodal sector arising from the vein of the nodus, 
the median 3 a little in front of this vein." The first division embraces 
but one species, Z>. subnodalis, Selys; the second, twenty two (includ- 
ing D. delia, Karsch, 1891). 

J>. ahhotti belongs to the first division, whose characters must be 
modified as'follows: 

Median sector arising from the vein of the nodus, the subnodal a 
little after. Lower sector of the triangle arising from the hind margin 
of the wing farther from the base than the basal postcostal cross 

a. Lower sector of the triangle eudiug at the middle of the veiu which terminates 

the space under the quadrilateral D. suhnodalis, Selys. 

b. Lower sector of the triangle eudiug near the middle of the veiu one cell after that 

wliich terminates the space under the quadrilateral.. .1). ahhotti, new species. 

D.suhnodalis is also described as having a blue band on each side of 
the head between the epistoma and the eye (apparently not uninter- 
rupted from eye to eye as in ahhotti), and on each side of the thorax 
two small pale juxtahumeral spots placed one above the other (wanting 
in D. ahhotti). 


Disparoneura mutata, Selys, Eev. Syn. Agr., ]). 1(U, 18S6. — Kikhv, Cat. Odou., 
p. 133, 1890. 

Locality. — One male in the National Museum collection, "Taviire, 
Zanzibar, "January, 1889." 

'In the left front wiug of one male, the lower sector of the triangle ends at the 
vein which termiuates the space under the quadrilateral. 
-Mem. Cour. Acad. R. lielg., XXXYIII, 4, 1886, p. 162. 
^The original has "sous-nodal'' instead of "median'' — an evident misprint. 


I "would have no liesitation in referring this male to J), mufata, Selys, 
were it not that his description of the appendages 
as seen in profile ("de profll on les voit dilates 
en dessous en uue dent median e triangulaire") does 
not mention the tivo teeth shown in my figure 
(Fig- 15). The question arises: Can the appendages 
DispAEONEURA Mu- ^f thc tjpe be partly retracted within the last 
TATA ( ?), Mule. segment so as to hide the more basal of the two 

Side view of abdominal ap- ■^■cka■^■^^ '9 
pendages. teeTU , 


Agrion insidare, Selys, Rev. Mag. Zool.,p. 179, 1872; Bull. Acad. Belg. (2), XLI, 

p. 1288, 1876. 
Ccenagrion insulare, Kirby, Cat. Odon., p. 150, 1890. 

One male in the National Museum collection, from the Seychelles, 
collected by Br. W. L. Abbott, may belong to this species. The last 
three abdominal segments are wanting. It differs from the description 
of Baron de Selys' as follows: 

Pterostigma covers one and a half cells on front wings, two cells on 
hind wings; 14-15 postcubitals. No black marks on labrum. A small 
linear yellow spot each side of vertex. Postocular spots represented 
by a metallic green patch. All but the head (and wings?) of the type 
(male) are wanting. 

Dorsum of prothorax and thorax metallic green. Prothorax with 
hiud margin rounded, entire. Sides of thorax pale blue ( ?), a metallic 
green baud on the first lateral suture, a black one on the second lateral 
suture; both comi)lete. 

Feet luteous, with a superior black line. 

Dorsum of first tliree abdominal segments metallic green, of 4-7 
black ; sides and below, light blue ; a basal blue ring on 3-7, interrupted 

2Ieasiirements. — Length of head, thorax, and first 7 abdoniinal seg- 
ments, 38 mm. Front wing, 24. Hind wing, 23. Pterostigma, 1.5. 


Pseudagrion pratex-tatum, Selys, Bnll. Acad. Belg. (2), XLIII, p. 49-1, 1876. — 
Kirby, Cat. Odon., p. 153, 1890. 

Thirteen males and six females in the National Museum collection, 
from Kilimanjaro, belong apparently to this species. Only one male lias 
the abdomen complete, and its appendages are in such bad condition as 
to afford no help in identification. The colors of these specimens agree 
with the description. The younger males have the sides of the thorax 
i:)ale green, a short black stripe at the base of the front wings, no black 
marks on the pectus, the abdomen with a greenish metallic or bluish 
metallic luster. 

' Bull. Acad. Belg. (2), XLI, p. 1288, 1876. 


By Philip P. Calvert. 

The National Museum, through Dr. Riley, has sent to me for study 
and identification the Odonata collected by Mr. AV. A. Chanler's expe- 
dition to East Africa in 1892-93. All of the specimens meutioned 
below, 19 in number, are from the Tana River. They represent seven 
species, all well known to occur in Africa. Bibliographical references, 
in addition to those here cited, may be found in Mr. Kirby's Catalogue 
of the Odonata (London, 1890). 


Libellula edwardsii, Selys, Explor. Alger. ZooL, III, p. 124, N<^vr., pi. 2, figs. 5, 5a, 

Uroihemis edivardsii, Selys, C. R. Ent. Belg., XXI, p. Ixv (1878). — Calvert, 

Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., XVI, 1893, p. 585, fig. 11. 

One male (abdomen, 20 mm.; hind wing, 34.5) agrees with my figure 
(of the genitalia) above cited. The coloring of the hind wings ditters 
but slightly from that described for the three males from Congo in 
the same paper ', viz, that the blackish-brown basal streaks in the sub- 
costal and half of the costal space reaches to the first antecubital. This 
description quoted speaks of the basal spot on the hind wings as " not 
reaching the anal border;" "hind" should be substituted for "anal." 

A second male (abdomen, 24.5 mm.; hind wing, 34) agrees with the 
fourth male from Congo, described, in the same paper by myself. I still 
think it possible that Libellula sanpuhiea, Rambur (not Burnieister), 
may be the younger male of the same species as ed/cardsii. 

A female (heail, thorax, and first four abdominal segmeiits=21 mm. 
long, hind wing 32.5), last six abdominal segments wanting; apparently 
belongs to the same species as the last-mentioned male: i:i general it 
agrees with Ram bur's description of his signata, but signata is there 
stated to have a wing expanse of 8 cm. and to be 5 cm. long. 

' Calvert, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., XVI, 1893, p. 585. 
Proceedings of the United States National Museum, Vol. XVIII— No. 1U47. 




Lihellula ruhrinervis, Selys, Rev. Zool., 1841, p. 244; Explor. Alger. Zool., Ill, p. 

120, N6vr., pi. I, tig. 5 (1849). 
Tnthemis ruhrinervis, Calvert. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., XVI, 1893, p. 585, figs. 8, 9. 

Two males, one female. Xo black on the labium. Abdomen: male 
23-25, female 21 ; hiud wiug- : male 28-30.5, female 29. 


LibeUula erythrcca, Brulle, Exped. de Mor^e, III (1), p. 102, pi. 32, fig. 4 (1832). 
Crocotliemis irythrwa, Calvert, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., XVI, 1893, p. 585, fig. 10. 

Two females, abdomen 24.5, hind wing 31.5; sectors of the triangle 
of the hind wings separated at their origins. It closely resembles 
Trithemis femigaria, Rambur, of the same country, but differs in the 
stouter abdomen, and in the vulvar lamina being more nearly erect 
and not reaching as far as the apex of the tenth abdominal segment. 
It must be mentioned, however, that the vulvar lamina in these two 
females is relatively longer than in European specimens of C. erytliram} 

CACERGATES UNIFASCIATA, Olivier (teste Selys). 

Cacergatea uiiifasciata, Calvert, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., XVI, 1893, p. 585, figs. 

Two males, six females; no trace of the dark-brown band on the 
wings of the females. Abdomen: male 18, female 16.5-18; hind wing: 
male 25.5, female 24-25. 


Lihellula lefehvrei, L. parvula, L. flavistyla, Rambur, N^vr., p. 112, 116, 117, 1842. 

Lihellula flavistyla, Selys, Explor. Alger. Zool., Ill, p. 124, N6vr., pi. i, fig. 7, 


One male, last four abdominal segments wanting. Genitalia not 

prominent. Anterior lamina almost flat, projecting less than any other 

part ; margin entire, Hamule small, its apical fourth bifid, inner branch 

slender, slightly curved but not hooked, apex acute; outer branch 

iDr. Karscli writes (Berlin. Ent. Zeit., XXXVIII, p. 23, footnote, 1893), "Calvert 
recently erects (Trans. Am. Ent. Soc, XIX, 1892, p. 162) a Trithemis erythrcea Brulle; 
this is an untenable mode of desiguation, since Brauer described a true Trithemis 
from the Island of Mauritius, very different from Lihellula eryihrwa, Brullf^, as Tri- 
themis erythrcea, which indeed is vainly to be sought for in Kirby's Synonymic Cat- 
alogue of Neuroptera Odonata, London, 1890." The reply to this criticism is that 
the erythrwa from Mauritius described by Brauer (Verh. k. k. zool.-bot. Gesell. 
Wien, XVII, p. 814, 1867), is a Tramea and not a Trithemis, and is to be found in 
Kirby's Catalogue, p. 4. One may surmise that Dr. Karsch has merely copied the 
error of de Borre's " Repertoire Alphabetique," etc. (Mem. Roy. Soc. Sci. Liege (2), 
XVI, No. 4, 1889), where, on p. 18, C. erythrwa, Brauer, with the reference to the 
Verh. k. k. zool.-bot. Gesell., etc., just given, is incorrectly referred to Trithemis 
instead of Tramea. Dr. Brauer, in his " Verzeichniss der Neuropteren " of 1868 does 
not mention his own erythrcea. 


wider, apex obliquely truncated. Genital lobe projecting farthest, 
wider just before the apex than at the base ; apex regularly and symmet- 
rically rounded. 


Libellula irachiale, Beauv^ois, Ins. Afr. Amer., p. 171, Nevr., pi. 2, fig. 3, 1805. — 
Selys, Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg., XXXI, p. 21, 1887.— Rambur, Nevr., p. 62, 
1842.— Gerstackek, Mitt. Naturh. Mus. Hamb., IX, 1, p. 5, 1891. 

Orthetrtim brachiale, Calvert, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc, XIX, p. 162, 1892. 

One female, abdomen 31, hind wing 33. The vulvar lamina differs 
from my description quoted above, in that its apical margin is not "bent 
toward the abdomen in the middle," but I do not believe that this indi- 
cates anything more than a difference in the manner of drying. 


Lihelhda trinacHa, Selys, Rev. Zool., 1841, p. 244; Rev. d'Odou. Eur., p. 4,1850; 
Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg., XXXI, p. 19, 1887.— McLachlan, Jour. Linn. Soc. 
Lond., Zool., XVI, p. 178, 1882. 

One female, abdomen 39, hind wing 37, pterostigma 4.5. From De 
Selys' description ' it differs only in the following minor points: The 
yellow of the rear of the eyes is not spotted with black; the only dis- 
tinguishable markings on the luteous thorax are a very slender brown 
antehumeral stripe and an obscure dark line on the upper part of the 
humeral suture. It agrees with the distinctive specific characters, viz, 
the abdomen distinctly compressed and vesiculose at base, and the 
absence of yellow at the base of the hind wings, and it possesses 10-11 
antecubitals on the front wings. 

' Rev. d'Odon. Eur., p. 4, 1850. 
Proc. X. M. 95 10 



By Theodore Gill, LL. D. 



The fishes known by the book name of gunnels, and more gener- 
ally designated by fishermen and shoremen as butter-fishes, have been 
mostly accredited with the Latin names Murcenoicles, Centronotus and 
Gunnellus. The object of the present communication is to show that 
not one of these names is eligible, and that all have to be superseded 
by a still older name, Pholis. 


In 1758, Ophidian was considered by Linnseus^ as a genus of Jugu- 
lar es^ and diagnosed as follows : 

131. QpniDiON. Caput uudiusculum. Membr, branch, patula radia V. Corpus 
eusiforme. Pinna dorsalis anique unita caudte. Finuis - venirales radiis duobus: 
exteriore spinoso. 

barbatum. 1. ^^ Ophidium barbatum. 

imberbe. 2. = Pholis gunnellus. 

macrophthalmum. 3. = Cepola macrophtbalma. 

The description was evidently based on the gunnel. 
In 1766 Ophidium was placed by Linnaeus^ as a genus in the order 
Apodes, and redefined as follows : 

148. Ophidium. Caput uudiusculum. Dentes masillis, palato, faucibus. Membr. 
branch, radiis VII, patula. Corpus eusiforme. 
barbatum. 1, 
imberbe. 2. 

The description is more applicable to Ophidium than to the gunnel, 
if we take cognizance of the fact that Linnseus considered the chin 
appendages as barbels ("cirris quatuor") and not anomalous ventrals. 
Inasmuch as (1) the barhatum was the first species of the genus in both 
cases, (2) the ancient name referred to it, (3) Linnaius himself consid- 
ered it as the type of the genus, notwithstanding his diagnosis, and 
(4) the name Ophidium has been used universally for it, it seems best 
to retain the name with the usual acceptation. 

• Systema Natune, ed. x, I, p. 259. 
^ Systema Naturte, ed. xii, I, p. 431. 

Proceedings of the United States National Museum, Vol. XVIII— No. 1048. 



We are thus simply following out the principle of subordinating the 
description to usage and restriction by elimination to a natural genus. 
As this usage will not entail change it will doubtless be generally 
acceptable. Ophidion and Ophulium can not be used for different 
genera, the latter being simply an improved form of the earlier name. 
Some if not most of the American zoologists will probably prefer the 
earlier form, Ophidion.^ I am, however, disposed under the circum- 
stances to accept the later name, OphidiumJ^ 


In 17G3 Gronovius, in his "Zoophylacium," established a new genus 
called Pholis (p. 78) for the Blemiins gun)ieUns, and this was the only 
species mentioned, though he evidently had others in mind.^ The 
most distinct generic characters were the extent and structure of the 
dorsal fin.^ 

The genus of Gronovius, in the opinions of many, at least, is inad- 
missible, as that author had not yet become a binomialist. The single 
species of Pholis, for example, was named " Pholis maculis annulatis 
ad i^innam dorsalem; pinnis ventralibus obsoletis." Nevertheless a 
few would admit his genera. In the special case under consideration, 
fortunately, there need be no conflict, as the genus Pholis was soon 
reenforced by a binomialist. 

Scopoli, in 1777,^ introduced the genus under his "Gens iii, Ano 
medio," and "Divisio ii, Thoracici," in the following terms: 

*288. Pholis Gronov. Dorsum infra medium pinnatum. PinncT ventrales nullse, 
liariimqne loco ramenta pectoralia. Hiscenotis, ut & ani situ differt a Blennio. 

The genus was thus reenforced, and the type is of course the only 
species mentioned by Gronovius — Pholis gunnellus=Blennius gunnelluSj 

It is not evident what Gronovius and Scopoli meant by the statement 
that the dorsal commenced at the middle of the length (" a dorso medio "), 
as the figure published by Gronovius corre(!tly represents the dorsal 
commencing near the nape. There can, nevertheless, be no doubt that 
Pholis w&s based on the common gunnel, and that being the first name 
(after Ophidion) it should be adopted for the genus. 

Subsequent names do not require much consideration. 

'The Ophidion imberbe is conspecific with the Blennius gunnellus described by 
Linnaeus on a previous page (p. 257) of the same volume. The ventrals of B. guvnellns 
had the same formula as those of 0. imberbe ("V. 2"). 

'The O. macrophthalma of the tenth edition was transferred to tlie new genus 
Cepola and named C. rubescens in the twelfth (p. 445). The proper name of that 
species, therefore, is Cepola macrophthalma. 

^Pinnce v. vel. vii. . . . Ventrales in quibusdam nullae, nisi Ramenta obtusa in 
pectore sub pectoralibus pro pinnis habentur, in aliis vero aunt distinctissimae. 
Gronovius in diagnose generis, p. 78. 

*Dorsalis unica, a dorso medio usque ad caudam extensa, & ossiculis parum 
aculeatis suffulta. 

6 Int. Hist. Nat., p. 456, 1777. 




In 1800 Lacepede, failing to recognize tlie identity of Blennins 
murivnokles Avith B. gutinellus, isolated the former as representative of 
a distinct genus, Murcenoides, while be retained the latter m the genus 


In 1801 Bloch and Schneider established the genus Centronotus, with 
the following diagnosis: "Corpus gracile, pinna dorsi longitudinalis, 
tota aculeata." 


In 1815 Eaflnesque proposed Dactyleptus as a substitute for Murce- 
noides, because he did not like the latter. 


In 1817 Cuvier renamed the same genus ^'Les GonHelles,^^ and later 
the latinized form Gunnellus was introduced by Fleming. 


In 1839 Swainson substituted for Gunnellus the new name OpMsomus, 
because it was not derived from the Greek or Latin. ^ 


The further history is summarized in the following synonymy : 

Genus PHOLIS. 

<^Ophidio)i, LlNN^Us, Systema Naturae, eel. x, I, p. 259, 1758. 

<^Pholis, Gronow, Zoophylacium, p. 78, 1763. (Not biuomial.) 

<^Oph'uVmm,, Systema Nature, ed. xii, I, p. 431, 1766. 

<^PhoUs, ScoPOLi, lut. Hist. Nat., j). 456, 1777. 

<^Murwnoides, Lacepede, Hist. Nat. des Poissoiis, 11, p. 324, 1800. 

<^Centronottis, Block, Systema Ichtbyologia', ed. Schneider, p. 165, 1801. 

(Not Centronotus, Lac<?pede, 1802.) 
<^Dactyleptus, Rafinesque, Anal. Nat., p. 82, 1815. 
= Les Gonnelles (Murcvno'ides, Lacepede, Centronotus, Schneider) Cuvier, Ri'gne 

Auim. [Ire 6d.], II, p. 252, 1817; 2e ed., II, p. 239, 1829, etc. ; M. illus., 

Poiss., p. 174. 
<^Mura'noides, Cloquet, Diet. Sc. Nat., XIX, p. 202, 1821. 
<^GunneUu8, Fleming, Hist. Brit. An., p. 207, 1828. 

<^Guiinellus, Cuvier & Valenciennes, Hist. Nat. des Poiss., XI, p 418, 1836. 
<^GiinneUus, Kroyer, Naturhistorisk Tijdskrift, I, p. 376, 1837. 
<^OphisomH8, Swainson, Nat. Hist. Fislies, etc.. II, pp. 183, 277, 1839. 
= Gunnellus, Girard, Espl. and Surv. for R. R. Route to Pacific Oc, X, Fishes, 

p. 116, 1858. 
<^Centronotu8, Gunther, Cat. Fislies Brit. Mus., Ill, p. 285, 1861. 
Blennius, sp., LiNN^US, etc. 

^ Ophisomus ^:^ " Gunnellus Auct. 'Nomina generica quie ex Gncca vel Latina lingua 
radicem non habeut, rejicienda sunt.' Illiger, Prod, xvii."' — Swainson, Vol. II, 277. 



Tlie substitution of tlie name Fholis entails a change of name for the 
including family, viz: 

Family PHOLIDID^. 

Family Synonyms. 

^ Xiphidiontidce, Gill, Canadian Naturalist (2), II, pp. 247, 253. 
=. X'lphidionlida', Gill, Arrangement Families Fishes, p. 4, 1872. 
<C^GunneUi, Fitzinger, Sitzungsber. k. Aka<l. der Wisseusch. (Wien), LXVII, 

1. Abth., p. 41, 1873. 
<^Centroblennioidei, Bleeker, Versl. Med. k. Akad. Wet. Amsterdam (2), VIII, 

p. 368, 1874. 
— Pholidida-, Gill, Mem. Nat. Acad. Sci., VI, p. 136, 1892. 
Gobio'ides, part, Cuvieh et Valenciennes. 
Blenniidw, part, GCntheh et al. 

Subfamily Synonyms. 

<^Monactylia, Eafinesque, Analyse de la Nature, j). 82, 1815. 
<C,GunnelUformes, Bleeker, Enura. Sp. Piscium Archipel. Indico, p. xxv, 1859. 
= Ophi8omina', Swainson, Nat. Hist, and Class. Fishes, etc., II, p. 183, 1839. 
=zCe7itronotinw, Gill, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1859, p. 146 (1859). 
<^Ounnellini, Bleeker, Versl. Med. k. Akad. Wet. (2), VIII, p. 368, 1874. 

Under the name Ceiitronotus, the third given after OpJtidion, Dr. 
Giinther, in 1861, included nine recognized and seven doubtful species, 
which belong to different genera, viz : 

recognized species. 

1. C. gunellus Pholis gunnellus. 

2. C. fasciatus Pholis fasciatus. 

„ ,, , , ( Pholis nebulosus. 

3. C . nebulosus { 

( Pholis ornatus. 

4. C. apus Asfernopteryx apiis. 

5. C. tjunelliformis Asternopteryx giinneUifo7-)nis. 

6. C. dolichogaster Pholis dolichogasfer. 

7. C. alectroloplins Anoplarchus alecirolophus. 

8. C. crista gain Anoplarchus atropurpureus. 

9. C. roseus Gunnellops roseus. 


1. Ophidium mucronatum M Pholis gunnellus. 

2. Blennius ta'nia P Pholis iwnia. 

3. Blennius ruberrimus P Pholis ruberrimus. 

4. Blennius polyactocephal us Chirolophus poVyacioccphalus. 

5. Gunellus crassispina S Pholis crassispina. 

6. Gxmellus macrocephalus G Pholis gunnellus. 

7. Clinus affinis Siichaivs affinis. 




Under tlie name of Gymnelis imherhis, Dr. Giinther ' combined the 
following references, most of which relate to the Fholis gwmellus: 

Gymnelis imberiis, Kaup, Ap, Fishes, p. 156; Yarrell, Brit. Fishes, ed. Rich- 
ardson, I, p. 79; GuNTHER, Cat., IV, p. 325. 

Ophidhm imherbe, LlNN^EUs; Montague, Wern. Mem., I, 95.— TURTON, Brit. 
Fauna, p. 88.— Fleming, Brit. An., p. 201.— Jenyns, Man., p. 481.— Yar- 
RELL, Brit. Fishes, ed. 2, II, p. 412. 

Ophidium imberhe, LACifiPfeDE, part. (Radial formula and caudal fin of Pholis 

Beardless Ophidmm, Pennant, Brit. Zool., Ill, 398, App., tab. 93. 

The conglomerate nominal species retained by Dr. Giinther under 
the name Gymnelis imherhis had obtained a place in British zoology 
since the early part of the century, and until I demonstrated in my 
article " On the affinities of several doubtful British- fishes," pub- 
lished in 1864,2 ^^^j^ ii; ^as simply the embodiment of blunders of one 
kind or another. 

> Cat, Fish. Brit. Mus., IV, p. 325. 

sProc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1864, pp. 199-208. 


By Theodore Gill, LL. D. 

The typical Lophobranchs have been distributed among two fami- 
lies by several authors, but by most have been combined in one. The 
reasons generally given for the separation have not been very satis- 
factory, and I now propose to indicate those which have influenced me. 

The first to recognize the family difference between the groups in 
question, and to give appropriate names to them, was Prof. Giovanni 
D. Nardo. 

In 1842 (1844)' Professor Nardo divided the Lophobranchs into two 
families, Syngnathidse and Hippocampidse, in the following terms : 

Fam. 1. Syngnathidce Nardo. Annuli protovertebrales constituiintur sciitia squa- 
moso-corneis, medio angulosis, symmetrice striatis, contiguis, subimbricatis, corio 
superpositis, adhserentissimis. Ossa nasalia et palatina usque ad apicem rostri pro- 
tracta, efc maxillae superiori coujuncta. Epidermis crassa, atipata, continua, adhiB- 
rens, scutorum strias exhibens. Appendices cutanese nullse. 

Subfamilial, SyngnatMni Nardo. Ventrales uullse ; os terminale ; apertura bran- 
chiarum ad nucham. 

Subfamilia 2. ScypMni Nardo.^ Corpus pinna unica sen dorsali instructum est. 

Fam. 2. Hippocamindoc Nardo. Annuli protovertebrales constituuntur ossiculis 
quadraugularibus, angulis porrectis, centre in tuberculum salientibus, distautes, et 
sibi invicem i)er angulos tantum seriatim et symmetrice conjunctis, corio intriu- 
secus obsitis. Ossa nasalia et palatina ad medium tantum rostri protracta, et maxillie 
superiori contigua. Epidermis continua, adhaireutissima, glabra. Appendices 
cutana^ multae, etc. 

Subfamilial. Hippocampini Nardo. Ventrales et caudales nuUas; os terminale; 
aperturu brancbiarum ad nucham ec. 

Subfamilia 2. regasini Nardo. Ventrales iiliformes ; os iuferum ad basin rostri ; 
apertura branchiarum ante pinuas pectorales, etc. 

Subfamilia 3. Solenostomini Nardo. Ventrales grandes, pectoralibus conjunctse; 
08 terminale ; apertura branchiarum ad jugulum ec. 

'Cousiderazione sopre alcune nuove famiglie de' Syngnatbi e de' Plectognathi, e 
Bui caratteri auatomici che le distinguono. <Atti Scienz. Ital., 1843, pp. 244, 245. 

■Syiifinathini, Bonaparte, Catal. Metod. Pesci Europei, pp. 9, 89, 1846, is appar- 
ently coecjual with ScypMni of Nardo. 

Proceedings of the United States National Museum, Vol. XVIII— No. 1049. 



In 1846 Prince Bonaparte (of Canino) adopted this classification, but 
changed the name from Hippocampidce to Pegasidce, and substituted for 
SyngnathiJii, Siphostomini, and for Scyphini^ Syngnathini. The former 
change was effected doubtless for the reason that Pegasus was the 
longest named genus, and the latter because Syngnathus was restricted • 
to the genus called JSferophis by other authors, while the one generally- 
called Syngnathus was designated after Rafinesque Siphostoma. Bona- 
parte's arrangement, then, was as follows: 

Oaieodermi [= Lopliobranchii']. 

Pegasidce [— Hippocampidw 1^ .}. 




Siphostomini [= Syngnathini N.]. 

Syngnathini l—Scyphini N.]. 

The relationship between the Hippocampini and the restricted Syng- 
nathidffi is evidently far nearer than that between the former and the 
Solenostomini and Pegasini. Inasmuch as the last two types are now 
universally conceded to be of family rank, it is unnecessary to urge the 
differences between them and the Hippocampini. The characters used 
to combine the three by Nardo are, indeed, not only superficial, but 
illusive. There are, however, differences in dermal investment between 
the SyngnathidsB proper and Hippocampini (or Hippocampidae) which 
may be appreciated on analysis, and which are indicated in the diag- 
noses of the respective families submitted in the following synopsis. 

Swainson referred three Linna?an genera to his family Syngnathidse, 
which he divided into subgenera as follows : 

Pegassus, Linn. l=Pegmida;, Ad.]- 
Eippocampus, Linn. [! = Hlppocampidcv , Ad.]. 

^^Hippocampus restricted.] 

Phyllopieryx, Sw. 

SoJenostoma, Lac. 
Syngnathus, Linn. [=Syngnathidw, Ad.]. 

Syngnalhus, LiNN. 

Acu8, WitL. 

Solegnaihus, Sw. 

It is probable that Adams, if he had proceeded independently, would 
not have been guilty of the gross inconsistencies which Swainson per- 
petrated, but, as a matter of fact, his diagnoses were almost inter- 
changeable with those assigned to the corresponding groups by 

In 1854 Adams recognized three families of Lophobranchii and diag- 
nosed the Syngnathidse and Hippocampidfe as follows: 

1. FAMII.Y.— Pipefishes (Synguathidjie).— Body prolonged, slender, or 
angulated; snout greatly prolonged, cylindrical j mouth terminal, ver- 
tical; ventral fins absent; caudal fin wanting in some. 


2. Family. — Sea-horses (Hippocampidie). — Head and body com- 
pressed ; snout narrow, tubular ; mouth terminal ; jiectorals small, dor- 
sal single; caudal fin wanting. 

3. Family. — Winged Sea-horses (Pegasidae). 

Mr. Adams' work was largely based on Swainson's, and his diag- 
noses of families were often essentially similar to many of Swainson's. 

In 1858 Dr. Girard adopted the ftimilies Hippocampidfe (after Owen 
and Baird) and Syngnathidre, with the following data: 

Family HIPPOCAMPID^, Owen. 

The sea-horse family being composed, to onr knowledge, of but one genus {Hippo- 
campus), we will not enlarge upon its characters here, since alluding to them would 
be a mere repetition of their enumeration further on. 

He added that — 

The position these fishes assume in the media in which tliey live is not the least of 
their peculiarities entitling them to the rank of a family in the ichthyic method. 

Family SYXGNATHID/E, Bonaparte. 

The same remark consigned under the head of Hippocampida?- applies again to 
this family, for the genus Syngnathus is the sole generic type which we have had an 
opportunity of examining. Those established by Kaup are quite numeroiis, but the 
descrii)tion of their characters has not yet come into our hands. 

The characters thus connected indirectly with the families in (ques- 
tion are simply of generic value, and the agreement in many characters 
of Hippocampus with G aster otoheus, Solenognathus and Phijllopteryx, 
associated with it by Kaup, shows that the "position these fishes as- 
sume" is of minor value and not significant of family differentiation. 
As Girard had knowledge of Kaup's article published in 1853,' he had 
data to forbid the assumptions he indulged in. 

In 1882 Jordan and Gilbert accepted the two families in question 
and briefly differentiated them as follows: 

" E. Snout tubular, bearing the short, toothless mouth at its end; body mailed. 
" F. Caudal lin present; head in the line of the axis of the hody . . Siingnathidce. 
"FF. Caudal fin wanting; head not in line of axis of body.. . Hippocampidw." 

In the descriptive portion of their synopsis they gave amplified 
descrii)tions of the families, but did not add to their differential 


It will be obvious to anyone who compares the definitions above 
given with a collection of the fishes for which thej^ were framed, that 
they are not applicable to any natural groups, and that such natural 
groups are definable by characters that have been generally neglected. 
I am therefore led to submit diagnoses of the several groups which 
appear to me to be at least better than those fot which they are 

lUebersicht der Lophobranchier. <Archiv Naturg., 1853, I, 226-234. 


substituted. I do not anticipate, liowever, that they will be found to 
be definitive of the most natural arrangement, but the labor of years 
and a close and rigorous comparison of the skeletons of many genera 
will be requisite before such perfection is attainable. Meanwhile the 
notes here x)resented may be of some use in directing attention to 
features hitherto observed and as tentative to future work. 

Some erroneous conceptions have been entertained and misstatements 
made respecting features of the pipefish's structure. Only a few need 
be here noticed, however. Such are the statements that the preoi)er- 
culiim and interoperculum are wanting, that the intermaxillaries are 
also absent, and that the symplectic is a ver^' important element. The 
preoperculum and interoi)erculum, as well as intermaxillaries, are devel- 
oped, but I am unable to identify the symplectic. In no respect do the 
Lophobranchs deviate so materially from ordinary fishes as has been 
supposed. But, as long ago shown by Parker, they manifest, in addi- 
tion to the peculiarities generally noticed, deviations in the scapular 
arch. There is no posterotemporal, the posttemi)oral and proscapula 
being immediately connected, and the "coraco- scapular plate "is entire 
and not broken up into hypercoracoid and hyi^ocoracoid bones. 


S>j)ionyms as Order. 
<^Lopho})ranches, Cuvier, Regue Animal, le 6(1., II, p. 155, 1817. 
<^Ostcodermi, Boxapahte, Giorn. Accad, di Scieuze, LIT (Saggio Distrib. 

Metod, Animali Vertebr. a Sangue Freddo, p. 39), 1832; Nuovi Aunali delle 

Sci. Nat., II, p. 130, 1838; IV, p. 185, 1840.' 
<^Burs'n)ari vel Inciibatores, Nardo, Atti Cougressi Scieuze Ital. rac. et ord., I, 

p. 70, 1842 (1844). 
<^Lophobranchii, Girakd, Exp], and Siirv. for R. R. Route to Pacific Oc, X, 

Fishes, p. 78, 1858. 
"^Solenostomi, Bleeker, Enum. Sp. Pise. Arcbiji. Ind., p. xiv, 1859.* 
'^Syngnathi, Bleeker, Enum. Sp. Pise. Arcbip. Ind., p. xv, 1859. 
=^Prostomides, Dumeril, Hist. Nat. Poiss., II, ji. 495, 1870. 
=Lophobranchii, GCnther, Cat. Fisbes Brit. Mus., YIII, pp. 150, 186, 1870. 
=Lo2)hoiranchH, Cope, Proc. Am. Assoc. Adv. Sci., XX, x^- 330, 1872. 
=.LopliohranchH, Fitzinger, Sitzungsber. k. Akad. der Wissenscb., Wien, LXVII, 

1. Abtb., p. 49, 1873. 

Synonym as Subclass. 
Lophobranches, Dumeril, Hist. Nat. Poiss., II, pp. 473, 488, 1870 (sous-classe). 

Suborder SYNGNATHI. 

Synonym as Order. 
z^Syngnathi, Bleeker, Enum. Sp. Pise. Arcbip. Ind., p. xv, 1859. 

iTbe"Sectio 2. Lopbobrancbii (Synguathi) " of Bonaparte (op. cit.) is coequal 
witb tbe "Ordo III. Osteodermi." 

'^Tbe "series Hyperostomi" of tbe "sublegio Lopbobrancbii sen Uactylodermi," 
Bleeker, Enum. Sp. Pise. Arc. Ind., p. xiv, 1859, is coequal ■with tbe order Loiibo- 
brancbii as bere accepted. 


Synonym as Suborder. 
=Syngnathi, Giix, Arrangement Families Fishes, p. 2, 1872. 



■^SHinatidi, Rafinksque, Indice d'lttiolog. Siciliaua, p. 36, 1810. 

<^Syn(jnai]iida', Boxapartk, Giorn. Accad. di Scienze, LII (Saggio Distrib. 

Metod. Animali Vertebr. a Sangue Fredtlo, p. 39), 1832. 
<^Syngnathidw, Bonapartk, Nuovi Anuali delle Sci. Nat., II, p. 130, 1838; IV, 

p. 185, 1840. 
<^Syngnathida', Swainson, Nat. Hist, and Class. Fishes, etc., II, pp. 195, 331, 1839. 
^=Sy)i(jnailiidw, Naudo, Atti Congress! Seienz. Ital. rac. et ord., I, p. 70, (1842) 

■a^SyugnatJudw, Kal'P, Archiv fiir Naturg., 19. Jahrg., I, p. 228, 1853; also Cat. 

Lophobr. Fishes Brit. Mns., p. 5, 1856. 
<^Syngnathida', Girard, Expl. and Surv. for R. R. Rente to Pacific Oc, X, 

p. 343, 1858. 
<^Syngnathoidei, Bleekp:r, Euum. Sji. Piscinm Archipel. Indico, p. xv, 1859. 
■<lSyngnathidcv, Dumeril, Hist. Nat. Poiss., II, p. 499, 1870. 
■<^Sy)ignathida;, Gunther, Cat. Fishes Brit. Mas., VIII, p. 153, 1870. 
=Syugnathidw, Cope, Proc. Am. Assoc. Adv. Sci., XX, p. 339, 1872. 
=::Syngnafhid(e, Gill, Arr. Fam. Fishes, p. 2, 1872. 
=Syngnaihi, Fitzinger, Sitznngsber. k. Akad. der Wissensch. (Wieu), LXVII, 

1. Abth., p. 49, 1873. 
<^Syngnathid(i', Moreau, Hist. Nat. Poiss. France, II, p. 28, 1881. 
=^Syngnathidw, Jordan and Gilbert, Syn. Fishes N. Am., pp. 80, 382, 1882. 

Syngnatlii with squarish <[uadrangular plates attingeiit by exteusive 
margins to the auterior and posterior plates, and allowing more or less 
lateral movements; tail not prehensile or curved downward. ' 

Siabfai^iily SIPKOSTOlVIIlSr.^:. 


<^Syngnathini, Bonaparte, Giorn. Accad. di Scienze, LII (Saggio Distrib. 

Metod. Animali Vertebr. a Sangue Freddo, p. 39), 1832. 
<^Syngnaihiui, Bonaparte, Nuovi Annali delle Sci. Nat., II, p. 130, 1838; IV, 

p. 186, 1840. 
<^Syngnath'nn, Nardo, Atti Sc. Ital. 1843, p. 244; Atti Congress! Scicnz. Ital. 

rac. et ord., I, 1842, p. 70 (1844). 
<CiSiphostomini, Bonaparte, Catal. Metod. Pesci Europe!, pp. 9, 89, 1846. 
=Syngiiathin(P, Kaup, Archiv fiir Naturg., 19. .Jahrg., I, p. 231, 1853; also Cat. 

Lophobr. Fishes Brit. Mus., p. 21, 1856. 
=^Syngnathiforme8 syngnathini, Bleeker, Enuni. Sp. Piscium Archipel. Indico, 

p. XV, 1859. 
^Syngnathini, Dumeril, Hist. Nat. Poiss., II, pp. 499, 534, 1870. 
<^Syngnatkina, Guntiier, Cat. Fishes Brit. Mus., VIII, pp. 153, 154, 1870. 
=Syngnatliini, Moreau, Hist. Nat. Poiss. Franco, II, p. 40, 1881. 

Syngnathid* with pectoral fins, a long- cleft subcaudal ovigerous 
pou(;h to males, and the upper caudal ridge continuous with the lateral 
and the lower caudal ridge with the ventrolateral ridge of the trunk. 


Doryrhamphina, Kaup, ArchivNaturgesch., 19. Jahrg., I, p. 233, 1853; Cat. Loph. 

Fish. Brit. Mus., p. 54, 1856. 
Doryrkamphini, Dumkril, Hist. Nat. Poiss., II, pp. 499, 585, 1870. 

Synguatbidae with pectoral fins and with a pectoral or abdominal 
ovigerous pouch to the males. 

Siabfainily SY NO-IS" ^^THI^STjgE. 

^Scyplmii, Nardo, Atti Sc. Ital., 1843, p. 244. 
=^Syn(jnathini, Bonaparte, Cat. Met. Pesci Eur., pp. 9, 90, 1846. 
^^Neropliincv, Kaup, Archiv Naturgesch., 19. Jahrg., I, p. 234, 1853. 
z=:Neroplnni, Dumeril, Hist. Nat. Poiss., II, pp. 499,600, 1870. 
=NeropMni, Moreau, Hist. Nat. Poiss. France, II, p. 61, 1881. 

SyngnatbidjB without pectoral fins or an ovigerous pouch, the eggs 
beiag attached to the belly of the male, and the upper caudal ridge 
continuous with the dorso-lateral and the lower caudal ridge with the 
lateral ridge of the trunk. 

Subfamily G^STROTOKKIlSr^E. 

Syugnathidie with pectoral fins, no ovigerous pouch but eggs em- 
bedded in a soft membrane of the abdomen in the males; the upper 
caudal ridge continuous with the dorso-lateral, and the lower caudal 
ridge continuous with the ventro-lateral ridge; the body expanded 
below in a horizontal surface between the lateral lines, and the tail 
tapering and finless. 


Synonyma as families. 

<^HippocampidcB, Nardo, Atti Congressi Scieuze Ital. rac. et ord., I, 1842, p. 70, 

<^Pe(jasida:, Bonaparte, Cat. Met. Pesci Eur., p. 9, 1846. 
^ Hippocampidce, Owen, Lect. Comp. Auat. Vert. An., I, p. 50, 1846. 
"^Hippocampidw, Baird, Icon. Encycl., II, p. 232, 1850. 
^ Hippocamptda , Adams, Man. Nat. Hist., p. 94, 1854. 
'^Rippocampida, Girard, Espl. and Surv. for R. R. Route to Pacific Oc, X, 

Fishes, j). 342, 1858. (lucl. Hippocampus only.) 
=^Hippocampid(e, Cope, Proc. Am. Assoc. Adv. Sci., XX, p. 339, 1872. 
=:^Hippocampidw, Gill, Arr. Fam. Fishes, p. 2, 1872. 
=:^Hippocampi, Fitzinger, Sitzuugsber. k. Akad. der AVisseusch. Wieu, LXVII, 

1. Abth., p. 49, 1873. 
zi^Hippocampida , .Jordan and Gilbert, Syn. Fishes N. Am., pp. 80, 385, 1882. 
^^Hippocampidi, PoEY, Repert. Hist. Nat. Cuba, II. 

Syngnathi with rhombiform quadrangular, or irregular plates with 
extensions buttressed against corresponding ones of the i)receding and 
succeeding plates, thus prohibiting any lateral movement; tail more or 
less prehensile or curved downward; proscapular plates large and 
mammilated, and antepectoral plate wide. 


SiabfaiTiily SOL.EGrlsr-A.TIIIN"JE3. 


<C,Solegnathince, Gill, Proc. Acad. Nat. Scl. I'bila. 1859, p. 149 (1859). 
=SolegnatMnce, Gill, Mem. Nat. Acad. Sci., VI, p. 137, 1893. 

Hippocampidiij with the upper caudal ridge deflected aud continuous 
iuto the hiteral ridge and the lower caudal ridge continuous -with the 
ventrolateral ridge of the trunk; nuchal plate not elevated and not 
connate with the head. 

Only one genus is known, viz : 
Solegnathus, Swainson, 1839. 

Subfamily TLJ.T'lPOCAJ^LTPllSf.^:,. 

Synonyms as suhfamilies. 

<^nippocamp'm\, Bonaparte, Nuovi Auuali delle Sci. Nat,, II, p. 130, 1838; IV, 

p. 186, 1840. 
<CHipi)ocampini, Nardo, Atti Congressi Scienz. Ital. rac. et ord,, I, 1842, p. 70, 

<^Hippocampince, Kaup, Archiv fiii' Naturg., 19. Jahrg., I, p. 228, 1853; also Cat. 

Lopliobr. Fishes Brit. Mus., p. 6, 1856. 
<^Hippocamp\ formes, Bleeker, Enum. Sp. Piscium Arcliipel. Indico, p. xv, 1859. 
^iHippocampina, Gill, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1859, p. 149 (1859). 
<^nippocampini, Dumeril, Hist. Nat. Poiss., II, pp. 499, 500, 1870. 
<^IIippocampina, Gunther, Cat. Fislies Brit. Mus., VIII, pp. 153, 194, 1870. 
z=iH'q)2)ocampini, Moreau, Hist. Nat. Poiss. France, II, p. 34, 1881. 

Hippocamj)ida3 with the upper caudal ridge ceasing forward under 
the dorsal and the lower caudal ridge continuous with the lateral ridge 
of the trunk ; nuchal plate more or less elevated, crowning the back of 
the head aud connate with the preceding jjlate. 

The subfamily thus defined includes five genera, which represent two 
sections which themselves should perhaps be raised to subfamily rank. 

Section 1. 

Hippocampus, Rafinesquk, 1810. 
Acentrointra, Kaup, 1853. 

Section 2. 
PhyUopteryx, Swainson, 1839. 
Phycodurus, Gill, 1895. 
Hallichthys, Gray. 

The genus PJtyUojHeryx, as left by Dr. Giinther, embraces three spe- 
cies, each of which appears to represent a distinct genus, one of which 
is unnamed. This is represented by the P. eqiies of Giintlier and may 
be termed Phijcoihirus on account of its tail, which seems to branch out 
like a seaweed [<puxuj<)e:;); it is distinguished further by the alternate 
contraction and expansion of the inferior contour of the body, the 
spinigerous inferior ridge aud the low-set dorsal flu. 


By Theodore Gill, LL, D. 

Several genera of the family Torpediiiida? have for many years been 
known nnder names m iiicli are of later date than those nuder which 
they were first made known. The tyi)ioal genus of the family, too. has 
for almost a century enjoyed a name (partly a heritage from the 
ancients) which by right belongs to another very distant genus of true 
fishes. To demonstrate these facts is the object of the present com- 


For more than twenty years I have been aware of a use of the word 
Torpedo which would necessitate some violent changes if the rules of 
nomenclature were strictly followed. But as most ichthyologists until 
hitely have been unwilling to follow such rules, if they interfered Avith 
their preconceived ideas, I have reserved the information in question in 
order to avoid infiicting too severe a shock, and have hoped that some 
other might have discovered the facts. No one has yet announced the 
discovery, however, and as there are now many ichthyologists who are 
amenable to rules and are willing to accept evidence, I have deemed a 
historical exposition of certain facts timely and no longer premature. 

In 1775 Forsktil's " Descriptiones Auimalium, Avium, Amphibiorum, 
Piscium, Insectorum, Yermium," etc., was published, and in it is a 
description of what is called Baja torpedo. The so-called Retja was 
distinguished by •' pinna dorsali adiposa, corpore nigro maculato, cirrhis 
oris sex," and was described at length. The description is applicable to 
the "electric catfish'' of the Nile. In a note, the species is referred 
to a distinct genus in the following terms, and with the distinctions of 
typography here used: 

Obs. 1.1 An cum ilormi/ro. geiiere potest sociari; A'el inter Torpedines posteriores 
Roiideletii loeuin iuvenire: ant potins novum constituere geuus? Certe detcrmi- 
natur Torpedmis CHAkacter gknericus: riscis hrmicliiostef/us : apertura liiwari, 
ohViqna supra pinnas pectoralcs : corpore nudo : piuuh roitralibiis. sen ahdomhuilibus: 
deniibns numerosissimis, densis, svbulaiis. 

'The second note ("Obs. 2") refers to the habits, electrical properties, use, etc., of 
the species. 

Proceediugs of the United Slates National Museum, Vol. XVIII — No. 1050. 

Proc. N. M. 95 11 161 


Every requisite for generic nomenclature is here fulfilled. A name 
is given, a real diagnosis is supplied, and a typical species described. 
Of course a great mistake was made in identification, but tlie descriji- 
tion and not the identification iii the cardinal point in the determina- 
tion of the question at issue. The perversion of the name Torpedo 
from the rays so long familiar under that designation is very regret- 
table and at variance with ancient usage; but even the ancient use of 
Torpedo for the rays was secondary, the primary use being for the 
quality of numbness or torpidity, and the electric catfish is as much 
the embodiment of numbness as the electric ray. Besides, we have 
been too much used to wanton perversions of old names to be much 
shocked by any new manifestation. Witness the perversion of the 
name Trochilus (originally used for a snipe) to the exclusively American 
humming birds, and of Amia (originally given to a tunny) to the equally 
American ganoids. For such unscientific x^erversious we have to blame 
Linnreus and his followers, and so distorted were their views of the 
fitness of things that they even took a certain pride in misusing such 
names, and were very particular in rejecting what they were iileased 
to call barbarous and nonclassical terms. Remonstrances against such 
perversions were not wanting to Linnanis, even very early in his career;^ 
but he was deaf to all, and scientific nomenclature has consequently 
been cursed with a load of names revived in a very different sense from 
their primitive use. At worst, one more such misused term will be 
Torpedo J but its misuse will be less repulsive than that of many others, 
because its primary meaning will not be in disaccord with the fish. 

The facts in question are thus exhibited in the synonymy: 


^Torpedo, Forskal, Desc. Auim., etc., p. 16, 1775. 
^=Malapterurus, Lacepede, Hist. Nat. Poiss., V, p. 90, 1802. 
=Anacanthtis, Minding, Lelirb. Nat. Fische, p. 117, 1832. 
Eaja sp., FoKSKAL. 
Siluriis s])., Gmemx et al. 

The family to which it belongs should consequently be called ToR- 



If the proj)riety of the retention of the name Torpedo in place of 
Malapterurns is conceded, it necessarily follows that another name 
must be used for the genus of electric rays. Narcaclon is the oldest 
term, having been given by Klein in 1742, and was adopted in 1861 
by Gill and later by Bleeker, but having been given before the estab- 
lishment of the binomial system of nomenclature is now considered 

'Dilleuius, in an early letter to Limi.Tus, remarked: "I do not object to Greek 
words, especially in compound names; but I think tlie names of the ancients ought 
not rashly and promiscuously to be transferred to our new genera, or tliose of the 
New World."' There was much more sound advice m the letter, which Linuanis 
uuftirtunately did not profit by. 


The next in order of proposition is Narcohatus, introduced by 
De Blainville in 1816, and this should accordingly be adopted. 


In 1862, in a note on the classification of the " Torpedinoidfe " or 
"Xarcaciontoidse," I proposed a new generic name for the Torpedininre, 
or " Xarcaciontinoi " without dentiform processes round the spiracles, in 
the following terms: 

Spiracles with deutated borders Xarcacion. 

Spiracles with smooth borders ( Torpedo occidentalis St. ) Tetronarce. 

Tetronarce should of course have been Tetranarce, the name alluding 
to the four-sided form. Tetronarce was purely a printer's blunder. 

In 1886 Dr. G. Fritsch, in a communication on the systematic arrange- 
ment of the species of Torpedo,^ proposed the same subdivision as the 
preceding, calling the Narcacion of Gill Fimbriotorpedo, and the Tetra- 
narce of Gill Gymnotorpedo. 


In 1826 Dr. J. J. Kaup^ proposed a new genus named Narlce for the 
Raja capensis of Gmelin, which he defined in the following terms: 

Narkc. Eaja Gmel. Torpedo Schneid. Kennz. der Gattung. Scheibe des KiJrp- 
ers rnnd. Eiickeu gewolbt. Spritzlocher, die kurzeu Robrcn hinter deu Augeu. 
Schwanz fleischig, kurz, mit einer EUckenflosse. 

Diese Gattuug ist nahe mic Torpedo verwandt, von welcher sie der gewijlbte 
Eiickeu und der Mangel der einen Schwauzriickenflosse uuterscheidet. Eine Art. 
Raja Gronoviana, Lact^p. Raja capensis, Gmel. 

As the generic name Narke was published more than a decade before 
Astrape and was well defined, the former name (not having been previ- 
ously used) must be revived. 


The genera of Xarcobatids were segregated by me in 1862 into three 
subfamilies. These are well distinguished by skeletal and visceral 
characters, as well as external ones, and are here retained. Diseopyge 
may represent a fourth subfamily distinguished by the united ventrals. 
The essential synonyms of the respective subfamilies and genera are 
also given. 


Torpcdines, Henle, IJber Narcine, p. 29, 1834. 

Torped'nies, Mullki?, Mag. Nat. Hist., n. s., II, p. 90, 1838. 

Torpcdines, Mulleii and Henlk, Syst. Beschreib. Plagiostomeii, p. 1:^6, 1841. 

Torpedhiidw, Owen, Lect. Comp. Anat. Vertbr. An., I, p. 51, 184U. 

Torpedinidcv, Adams, ]Man. Nat. Hist., p. 87, 1854. 

Torpedinidw, Eichahosox, Encycl. Brit., 8. ed., XII, p. 328, 1856. 

1 Arch. Anat. Phys., 365. 

2" Beitriige zur Amphibiologie und Ichthyologie" (Isis, 1826, col. 87-90). 


Torpedinoidei, Bleeker^ Enum. Sp. Pisciiim Arcliipel. ludico, p. xiii, 1859. 

Torpedinoida', Gill, Cat. Fishes E. Coast X. America, p. 61, 1860. 

Torpedhioidw or Narcaciontoidw, Gill, Auuals Lye. Nat. Hist. New York, VIII, 

p. 386, 1861. 
Torpedines, Dumeril, Hist. Nat. Poiss., I, p. 503, 1865. 
Torpedinida;, Gunthi:r, Cat. Fishes Brit. Mus., VIII, pp. 434, 448, 1870. 
Torpedines, Fitzinger, Sitzuugsber. k. Akad. der Wissensch. , Wien, LXVII, 

1. Abth., p. 57, 1873. 

> Torpedinim, Bonaparte, Nuovi Aniiali delle Sci. Nat., II, p. 130, 1838 ; IV, p. 183, 

^TorpediiHv, Swainson, Nat. Hist, and Ckiss. Fishes, etc., II, pp. 192, 321, 1839. 
^Torpedinina, Gray, List. Fish. Brit. Mus., I, p. 99, 1851. 
=^Torpedinin(v, Gill, Cat. Fishes E. Coast N. America, p. 63, 1861. 
^^Xarcaciontinw , Gill, Annals Lye. Nat. Hist. New York, VIII, p. 387, 1861. 


'^Narcacion, Klein, Historiic Pisciuni Promovend;e inissvis tertius de Piscihns 

per branchias occultas si)irantibus, p. 31, 1742. 
'yTorpedo, Dumeril, Zoologie Analytique, p. 102, 1806. 
^Xarcohatus, Blainville, Journal de Physique, etc., LXXXIII, p. 263, 1816; 

Bull. Soc, Philom., 1816, p. 121. 
'^Torpedo, Mltller and Henle, Syst. Beschreib. der Plagiostomeu, p. 126, 1844. 
'^Narcacion, Gill, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1861, App. (Cat. Fishes E. Coast 

N. America), p. 63, 1861. 
=:iNarcacion, Gill, Aunals Lye. Nat. Hist. New Y'ork, VIII, p. 386, 1861. 
y Torpedo, GDnther, Cat. Fishes Brit. Mus., A'lII, p. 448, 1870. 
^^Fimhriotorpedo, Fritsch, Archiv. Auat. Phys., p. 365, 1886. 


=Tetrotmrce, Gill, Annals Lye. Nat. Hist. New York, VII, p. 386, 1861 
=^(i}jmnotorpedo, Fritsch, Archiv, Auat. Phys., 365,1886. 
Torpedo sji., Auc'T. 
Xarcine sp., Girard. 
Narcacion si>., Gill. 

Sulafainily IS'^^RCIlSr IISTJE. 
=yarchnna'. Gill, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. New York, VIII, p. 387, 1861. 


=^Xarcine, Henle, Uber Narcine, ji. 31, 1834. 

ySyrraxis (Jourdan), Bonaparte, Fauna Ital. sub Torpedo narce. 

:=Narcine, Muller and Henle, Archiv Naturgescb. 1837, I, p. 400; 8yst. 

Beschreib. Plagiostomen, p. 129, 1841. 
yXarcine, Gill, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. New York, VIII, p. 387, 1861. 
yCi/clonarce, Gill, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. New York, VIII, p. 387, 1861. 
'yOonionarce, Gill, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. New York, VIII, p. 387, 1861. 


Genus NARKE. 

=Narlce, Kaup, Isis, XVIII, p. 88, 1826. 

^Astrape, Muller aud Henlp:, Arcbiv Naturgesch., 1837, I, p. 400. ("7'. 
capensis unci T. dipterygia aut." uamed only.) 

Genus TEMERA. 
^=Temera, Gkay, Zool. Miscel., p. 7, 1831. 

Subfaixiily DISCOP^'GMN^E. 
=^r>isco2>y!ic, TscHUDi, Unters. Fauna Peruana, Ich., p. 32, 1845. 

SiabfaiTiiiy n:Yr'jsri]sr..5i; 
=Hypmn(v, Gill, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. New York, VIII, p. 386, 1861, 

Genus HYPNOS. 
^=Hypnos, A. Dumekil, Rev. et Mag. Zool. (2), IV, p. 277, 1852. 


By Theodore Gill, LL.-D. 

In 1872 I recognized two families of Syuentognathous fishes and 
designated them as Belouidiie and Scorn beresocidie, establishing the 
former for Belone as generally understood/ and restricting the latter to 
the Exocffitme, Ilemirhamphine and Scoinberesocine types.* 

The constituents were thns indicated, but the families themselves 
were not defined. To complete this delayed task, as well as to present 
the opinion of others, is the object of the present communication. 


The genus Eso.r was adopted by Linnreus from Artedi, and its cardi- 
nal character was the backward position of the dorsal and anal fins, 
and tlieir opposition to each other. The other points noted were second- 
ary and sometimes ignored in practice. The artificial character of the 
genus will be evident from a consideration of the species referred to it 
in the last edition of the Systema Natura'.'' 

Species of the Linnaian genus Esox. 

Linnican species. 

Modern genera to which referred. 


2 osseus 

3. Vvljies 


Luciun (= Esox, Cuvier). 

Esox (= Belone, Cuvier). 

G. Ilfloiie 


* The Esox hepsetus of Linnseus was a compound of very dissimilar forms. In the tenth edition of 
the Systema Niitiirre its synonyms are (1) the "Argentina pinna dorsali pinnre ani opposita" of the 
Anifenitates Academicif (1, p. 321, 17-19), and (2) the I'iqnitinga of Slarcgrave. The former i.s unrecog- 
nizable, but Cuvier and Valenciennes felt sure that it was not a Ueiiiirhaiiiphus. It had numerous 
teeth (OS interne denticulis exasperatum), the lower jaw slightest produced (maxiila inferior paullo 
longior), a double lateral line (duplici linea longitudinali a lateribus distinctnm), and the rays: 15. 
approximately 10 (cerciter decern), D. 14, P. 12, V. 6, A. 15, C. 14. 

tTho Esox gymnocephalus is anotherof the undeterminable species of Linn.Tus. (,'uvier and Valen- 
ciennes thouglit tliat It might have been an EryUirinus, but such could, not have been the case, as the 
radial formula (I). 13, V. 10, V. 7, A. 26, C. 19) clearly shows, even assuming that Linnanishad erredas to 
its habitat ("in India"). It essentially agrees with th& Chirocentius dcnt?x, and was ijuite likely a 
young specimen of that species (" Maguitudme Ammodytis erat qui nobis visus"). 

' Giinther, Cat. Fish. Brit. :Mits., VI, pp. 234-256. 

'- Giinther, op. cit., pp. 256-298. ' Vol. 1, p p. 515-517. 

Proceedings of the United States National Museum, Vol. XVIII— No. lOJl. 



This Strange medley (rendered more heterogeneous still by some suc- 
ceeding authors) was allowed to remain for a number of years. At 
length, in or before 1803, ISphyraiia, Lepisosteus, Albula and Hiinodus 
were eliminated, but not until 1810 was the residuum disintegrated. 


lu 1810 Katinesque, in his ''Caratteri," divided the genus Esox ?is 
left by Lacepede in the following terms: 

II geuere Esox di Linneo l' stato diviso da Laco}>ede in quattro geueri, Esox, 
Sphjirwna, Siinodns e Leptsosfeiis; io propoiigo di dividere uouvamente in due il suo 
geuere Esox; lasciero questo uome alle specie marine cbe hanuo il corpo tetragouo 
con due liuee lateral! da ogui lato couio nil geuere Exocwtus, le mascelle luughe e 
strette, le ale dorsale luughe giungeudo dalF auo lino alia coda e falcifoi'tni, &c.; 
mentre formero un nuovo geuere col noiue di Lucius della specie Huviatile clie hauno 
il corpo ciliudrico, una sola linea laterale, le mascelle larghe, e le ale dorsali cd auali 
corte e rotondato. 

This divisiou was quite good, and the distinction of the two genera 
justified by the contrasted characters as well as the names. Eafinesque 
has still further the merit of recognizing a similarity between Usox as 
limited by him {Belone) and Exoecetus. But the proposition thus regu- 
larly formulated was destined to remain long in abeyance and the 
names given to be sux^erseded by a later set. 


In 1817 Cuvier, in the " Regne Animal," divided Esox on the same 
lines as Eafinesque had done, but restricted Esox ' to the pikes [Lucius^ 
Eafinesque) and gave the name Belone'^ to the garfishes {Esox, Eafin- 
esque). This view has been almost universally accejited, the only 
dissenters being Bonaparte in 1850, and very recently Jordan, with 
a few other American naturalists."' The reversion of those natural- 
ists to the Eafines(iuian names is perfectly justified. Even the per- 
version of ancient names is less under such usage than under the 
Cuvieran nomenclature. As this statement may surprise some, a justi- 
fication of it is timely, especially as it may tend to quiet those whose 
minds would be otherwise too much disturbed. 


Esox is a name so long connected with the pike in scientific nomen- 
clature, that it is probable that even many ichthyologists suppose it to 
be the ancient name of that fish. There is, however, no reason to sup- 
pose that it was its proper name; on the contrary, there is every reason 
to believe it had nothing to do with the pike. The only occurrence of 
the word Esox (or Isox) or Esos in ancient classical literature, so far as 

' Regne Animal, II, p. 183. 
2Regue Animal, II, p. 185. 
^Bleeker has revived the name Mastacembdus of Kleiu for the garfishes. 


preserved or known, is in a single passage of Pliny's Natural History'. 
According to Pliny, the Esox or Esos Mas a very large fish of the 
Eliine, equaling the tunny in size, that is, weighing about 1,200 pounds, 
and which might require a yoke of oxen to haul it out.' 

Gesner imagined this notice to be referable to the pike, and he 
appears to have been the originator of the misconception, which, how- 
ever, was not shared by his contemi)oraries or many of his successors. 
There is, indeed, good ground to believe that the name used by Pliny 
was a corruption of some German or Gallic designation of the sturgeon. 


Belone is generally connected with the gars, and by later lexicogra- 
phers, as Liddell, Scott, and Drisler (1883), defined as "a sharp-nosed 
kind of fish, garfish, elsewhere paipiqP This is, however, at most only 
I)artially true. The notices of Aristotle clearly indicate that in most 
cases a syngnathid or pipefish was the form intended; such as the 
statements that the belone, in the period of reproduction, splits apart 
and thus allows the eggs to escape, having a slit under the stomach 
and intestine which, when the eggs are discharged, heals up (VI, 11,2) -^ 
and also that the belone is late in ])arturition and then burst, and that 
the young attach themselves to the parent (Aristotle, VI, 10, 4), The 
statement that the kingfisher's nest is principally composed of back- 
bones of the belone^ is also significant. 

The point in the statement that the halcyon makes its nest of the 
belone's bones relates to the size of the fish. The gar is a compara- 
tively large fish, and not likely to have been used in such connection. 
^N'or is it obvious how the bones were identified as the belone's,^ and it 
is i)robable that the allegation involves a generalization based on an 
extremely limited number of observatit)ns of nests in which dried pipe- 
fishes or their exoskeletons may have been found. It should not be 
forgotten, either, that the kingfisher scarcely makes a nest deliberately 
of fish bones. According to Seebohm,^ 

The kingfislier does not malce any more uest than that which the ejectecl fish houes 
supply. * * * Upon this nest of hsh bones, if uest it can be j)roperly called, the 

iBooklX, chap. 17 (15). 

"~ Pnecipuamagnitudinethynni : invenimus talenta xv pependisse. Ejusdem caiuUe 
latitudinem duo [quinciue] cubita et palmum. Sunt et iu quibusdaui amnibus hand 
niinorcs: Silurus in Nilo; Esox in Rheno; Attilus in Pado, inertia pinguescens, ad 
mille aliquando libras, catenate captus hamo, nee nisi bovum Jugis extractus. 
(Pliny, IX, cap. 17 (15).) 

^0(' /Z6V ovv a/.'koL Ix^v'^i yovu TiKTnvai kol tU cili (Kpulcnv f/v 6i Ka?iOvai Tiveg ,3eZ6i7;i', orav 
Tj('iTj (jpar/ Tov TLKreiv, 6La[){)fjyvvTtti, Kal ovtu ra ua e^ipx^Tai' exu y(ip ^iva 6 ix^H ovrof (ha- 
<pvaiv i'Tvu TT/v •jCiarepa aal to t/tqoi', (jcnep ol TV(^~Aival udei^ 6aav, 6'tKT^Kr], avfi<!>i£Tal -nira 
Trd/ii^.— Aristotle, Uepi ra ^ua iaTopiuv E (VI), cap. 13 (12).— I use the Paris edition of 
Didot (Opera, III, 1854). 

■"Aristotle, IX, 15. 

■■^No reference is made anywhere to the green color characteristic of the bones of 
the gars. 

fiHist. Brit. Birds. II, p. 344. 


female kingfisher deposits her round, shining-white eggs, from six to eiglit or nine 
in number. 

The Enropeau kingfisher is a small bird, with a length of wiug of 
about 3 inches. Therefore it can not catch garfishes, although it can 
capture small pipefishes, living, as they do, in shallow, reedy waters. 

Another ancient equivalent of ;?£/">/; was «o/£i/>y;c,' and that name, 
signifying " without nuicosity," would be especially applicable to the 
pipefish and not to the gar. 

Still another synonym of {izhhr^ was [>o.(fi-. The Ehaphisj according 
to Aristotle, was toothless, thus contrasting with the formidably toothed 
gar and agreeing with the edentulous i)ipefishes. The synonymy of 
RJiaphis with Btione was declared by Dorio, according to Athenieus,^ 
who said that the ^e'/jr^r, was the same fish they called paipic. The name 
is also still retained in composition in (xroece, the Siphostoma acus 
being known in some places as Saccorapha {iraxxopdwa), according to 

So fiir, then, as all the statements respecting Belo7ie and its syno- 
nyms, Iiliaphis and Ahlennes, are specific, they are applicable to the 
jjipefishes and not to the garfishes. But surely, it may be urged, the 
garfish must have been noticed by Aristotle or some of the ancient 
writers. It undoubtedly was, and one of the names that has not been 
identified indicated that fish. 

Aristotle, in referring to those fishes which are gregarious, names 
the SarginoH {lapyho:) just before the Belone.^ This alone would show 
nothing and would cast no light on the special fish intended, but it so 
happens that very slight modifications of the same name {aapyd'j'joz^ 
Zapyd'^i) are still borne in Greece by the garfish, according to Erhard, 
Apostolides, and Hoffman. This fact, taken in connection with its 
habits and the juxtaposition of the name to Belone, as well as negative 
evidence, leaves little or no doubt that the Sarginos" of Aristotle was 
the garfish. 

'By a fortunate lapsus in transliteration, Dr. Jordan gave the name Athlennes 
(instead of Ablennes) to a subgenus of gars peculiar to America, and therefore only 
a meaningless name has resulted instead of the more objectionable perversion of an 
ancient one. 

2Book VII, section 111. 

^La Pcche en Grecc, p. 11. 

•"Aristotle, after distinguishing different kinds of gregariou.sness in fishes, col- 
locates them as follows : 'O'/uog iya)s?Mla ta^^i ra Toi.a6i:,-&vvvifi€<;, naivi^eq, k(ii3lol, jiuKeq, 
oal'poL, nopaKlvoL, aivodovreg, Tpr/?.at, afi'iMivm, dv&lai, tXeylvoi, ci'&eplvoi, aapytvoi, jSeaovcu, 
TEV&ol, lov?u6ec, nriXa/ivde^, aK6/i[3poL, KO/uai, — IX, chap. 2 (3). 

■Sarginos, it has been said, "seems to be A derivative of aupyo^," but this ety- 
mology appears to me to be very improbable, and the similarity of the two names is 
probably a mere accidental coincidence. A strauge identification has been attempted 
of the Sarghios with the Tetragonurus cuvieri, or, in the words of Cresswell (Aris- 
totle's History of Animals, p. 321), " Tetraf/onus niger." (It may be added that the 
page referred to in Cresswell's index should be "234" instead of "231.") There 
is, of course, not the slightest justification for such an identification. 


It is possible, too, although improbable, that in ancient times there 
may have been some confusion of the gartish witli ])ipeiishes, and that 
the former may have been considered as over^iiown Helonides. It is 
still more possible, and even probable, that in the lapse of time such 
confusion had resulted and even culminated in the transfer of the name 
Belone, under the moditied form iSskoviou, and to the garhsh. Certain it 
is, at least, that Erhard and Apostolides^ have given the hist name as 
one now carried, as well as the others, by the garfish in Greece. It is 
proper to add, however, that their statement has not been confiiined by 
Professor Hoffman, Avho oidy heard Zarf/ana applied to the garfish. 

Apostolides himself' elsewhere uses only the name Zargana, as when 
be notices the fishes of passage'' and those that are caught at certain 

It must be remembered also that the same name is not infrequently 
applied to animals differing greatly, because they have some super- 
ficial resemblance or adaptation. Thus, in Greece at the presentday, the 
same name (CheUdono2)-saro, .Xe^tdowc/japi,) is given to the fiyiiig fishes of 
the genera Daetylopterv.s and Exocoetus, although they differ greatly in 
almost every character and l)elong to different orders. Tlie resemblance 
between a garfish and pipefish is at least as great as that between a 
dactylopterid and an exoccetid. 


The synentognathous fishes were by most naturalists retained in the 
same family with the pikes from 1817 to 1815, when Midler segregated 
them as a peculiar family under the name iScomberesoees. There were, 
however, several dissentients from this view, and partial anticipations 
of modern views. The most prominent idea — and an erroneous one — 
was that the modification for emergence from the sea and sustentatiou 
in the air was of superior systematic value. On this assumption the 
flying fishes, or Exocoetines, were differentiated from all the other Syueu- 

'An analogous case of confusion and subsequent transfer of name by the modern 
Greeks to a quite different tish from that called by the same designation among the 
ancient Greeks, is furnished by Scarus. The Scarus (S/capof) of Aristotle was un- 
questionably the fish which still bears that name (or Sparisoma scar«s; in ichthyo- 
ological literature, but according to both Apostolides and Hoffman the title is now 
applied by some fishermen at least to a Sargus {DipJodus vctida). Even the name, as 
an independent species, of the fish so renowned and prized among the ancients 
(Nunc Scarodatur/xrHofjMVMs [etc.], Pliny, IX, ch. 29), does not appear in the memoirs 
of either Apostolides or Hofiman and Jordan. 

-La Peche en Grcce, p. 32 (1883). 

"Les pecheiirs distiuguent biiMi les poissons qui, pendant tonte I'annee, ne quittent 
pas les cotes, et ceux qui y iipparaissent a des (^po(iues d^terminees. Ces deruiers 
regoivent le nom de passage rs (-fpaorZ/ca), tels sont les difi'erentes especes de Sardines, 
les Maquereaux, les Scombres maciuereaux {Ko'/moi), les Saurels (YavpuUa), les Thons 
{^ayiariKo, poissou de mai), les Pelamydes et. dans certains endroits, les Belones 
(Zapyavai). — Lii Peche en Grece, ]). 36. 

^Dansce meme raois [Septembre] se fait aussi la peche des Belones (Zapyrhcf), 
[etc.]. — La Peche en Grece, p. 38. 



As early as 1850, Prince Bonaparte of Canino had used the names 
Belonidiv and Exocwtidw. In bis "Conspectus Systematis Piscium," 
lie proposed the following division of tbe Esoces or Syuentognathi : 

Section VI. Phakyxgogxathi. 

Ordo 14. Esoces. 

68. Belouulae. 

160. Beloniui 6' 5 Med. Atl. Pac 80 

69. Exoccpiidae. 

161. ExocQitini 2- Med. Atl. Pac 40 

6 7 120'' 

It will be evident to one familiar with the status of ichthyology in 
1850, that the families so named have quite different limits from those 
later recognized. In fact, they are simply the subfamilies " Beloniui " 
and "Exocetini" of Bonaparte's earlier systems, elevated to family 
rank. The Beloniui were those with the pectorals normal (pinnne 
pectorales congrufe) and jaws produced (mandibuhe longissima:', in 
rostrum acutnm protractum); they thus included not only Belonidte as 
I)roperly limited, but also Scomberesociuiv and Hemirhamphintc. The 
Exoccetini were defined solely in the following terms: " Exoeetini. 
Pinn;e pectorales maxim;e, volatui aptte." 

As Bonaparte had, in the same "Conspectus," used the name Luciidw 
in place of Esocidtv for the pikes, it is almost certain that he had been 
influenced by his knowledge of Kafinesque's work, and had adopted 
the names given by him. 


In 1872 Gill, in his "Arrangement of the Families of Fishes," 
divided the Syneutognaths into two families. 


139. Beloitidw Soomberesocida-, Gtlir., VI, 23:^,234-256. 

140. Scomheresocida' Scomberesocidic, CJthr., VI, 233,256-298. 

By these references, the family Belouidiie was limited to the genus 
Belone, as recognized by Giinther, and Scomberesocidte to the genera 
Scomberesox, Hemirhamphns, Arrhnmphiis iiw(\. Exoccetus, of the same 
author. Gill was led to this classification by a consideration of the 
relations of the intermaxillary and supramaxillary bones, and the devel- 
opment of the characteristic supplementary bone of the lower jaw. 

' "Fossiles." - "Europ." ^ "Species viventes." 


In 1878 Professor Cope' defiued the Belonidw in the following terms: 

i'ho genus Belone must be ])laeed iu a family gronj) distiuct from that which 
lucludes the geuus Exocwtiis and its allies. I have already pointed out the fact that 
it possesses a distiuct coronoid boue; iu addition to this, the vertebra' display zyo-a- 
pophyses, a character unusual among fishes. On these two characters I propose the 
family Belonid;e. Professor Gill has already created this uaiiie, but bo did uot 
defiue the group to which be applied it. 

These views were not adopted for some time by other authors, Messrs. 
Jordan and Gilbert and others preferring the older compound. 

In 1885 Dr. Jordan ' accepted the two families, Belonidjc and Soom- 
beresocidfe, although, by a typographical slip, all were placed under 
the former name, the latter having l)een forgotten. 

In 1888 Dr. Jordan-' reverted back to the old views, combining all 
the Synentognaths in one family designated as ExoccetUJce. 

Other historical data may be obtained by reference to the sj^nonymy 
ol' the various types. 


The gars have a lower jaw peculiar iu that, in addition to the normal 
three bones (articular, angular and dentary), a fourth is devel()i)ed 
C(mtinuous from the articuhir and lying mostly inside of the upper 
portion of the dentary. This element appears to have been unnoticed 
by most naturalists aiul to have been lirst observed by Dr. B. C. Bruhl. 

In 1847 Bruhl ^ published a figure of the disintegrated right mandible 
in which the supplementary bone is marked "ZK". I have, however, 
been unable to find any reference to it in the text. In his observations 
on the lower jaw,^ Bruhl indeed stated (erroneously) that an excess 
over three bones was found only in two fishes, Lepklosteus and 
Osteoglossum. ^' 

In 1878 Professor Cope' recalled that he had " already pointed out 
that [Belone] possesses a distinct coronoid bone'", and considered the 

'Synopsis of the Fishes of the Peruvian Amazon, etc." (Proc. Am. Pliil. Soc, 
XVII, 695.) 

-Catalogue of the Fishes of North America, p. 59. 

3 A Manual of the Vertebrate Auimals of the Northern United .States, fifth edition, 
p. 91. 

•* Aufaugsgruade der vergleichendeu Anatomic aller Thierklasseu, Atlas, pi. xi. 
fig. 17. 

» § 39. Der Uuterkiefer. 

'■ Vermehrung der Unterkiefertheile findetsich wirklich nur bei zwei Fischen: bei 
Lepidosteus osseus und Osteoglossum (nach Miiller), die sechs Stiicke iu jeder 
Unterkieferhiilfte ziihlen. Bei Auarrbichas lupus befindet sich (uach Duvernoy's 
Angabe, c. I.Tom. IV, Part I, pag. 20) die Geleukfliiche des Gelenkstiickes an eiuem, 
vom iibrigen Gelenkstiicke getrenuten Knochelchen, das er subangulaire nennt. Das 
Vorkommeu vou vier Theilen in jeder Uuterkieferbiilfte bei Polypterus . . . bildet 
keiue Ausuabme von der Normalzahl, [etc.]. — Aufaugsgruude der vergleichendeu 
Aiuitomie aller Thierklasseu, p. 90. 

"Proc. Am. Phil. Soc, XVII, 695. 


possession of tliat element to be one of the two cardinal characters 
distinctive of the family Belonidiie.' 

It is not iu Belone alone, however, that the supplementary bone in 
question occurs. It is also to be found (but in diminished proportions) 
in the other Synentognaths. It was found quite independently by a 
disciple of Dr. Jordan. In a letter to me dated April 21, 1894, Dr. 
Jordan wrote: 

According to Mr. Stark, one of my students who is working out their skeletons, 
there is a rudiment of this so-called coronoid iu all the Synentognaths as well as 
iu Esox l^ Belone}. 

Dr. Jordan has aptly called the element in question the "so-called 
coronoid".^ It can not be called appropriately the coronoid, as that term 
implies homology with the bone so called in Lepidosteids, and between 
those fishes and the Belonids is an impassable gap and a host of inter- 
vening forms without any corresponding bone. The bone in question, 
therefore, must have been independently developed, and consequently 
shovtld receive a distinctive name. Addentary may be taken as a some- 
what descriptive designatioj 


In the present communication, I have preferred to adhere to my pre- 
vious estimate of the Exoc(f tines, Scomberesociues, and Hemirhani- 
phines, and have retained them as subfamilies. Dr. Jordan, however, 
has elevated them to family rank, and in a letter to me expressed the 
following sentiments : 

I am inclined to think that the flying-fishes and the half-beaks at least should 
be separated into distinct families, as the upper pharyngeals are fully united in the 
latter and separated in the flying-fishes and iu ScomI>eresor. I am sure that difi'erences 
of this grade would be accepted as family differences in large groups like the per- 
coid fishes, and I do not see why they may not properly be so regarded here. There 
is, however, no doubt of the close union of these forms as compared with Esox 

Dr. Jordan's opinions are entitled to the utmost consideration, and 
it is quite possible that I may be convinced hereafter of the propriety 
of this enhanced valuation of the characteristics of the several groups 
in question. At present, however, it appears to me that the differences 
of the pharyngeals in certain groups recognized by both of us as nat- 
ural families, are quite as great as those manifested in the forms still 
retained in the fiimily of Exocoetids. Such are the Sciienids, the Poma- 
centrids, and the Labrids. 

'I have been unable to learn, either through an examination of Professor Cope's 
works or through the author himself, where he had previously pointed out that 
[^Bcloiie^ possesses a distinct coronoid bone. Professor Cope was unable to find anj' 
previous notice. 

^The "coronoid" of ganoids can not be homogenetic with the homonymous bone 
of reptiles, and, as the name appears to have been originally used iu connection with 
the crocodile, the ganoid's may be called " coronine." 




=Pharii»(io(jnathi malacopleri/dii, MC'M.EK, Arrlm Xatnrgesch., 9. .lalirg'., I, p. 

310, 1843; IH. JaUrg., I, p. 103, 1845; Abhaudl. Akad. Wiss., 1842, p. 170. 

=£socts, BoNArAKTE, Cousp. S,v8t. Pisciimi, Ordo 14, 1850. (Order.) 
:=Soft- filmed Pharyngeal Fishes {Malucopler[i<jii), Ad.\ms, Mau. Nat. Hist., p. 

106, 18.54. (Suborder.) 
=zSijnphariin<jodonles, Eleekek, Enum. Spec. Piseiiiiii Arch. Iiul., p. xx.\, 1859. 

(TriJ)ii': of Ordo Esotes.) 
^Siiiifntoi/nathi, Gill. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1859, p. 148 (1859). (Sub- 
=Malacopterii<iii phaningognathi, Gunthek, Cat. Fish. Brit. Mus., V, p. 1, 1865. 

(Suborder. Ab.indoned, aud family Scomheresocida- ouly recognized, Yl, 

p. 233. J 
=Synentofjnathi, Cope, Proc. Am. Assoc. Adv. Sci. 1871, XX, i)p. 335, 338(1872). 

=^Scombrcsoces, Hleeker, Atlas Ich. ludes N6erlaud., VI, p. 40, 1866-72. 
=^Synento(jnath}, .JoRD.\N aud Gilbert, Syn, Fishes N. Am., pp. 367, 371, 1882. 



<iS(rt^/o»of('.s, DuMEuiL, Zool. Anal., p. 149, 1806. 

X I'-Kocctini, Rafinesque, Indice d'lttiolog. Siciliana, p. 35, 1810. 

^Sah-idini, R.\kine.sque, Indice d'lttiohig. Siciliana, p. 33, 1810. 

<^Sii((joHia, Rafinesque, Analyse Nat., p. 89, 1815. 

<^Exoceides, Risso, Hist. Nat. de UEurope Merid., Ill, p. 440, 1826. 

<^Scomhcresoccs, Muller, Archiv Naturgesch., 9. Jahrg., I, p. 312, 1843 ; 1 1. .lalirg., 

I, p. 102, 1845. 
<^Scoml)€r-Esoces {Scomberesocida'), Aga.ssiz, Rept. Brit. Assu. Adv. Sci., 1844, 

p. 292. 
y>Exucatida', Bonaparte, Catalogo Metodica dei Pesci Europei, pp. 8, 80, 1846. 
'yExocxtidu'. Bonaparte, Consp. Syst. Ich., faiii. 69, 1850. 
X BvJomdiv, Bonaparte, Consp. Syst. Ich , fam. 68, 1850. 
<CScomhercsockl(f, Adaais, Man. Nat. Hist., p. 106, 1854. 
<^Scomhcreaocid(v, Richard.son, Encycl. Brit., 8 ed., XII, p. 264, 18,56. 
<^Scoi)ihrc>iocoid€i , Bleeker, Enum. Sp. Piscium Archipel. Indico, p. xxx, 1859. 
X SroDiberesocoidif, Gill, Cat. Fishes E. Coast N. America, p. 38, 1861. 
'^Exocafoidiv, Gill, Cat. Fishes E. Coast N. America, p. 38, 18(il. 
<^Svo:nbrcsocida', GuNTHER, Cat. Fish. Brit. Mus., VI, p. 233, 1866. 
<^Scombi-esocida', Cope, Proc. Am. Assoc. Adv. Sci., XX, p. 338, 1872. 
:=ScombeiTsocid(r, Gill, Arrang. Fam. Fishes, p. 14, 1872. 
<lScombe7-csocei, Fit7.ix(;er, Sitz. K. Akad. Wisseiisch. Wieii, LXVII, 1. Abth., 

p. 36, 1873. 
<^Scombre8ocid(v, Poey, Aual. Soc. Esp. Hist. Nat., IV, p. 9, 1875. 
<^Scombeveiioeid(v, .Jordan aud Gilbert, Syn. Fishes N. America, pp. 7.5, 371, 1882. 

Diagnosis. — Syiientognathi with the supriuiuixiUaries only iu contact 
with the iiitermaxillaries, the inaudible with a reduced intradentary 
bone, the hypopharynjieals united in a broad triangular body, the third 
pair of ei)i})haryiigeals much enlarged, those of the fourth pair aborted 
or united with tlie third, and the vertebra' witiiout zygapopiiysoid 



^=Svomhere80cinw, Gill, Cat. Fishes E. Coast N. America, p. 38, 1861. 
=:Scomheresocin(v, Jordan aud Gilbert, Syn. Fishes N. A,, p. 372, 1882. 
Sphyrenidia geiius, Rafinesque, 1815. 

Diagnosis. — Exocoetids with both jaws more or less elongated and 
attenuated forward, pectoral fins moderate, and the epipharyugeals of 
the third pair separate from each other. 

Two genera are known. 


Scomberesox, Lackpkoe. Hist. Nat. lies Poissons, Y, p. 344, 1803. 

Sayris, Rafinesqi'E, Car. Ale. Geu. e Sp., p. 60, 1810; Anal. Nat., p. 89, 1815. 

Les Scomhre'soces, Cuvier, R&gue Animal (Ire 6d.), II, p. 186, 1817. 

Scomberesox, Cuvier and Valenciennes, Hist. Nat. des Poissons, XVIII, p. 460, 

GrammiconoiHS, Costa, Ann. Mns. Zool. Napoli, 1862, p. 55. 
Scombrcsox, Gunther, Cat. Fish. Brit. Mns., VI, p. 256, 1866. 

From this genus should be removed the >S'. hrevirostris of California, 
which is distinguished by the short or curtailed forceps like jaws. 

Cololabls, Gill, MSS. 
Scombresox, sp., Peters et al. 

Type G. hrevirostris. 

SuT^faiTiily EXOCCETIN^E. 

<^ Lepomla, Rafinesque, Analyse Nat., p. 88, 1815. 

= Exocwtini, Bonap.\rte, Giorn. Accad. di Scieuze, LII (Saggio Distrib. Metod. 

Animali Vertebr. a Sangiie Freddo), p. 94, 1832. 
< Exocelince, Swainson, Nat. Hist, aud Class. Fishes, etc., II, p. 296, 1839. 
=:Exocwtmi, Bonaparte, Nuovi Auuali delle Sci, Nat., II, p. 133, 1838; IV, p. 

274, 1840. 
= Exocaiin\, Bleeker, Ennm. Sp. Piscium Archipel. Indico, p. 30, 1859. 
= Exococil formes, Bleeker, Atlas Ich. Indes Ncerlaud., VI, p. 67, 1866-72. 
= Exocoetinw, Jordan and Gilbert, Syn. Fishes N. Am., p. 372, 1882. 

Diagnosis. — Exoctetids with both jaws rounded or simply angulated 
forward, pectoral fins enlarged and adapted for sustentation of the 
body in the air, and the epipharyugeals of the third pair separate. 


Exococtus, LiNN/EUS, Syst. Nat., 10th ed., I, p. 316, 1758 (J5J. voUtans, only sp.). 
Exoccetus, Weinland, Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., VI, p. 385, 1859. 
Cypselarus, Swainson, Nat. Hist. Fishes, etc., II, p. 296, 1839. 
Fteniclitliys, Muller, Archiv Naturgesch., 9. Jahrg., I, p. 312, 1843. 


Halocypselus, Weinland, Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., VI, p. 385, 1859 (mesogaa- 


Parexocceiiis, Bleeker, Nederl. Tydschr. Dierk., Ill, p. 105, 1865. 


Fodiator. .Fordax and Mrek, Proc. T^ S. Nat. Mas., VIII, p. 45, 1885. 

Subfamily IIE;MIRIIAM:PH[IN".5C. 

^HcmirhampUnw, Gill, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1859, j). 118 (1859). 

= Himirhampluna, PoEV, Anal, de la Soc. Esp. de Hist. Nat., IV, p. 88, 1875. 

= Hcmirh(mi)hin(>', Gii.L, Cat. Fishes K. Coast X. Aniericn, VI, p. 38, 1872. 

= Hemirhamphiformcs, Bi.keker, Atlas Icli. Indes N^erland,, VI, p. 51, 1866-72, 

— Hcmiihamphina', Jokdax and Oilbeht, Syn. Fishes N. Am., p. .372, 1882. 

Didffiiosis.—Exoco^tkU witli the ui)p(M' jaw augalate and tlie lower 
produced into an elongated beak, pectoral tins moderate or little 
enlarged, and the epipharyngeals of the third pair closely united in a 
transverse plate. 

Euleptorhamphus, Gill. Proc. Acad. Nat, .Sci. Phila. 1859, p. 156 (1859). 

Oxiiporhamphus, GiLL, Proc. Acad. \at. Sci. Phila. 1863. p. 273 (1863). 

Zend) ch opt ems. Gill. Pioc. Acad Nat. Sci. Phila. 1863, p. 273 (1863). 

Ch)-io(1onts, GoODE and Bean, Pioc V. S. Nat. Mus., V, p. 432 (1882), 

Dvrwiiqcniis, Van IIasselt Altjeni. Kousten Letterb., 1823, No. 35, p. 131 (lide 

DeniKx/rtn/s, (Van Hasski.t) Bleeker. Ned. Tydschr. Dierk,, III. p. 165,1865. 
Deriiudof/eni/s, (Ji nther, Cat. Fish. Brit. Mns., VI, pp. 260, 275, 1866. (Suh- 

HeiiiirlKiinpIiKti. sp., Guntiier. 


Hemirhampbodon, Bleeker, Ned. Tydschr. Dierk., Ill, p. 139. 1865. 
Hemiyhamphiis. sp., GfNTiiER. 


An-hampkus, GItnther, Cat. Fish. T.rit. ^Ins., \\, ])p. 233,277, 1866. 
Oj-npoiltamphtis, sp., Bleeker. 

ITciiiiraiiiplnifi, CuviER, Regne Animal. II. j). ,371, 1817. 

BiiporlKdupliKs, Gill, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 18.59. p. 131 (1859). 

Family ESOCIT)^^:. 

<^Sia(/(,)iotes, DcMERiL, Zool. Anal., p. 119, 1806. 
<CEwcidi, Rafine.<;que. Indice d'lttiolog. Siciliana, p. 34. 1810. 
<^Sia(/oi(i, Raeinesque, de la Nature, 23. lauL. p. 89, 181.5. 
Proc, N. M. 9,-) 12 


<7i'8oces, CuviER, Rfegne Animal, 1^ 6x1., II. p. 182, 1817; 2^ 6d., II, p. 281, 1829. 

<^Esoci(l(r, Fleming, Phil. Zool., p. 385, 1822. 

<^Esociens, Esocii, Latrkille, Fam. Nat. Rfegne An., p. 121, 182.5. 

<CExoceides,, Hist. Nat. Europe M(<ri(l., Ill, 1826. 

<^Esocida\ Bonaparte, Giorn Accad. di Scienze, LII (Saggio Distrib. Metod. 

Auimali Yertebr. a Sangue Freddo), p. 94, 1832. 
<^Esocida\ Bonaparte, Nuovi Aunali delle Sci. Nat., II, ]).133, 1838; IV, p. 273, 

<^Salmonidw, Swainson, Nat. Hist, and Class. Fishes, etc., II, pp. 184, 283, 1839. 
<^Broche(s on Lucioides, Valenciennes, Hist. Nat. Poiss., XVIII, 1846. 
<^BeloH\d(v, Bonaparte, Consp. Syst. Ich., fam. 68, 18.50. 
:=BcJoiiida', Gill, Arraug Fam. Fishes, p. 14, 1872. 
=Belouid(v, Cope, Proc. Am. Phil. Soc, XVII, p. 695, 1878. 
—Belonid(r, Jordan and FoRDYCE, Proc. U. 8. Nat. Mas., IX, 1886, p. .339. 

Diagnosis. — Syiientognathi with the supramaxillaries united by su- 
ture witli the interniaxillaries, the mandible \a ith au elongated iiitia- 
dentaiy bone, the hypopbaryngeals united in a narrow body, tlie third 
pair of epipharyngeals little enlarged, those of the fourth pair distinct 
from the third and from each other, and the vertebra' with distinct 
zygapophysoid i)rocesses. 

Subfamily ESOCIISr..^. 

<^Esoaidia, Rafinesqce, Analyse Nat., p. 89, 1815. 

<^Belo)ihn, Bonaparte, Nnovi Aunali delle Sci. Nat., II, p. 133, 1838; IV, p. 274, 

<^BeIo)iciiti, Blekkei!, Euum. Sp. Piscinm Archipel. Indico, p. xxx, 1859. 
=zBelo)ihia , Gill, Cat. Fishes E. Coast N. America, p. 38, 1861. 
^^lldonim, Poey, Anal, de la Soc. Esp. de Hist. Nat., IV, p. 9, 1875. 
z^AIaslaccmheliformrs, Bleeker, Atlas Ich. Indes Ncerlaud.. VI, p. 43, 1866-72. 
^^Belonhiw, Jordan and Gilbert, Syu. Fishes N.America, p. 372, 1882. 

Genus ESOX. 

Masiacemhelus. Klein, Hist. Pise. Nat., IV, p. 21, 1744. 

Esox, LiNN.EU.s, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, I, p: 313, 1758. 

Eaox, Rafine.sque, Car. ale. Gen. e Sp., p. 59, 1810. 

liaphistoma, Raeine.sque, Anal. Nat., p. 89, 1815. 

BeloHc, Ci'ViER, Regne Animal, II, p. 185, 1817. 

RamphixUrma (Rafinesque) Swainson, Nat, Hist. Fishes, etc., II, p. 296, 1839. 

Mucroi/iKdJiKs, (iRONOW, p. 147, 1854. 

jilaslacciiihthix, Bleeker, Nederl. Tijdskr. Dierk., Ill, \). 214, 1866. 


Tiilogin-ns, Co( TO. Giorn. Sc. Lett, e Arte Sicil., "XVII, p. 18, 1829". 
TiilosKiKS, .loHDAN iind Gilbert, Syn. Fishes X. Am., p. 372, 1883. 


Atlilennes, Jordan and Meek, Proc. U. S, Nat. Mns., IX, p. 343 (subgenus), 1886. 
Athlennes, Jordan, Man. Vert. An. N. U. S., 5th ed., p. 92 (genus), 1888. 


Polamorrh aphis, GCnther, Cat, Fish. Brit. Mus., VI, pp. 234, 256 (subgenus), 1866. 
Liinmohclns, Agassiz, Journey to Brazil, p. 237, 1868. 


By Theodoke Gill, LL. 1), 

Two SPECIES were originally referred to the geims Teuthls by Lin- 
iijeus, one of which Wiis later referred to the genns ^Siganus or Atnpha- 
canthus, and the other to the genns Acanthurns. There has beeii much 
diversity of opinion among recent authors respecting this usage. Dr. 
Giinther has taken Teutliin for Sif/annti, and I have adoi)ted the name 
in place of Aatnthurus. Dr. Jordan has wavered between the two 
systems. Immediately after the publication of articles by Gill/ and 
Meek and Hoffiuan,- in which Tmthis was accepted instead of Acan- 
ilmrus, he adopted tlie name with the same sense.' Later he dissented 
and expressed the opinion that "the change of the name of this genus 
from Acanthnrm to Teiithis, as made by Gill and Meek, seems unnec- 
essary. The name Teuihls was based by Linna-us on T. hepatus and 
T.jdVHs. Its first restriction was to the latter species, a representative 
of tlie Teutliis of Giinther, the Si(/((nas of Forskal."^ He has adhered 
to this opinion since. ^ 1 shall now proceed to demonstrate that this 
opinion is the result of an imperfect view of the literature. 


The name Hepatus was introduced informally into ichthyology by 
Artedi in 1738 and afterwards employed with a generic diagnosis by 
Gronow (Latin, Ch-onoiuHs). Gronow, in his '^ Zoophylacium," recog- 
nized twosi)ecies: (1) Heixitns vanda fronteqiie inermihns, and (2) Ucpa- 
ins vincronerejfexo ntrinque prope eaudam ; the former is an Acanthnrid 
and the latter a Siganid or Amphacanthid. Further, the Acauthurid 

iProc. U. S. Nat. Mas., VII, pp. 275-281, 18S4. 

■^Proc. Aead. Nat. .Sci. Phila. 1881, pp. 227-231 ( 1881). 

sProc. V. S. Nat. Mus., YIII, p. 386, 1885. 

^Pioc. U. S. Nat. Mu8., IX, p. 49, 1886. 

"Proc. r. S.Nat. Mus., XI, p. 5.52, 1888; XII, p. 650, lX8!t; XIII, p. 32S, ixHO; XIV, 

p. 113, 1891, etc. 

Proci'eiliiiirsof' the ruiled States National iluscuiii, \(il. .\\'III— No. U^^2. 



was described from a specimen of the West Indian A. chirurgns, which 
was recorded l)y Dr. Giinther^ in 1861 as being then in the British 


The name Teuthis was introduced in the twelfth edition of the Sys- 
tema Natnra; by Linnseus ^ as a substitute for Hejyatus, and in fact liis 
kno\\ ledge of the group so called was originally chiefly derived from 
(irouow. From misapprehension as to the position of the ventral lins, 
he referred it to the "Pisces Abdominales" between Silurns and 
Loricaria, and it must be here recalled that he had already recognized 
thiee siiecies of Acanthurids which he associated with theCh.etodons, 
viz: C. (10) nigricans, G. (12) lincafns, and C. (13) friostegus. Had it 
not been for the misapprehension, he would doubtless have referred 
his species of Teuthis also to Chatodon. Linmeus was inferior as an 
ichthyologist to both Artedi and Gronow, and the only reason for 
rejecting the earlier and adopting his later name for a genus, is because 
the binomial nomenclature was not adopted by Gronow in the work 
cited. Accepting, as we do, these principles, Ave commence with Lin- 
njvus, and first have to iiupiire what that naturalist actually meant. 
All that is published in the twelfth edition of " Systema Natura^"^ 
couceiiiing Teuthis is here rei)roduced, it being recalled that the genus 
was referred to the Pisces Abdominales. 

17(i. Teuthis. Caput autice swbtruncatiim. 
Memhr. hraiifh. radiis V. 

J)e«/('s siinplici serie, a^quales, rigidi, approximati. 
Hei'ati s. 1. T. spina utrinque caudali lecimibeute mobili. 

Brown, jam. 455. Teuthis fusca caTuleo uiteiis, aculeo siiiiplici 

litrinqne ad caudam. 
(iron, zooph. 353. Hepatus mucrone reliexo utriiiqiie propc caudaui. 

Seh. mus. 3, p. 104, t. 33, /. 3. Clia^todou fitriilesceus, dorso nisjro, 

Cauda u'qnali exalbido nigroque varia. 
Catesb. car. 2, p. 10, /. 1,./'. 1. Tardus rhomboides. 
Valent. hid. 3,f. 77, 383, 404. 
HahHat in Carolina, Amboiua. 

Caput marime declire. Dentes a^quales, rigidi, unica serie. I'iuna dor- 
salis radiis 2»'ii>ii^ 8 sp>inosis. Veutrales 1 spinoso. Analis 3 
spiiiosis. Ad utrumqiie lattis caudw Spina ralida. siihulata, moMlis, 
crif/ibilis, recinnheii.s, in snlco latilans. 
.lAVrs. 2. T. cauda utrinque uuitica. Crron.zooph.3o2. Hepatus cauda Irouteque 
iuerniibus. D. if P. 15. V. f A. -.V C. 
• J'nieiit. iud.S,p.3o9,f.ilO. Leerviscb. 
Hahifat ad Javam. 

Corpus macuJis longitudinalibus cd-nilescentibus. Cauda hinata. Pin- 
narum ventralinm radius primus et ultivius spinosus. 

1 Cat. Fish. Brit. Mus., Ill, p. 330. 
^LinniJBUs, Syst. Nat., I, p. 507. 
•' Vol. I, p. 507. 


The first of these species is evidently the same as the second species 
of Hepatus, while the second is the first species of Hepatus of Gronow's 
system. Linn;cus did not know these species, as such, through autopsy, 
and derived his knowledge of them almost entirely from Groiiow, 
simply adding some synonyms, in several cases erroneously. 

I repeat that the genus Teuthis of Linnanis was purely the result of 
misapprehension or ignorance; and the genus being misplaced in the 
order Abdominales, its characters contrast with those of any genus of 
that order, but not with those of species referred to the Thoracici, some 
of whose representatives, retained in the genus Cha'todoti, have precisely 
the same characters, and in fact are nearly related congeners of one of 
the species of Teuthis. The clniracters selected for the generic diag- 
nosis, too, are of tli& least value and not even apiilicable in all cases, 
the only important characteristic being the dentition, and in the expres- 
sion thereof Linn;eus was more successful than Gronow, although in 
other respects much inferior. 

Although almost all of the Linnoean genera were composite and 
many of them embraced representatives of a number of distinct fam- 
ilies, the fact that the JSwedish naturalist referred two generic tyi)es to 
Teuthis has appeared to some good ichthyologists a suflicient reason to 
ignore the name for either. Thus both Kner and Klunzinger adopted 
the names Amphacanthus and Acanthurus. 

Kner remarked : ' 

Der Name Teiilhis diirfte kauiii bereclitigt soiu, obigeu Gattnngsnamen wieder zii 
vei'draugeu, da Liun6 iliu wobl fiii" t^iuige Arteu dieser, aber aucli der Gatt. Jcati- 
ihiinis beuiitzte. 

Klunzinger observed :- 

Dar'Same Jmpliacanthiis ist vorzuzieheu, da Liune unter dem Naineu Tentliis sowohl 
eineu . I )n2>h« can thus ids eiueu Acanthunis beschriebeu hat. 


In 1775 Forskal, in his "'Descriptiones Animalium [etc.] qua^ in itinere 
. orientale observavit." introduced new generic or group names for species 
severally congeneric with the species of Hepatus or Teuthis, in a some- 
what informal manner, but which, nevertheless, admits of no doubt as 
to his meaning and intent. The data maybe given in the order of the 

First, on the reverse of the false title page (ii, but not numbered) 
succeeding the introduction and table of contents, is a list of "ISTova 
Genera," among which four " Piscium" are named, viz : 

Salaria. (Gadus3.) 
Scarus. (Scarus 11-18.) 
Siganuis. (Scarns 9-10.) 
Acantburus. (Chtetodon 88-89. ) •'• 

' The numbers after the genera refer not to the nuuiber of species in the respective 
genera, but to the serial numbers of all the fishes described. 
- Kner, Novara Exped. Fisohe, p. 20.5, 186;"). 
'Verb. k. k. zool.-bot. Ges. Wien, XXI, p.T.Ol, 1871. 


Secondly, in the suoeeeding'Taun.t! Orientalis Conspectus " prefatory 
to the " Descriptiones Aninialiam'' ' the following names are to be found : 

Scarus : novum genus. 'Lmpoi^. 

9 («) rhniUdns: Djezavi ycX SUjdn. [Arabic letters.] Nov. jrenu.s: Siyanus. 

10 (b) stellatus. Gbiejehiin. [Arabic letters.] 

No corresponding mention of the name Acanthnn(.s occurs under 

Tliirdly, on referring to the text (page 25) these species are mentioned 

in the following terms: 

Scanis novnui genus antiquo nomine S/cdpor. Character genericns: Dentium loco 
maxillie ipsie eminentes, margine deutato-crenatio, ossca'. 

9. Scarus siganus; rivnlatus; maxillis continuis, coiiiplauatis, margine serrato- 
denticulatis : denticulis approximatis, tiliformibus; a medio labio paulatim decre- 

[A detailed descriiition of the species follows.] 

Obs. Videtur genus proprium una cum sequente constituere; quum Jiabitus prorsus 
]troprius. Nomen Siyani de.sumtum ex Arab. Sidjan vel Sigian. 

10. 8carns stellatus ; ovalis fasciis anuulis ca»ruleo-pallidis, subhexagoni.s, uudi- 
que contignis. 

The name Siganus was thus (1) formally proposed as that of a new 
genus or ''novum genus"; (2) the diagnosis of the "/S'carw.s' sU/anus^^ 
was related intentionally to thegeneric characters, as will he j)erceived 
by a comparison of it with that of the succeeding, and (3) the group was 
recognized as a natural genus on account of the peculiar habit or 
appearance of the two species for which it was jiroposed. 

The "new genus" was (piite properly adopted by Cuvier, for a time 
at least. 

In connection with Chfcfodon,^' a i)roposition was made to distribute 
the S])ecies of the Linnsean genus among three subdivisions, as follows: 

Genus Loc subdivisioncm admittit: (a) Chwtodon: dentibus filiformibus, brevibus, 
numerosis, multoruui ordinum, densis, acutis, iuferioribus seusiui minoribus. P. Br. 
radiis 6. Spin;c P. A. 3. (&) Ahii-def diif: dentibus maxillaribus unius seriei, iili- 
formibus, coutigui.s, submobilibus, obtusis, deutibus faucium nullis, annulo subtus 
circa oculos, P. Br. rad. 5. Spina' P. A. 2. (c) Acantliunin : dentibus unins seriei, 
rigidis, acutis, contignis, vel simplicibus vel lobatis. Cauda in utroque latere aculeo 
uno vel pluribus; exserto et rigido; vel iiiobili et recondendo. Diversum prorsus a 
Clia'todonte genus; aliquande propriam constituens faniiliam. 

This procedure was even less formal than the introduction of the 
genus Sif/cunis, but, nevertheless, the name uicitnihurus has been very 
generally accepted as a generic name for the species of the family dis- 
tinguished by the characters attributed to it. 

It is again to be recalled that the first Linuiean species of Tex this is 
congeneric with the Araufhnri of Forskal, while the other is congeneric 
with the two Sigani of the same author. 

' Page X. ^ Pages xii, xiii. ^Page 25. 



In 1817 Ciivier, in the tirst edition of the "Eegne Aniniiir'i adopted 
the two genera of Forsk;il witli the following naiues: 

Lcs Sidjans. (Auijihacantlnis. Scliu.) 

Les Acaiitlinres. Bl. {Thelitis. L. Ilarpiinis. Forsk.) 

If this means anything, it must be that lie would adopt the name 
"Theutis" for, or at least limit it to, the ^^Acanthurcs,-' but the meaning 
is certainly ambiguous; the restriction, however, is not. 

In lS290uvier, in the second edition of the " Regne Animal."- retained 
the same genera nnder a different guise, viz : 

Les Sidjans. {Siganus. Forsk.) Euro de Commersou : Centrogastcr <le Houttuyn; 

Aiiiph acanthus de lUocli. 
Les Acanthiires (Acanthiirus. Laccp. et 151.). Harpiirus. Forster. Vnlgairement 


Here the name '' Thentis^'' or " Tenthis''' is entirely ignored, but Higanus 
is accepted as the scientitic name of the genus with the limits assigned 
to it by Forskal. 

In 1822 Fleming ^admitted as genera of the fourth section '^ (d)" of 
" Scouiberidie," the genera -'140, Amphaeanlhus {Scarus siganus),-'' ^'141, 
TJientis (T. hepatus),''^ and ''142, Waseus.^^ Theuthis [TeutMs) is thus 
definitely restricted by specific mention of type to the surgeon-fishes. 

In 1832 Minding, in his " Lehrbuch der Naturgeschichte des Fisches,"* 
adopted the same two genera with the following names: 

(1) Sidian, Amphaeantlius. 

(2) Felseiitiscli, Teiifhis: ( Tec^/r eine Siipienart bei deu Gr.). 

One species was mentioned, the " Wundarzt, T. chirurgus.'''' 
In 1833 Bonaparte (then Prince of Musignauo), in the second part 
of his '^Saggio di nua Distribuzioue metodica degli Animali Verte- 
brati," gave the following genera under Teuthidida'^' 

158. Sigauus, Forsk. {Bnro, Cornm. Centrofiaster, Houtt. 

Amphacanthus, BJ.) M. Indico. 20. 

159. Tenthis L. {Acanthiirus, Lacep.; Harpurns, Forst.; 

Aspisurus, Lace'p. del.) Atl. Pac. Ira i Trop. 25. 

1. Tenthis, Nob. 

2. Acanthuriis, Nob. 
S. Scopas, Nob. 

4. Ctenodoii, Nob. 

Both names (Siganus and Teutliis) were thus again used with the 
limits still retained bv me. 

' Vol. II, p. 330. 

-Vol. II, p. 223. 

^Pliilosopliy of Zoology, p. 396. 

'Page 111. 

•■^The other genera of Tentbidida' admitted were: ItiO, Prioimrns, Lacep.: 161, 
Nasens, Commers. {Monoceros, Bl.) ; 162, Asiuurus, Ciiv. ; 163, Priodoiitichtbys, Nob. 
{Priodon, Ciiv.). 



Far from the ''first restriction" of Texthis being to KSigaitus (as 
claimed by Jordan), it was not till near tlie close of tlie first half of the 
nineteenth century that any proposition to that effect was i)ublished. 

In 1849 Dr. Cantor,^ in his < 'atalogue of Malayan Fishes, nsed the 
name Teutliu in place of Siganus or Amphacanthus. 

In 1854 Dr. Gray published a '' Catalogue of Fish collected and 
descril)ed by Lawrence Theodore (ironow," now in the liritish Museum, 
and this was the first publication of a raanuscrii)t of that great ichthy- 
ologist, who died in 1778. Unfortunately no attempt was made by an 
editor to coUocate the sheets in systematic order,- and hence we find 
closely allied genera often widely removed and approximated to those 
with which they have no affinity. Among those widely separated are 
Teuthis (p. 142) and Acronurus (p. 190). The former name had been sub- 
stituted by Gronow for his own Heputus, but restricted to the Sigani, 
and the latter was a new name for the Acanthuri. 

In 1861 Dr. Giiuther^ followed Cantor and Gronow in retaining the 
name Teuthis for the amphacanthoid fishes and AcfuithurKs for the sur- 
geon fishes; he also revived the name Acronurns for what are now 
known to be young of the Acanthuri, although none were known to 
Gronow himself.^ 

The example thus set by Dr. Giinther has been generally followed by 
his successors. 


It may become known to some, that about 1840 Bonaparte recognized 
two families bearing the same names as the Giintherian — Teuthididie 
and Acanthurida^, — and it might naturally be supposed that the names 
represented the same groups defined by Giinther. Even if such were 
the case, the past nomenclature would not be affected thereby, and at 
most a change of opinion on the part of Bonaparte would have been 
manifested. Islevertheless, even such change did not really take jilace, 
and the names in question simply indicate a strange mental phase or 
confusion that existed for a short time. The status may be of suffic- 
ient interest to detail. 

1 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, XYIII, p. 1189. 

'-" Some person, evidently not the author, or one well conversant -with the subject, 
has marked the genera in the manuscript," which had never been sewed together, 
with a conse«iuent number. (Gray in Preface, pp. vi. vii.) The sequence of the 
Zoophylaciuui sliould have been adojjted. 

"Catalogue of the Acanthopterygian Fishes, III, p. 313. 

^"The name is taken from Gronow. who intended to apph' it to fishes of tliis 
family." (Giinther, III, p. 845.) 


Bouaparte's views as to the Teiithiflidffi, from time to time, are as 
follows . 

Family TJ^rTHIDID.K. 

TcuDikVuhv, BOXAI'AKTK, Saggio Distr. jMotod. Auiiiuil \'ertel)r.. p. ;>l. 1.S33. 

Teitilijidida', Bonaparte, N. Anual. >Sc. Nat., Auuo it, IF. ]>. 133 (Cycloidiu ), 1838. 


Acanihurhla', Bonapakte, X. Anual. Sc. Nat., Anno 2, I\', p. 190 (Cteiioidci ;, 1810. 
Tt'iitliiiJuhr, Bonapakte, N. Anual. Sc. Nat., Auuo 2. IV, p. 271 (Cycloidei), 1840. 


Acaniltiiridi. ISonapakte, Fauna Ital., Pesci, hit., p. [6], 
TheuflniiJidi. Bonaparte. Fauna Ital., Pesci, Int., p. [11]. 


Teuthi/ida; Bonaparte, Cat. Metod. Pesci Europei. p. 7 (with subfamilies Auipha- 
cautliini and Teuthyini), 1846. 


Tenlliiididd', Boxapartk, (_'(jn.sp. 8yst. Pisciuni, 1850. 

Originally Bonaparte adopted the family Theutyes of Cuvier, with 
the same limits attributed to it hy the great anatomist, but provided 
the regularly formed family name Teuthididte (1833) or, less correctly", 
Teuthydidii; (1838). 

In 1810, however, he widely separated the constituents of the old 
family in the following manner, only special characters being here 
reproduced : 


Fauiilia 18. Acanthurid^e. Squamis ruvidis.' 

8ubfau)ilia 47. Acaiithuritii. Radii dorsales spiuosi a mollibus baud dis- 
tiucti: pinuw ventrales thoracici. 


Fauiilia 45. Teuthidid.e. ; radii spino^^i plures iu ])iuua dorsali. unus 

saltern in anali et in utraque ventrali. 
Subfamilia Tetithidini. Pinna dorsalis uuica. 

The AcanthuridiTB contaiu typical representatives of the ftimily so 
called, but the Teuthididti' do not an&wer at all to the Siganids. The 
attribute of several dorsal spines and at least a single spine in the anal 
and each ventral, as well as the single dorsal fin, are descri])tive only of 
Acanthurids, and not Siganids. The cycloid scales are the only char- 
acters distinctive of Siganids, and iu 1842 Agassiz, in the seventeenth 

' There is no adjective ruvidus in classical Latin, and it is not evident why scabris 
should not have been used as the exact e(|uivalent of what Bonaparte meant, instead 
of a latinized form of the Italian ruvido. 

186 APPLICA TIOX OF THE NA ME TE UTHIS— G IL L . vol. x viii. 

livraison of his "Poissons,"^ gave the following views respectiug the 
Teuthyes : 

I)v la J'amUle des Teuthyes. 

Cette petite fauiille. iiui n'est composeee [sicj que de ([uelques genres, se distingue 
assez facilement par ses ^cailles, d'liue petitesse extreme, repandues eu trt'S-grande 
quantity sur toute la peau. II fant en ('diminer le genre Aniplaacauthns, ({ue ses grandes 
^cailles cycloidiques et ses autres caracteres zoologi([ues obligent a placer dans une 
autre faniille. Chez le reste des Teuthyes, et notamiuent chez les Acanthures et les 
Naseus, les ecailles forment de petites escjuilles transparentes, lisses, depourvues de 
tout ornement et h^rissees, an bord post^rieur, de quel<[ues petites Opines assez 
eftil^es, qui ressemblent un pen a celles que nous avous rencontrees chez les Zanclus 
de la famille des Squamipennes. 

Perhaps it was this publijcatiou tliat again drew Bonaparte's atten- 
tion to the families, for soon afterwards he reverted to his original 
views as to the limits of the family, recombining his Teuthidid.t, and 
Acanthuridti^ in a single family, at first (18-4G) nnder the name Tenthy- 
idse, and later (1850) again resuming the name Teuthydidre. He made 
an advance, however, in the recognition of two subfamilies, Ampha- 
canthini and Teuthyini (184(1) or Teuthidina- (1850). 


Teiithi.s is one of the many names intiicted on scientific nomenclature 
by Linnteus as a result of his proclivity to take classical names and 
])ervert tlieni to the designation of forms which are not related to and 
possess no intimate characters or analogies in common with the species 
to which they were originally applied. The Teuthis {Tsuf){::) of the 
Greeks was a squid (Loliginid). but there was also a gregarious fish 
mentioned once by Aristotle- as the Teutlios {Tsutio:;) and respecting 
which nothing more is known.' It may be that Linnaeus intended to 
take the latter name, but in fact he took the former, and, therefore, as 
long as the i»rescnt code of nomenclature is retained, the surgeon-fishes, 
belonging to a family entirely unknown to the Greeks, must bear a 
name originally given to squids.^ The name Te?^f/ios, however, would 
only have the advantage in that it belonged to a fish, and its exact per- 
tinence is unknown. 

Teuthis itself has not been retained unimjiaired. It was transformed 
into Theuthis and Theutis by Cuvier (1798 and 1817), and gave rise to 
the family name Theuties,^ Teuthyei,^ Teuthyen'^ and Teuthyw,^ of Agassiz. 

'Vol. I, p. 88. 

-Vol. IX, Chap. 3. 

•''It is quite possible that the Tfvflof may hare been placed among the true fishes 
inadvertently, ov that some error of a copyist has crept in. Teuiliis and Teuthos are 
both used by Aristotle as names of different kinds of squids. 

■•The case is just as bad, if not worse, if Teuthis is used for the Sigauids. 

■'"' Theuties, Agassiz, Poiss. Foss., IV, pp. xiii, 212. 

" Tciithijci, Agassiz, Poiss. Foss., IV, p. 41. 

' Teuthyes, Agassiz, Poiss. Foss., I, 88; IV, p. 206. 

8 Teuthya-, Agassiz, Ren. Brit. Assn. Adv. 8ci., 1844, p. 288. 


luasiiHU'li as the oblique cases take -id {TsoOiq^ -cdix;), tho proper form 
of the tauiily name is Tenthirlida'. 


The foregoing citations (which might have been mucli increased) are 
sutticient to demonstrate that Teuthis sliould be used in i)iace of Acan- 
tliurus and not of Sif/anus. From whatever point of view we look, we 
are forced to this conclusion. 

1. The first species of Teuthis was an Acanthurid. 

L*. The genus Si<j((iii(s always appeared before Acanthurus, as well 
in the list of new general and the table of contents, as in the descrip- 
tive portion of Forskal's Avork. 

o. The genus Teuthis was first reduced by elimination to an Acan- 

4. The name Teuthis was first i)ositively restricted to Acanthurids. 

The conclusions thus formulated may be supplemented by a snmmary 
of the synonymy and diagnosis of the genus Teuthis as now limited. 


<^nepatus, Groxow, Zoopliylacium, p. 113, 1763. 

<^Teiithis, LiNNK, Systenia Natnnp, 12th e<l., I. p. 507, 176G. 

<^Avaiitlturus. Forskal, Descriptiones Auimaliiim, p. 25, 1775 (section of (lutfodonf 

<^II(trju(nix, FoKSTKU in Linna4 Syst. Nat., etl. Gmelin, I, p. 1269?, 1788. 
<^Acavtl(iirHs, Bloch, Systenia Iclithyologia', ed. Schneider, p. 211, 1801. 
xAspisurus, IjAckpkde, Hist. Niit. des Poissons, IV, p. 556, 1802. 
<^Les Theiithies (TheutMs), (Juvikr, Tab. El. Hist. Nat., an. 6, p. 371 (1798). 
<^Les Acanth ures Bi.. (Theutis, h.; Harpurus, Forsk.), ("rviER, Rcgne Animal, 

II. ].. 330, 1817. 
<77(e)( ///,■«, Fleming, Phil. Zool., p. 396, 1822. 
<C_Les Acatitlntriis. LACKvkDK et Uloch; Cuvier, Kogne Animal. 2d ed., II, p. 223, 

<^Teitih\s, UoNAPARTE, Giorn. Accad. di Scienze, LII (Saygio Distrib. .Metod. 

Animali Vertebr. a Sangae Freddo), p. 34, 1833. 
?f.J«fH//Nn(/s, PioxARARTE, Giorn. Accad. di Scienze, LII(Saggio Di.strib. Metod. 

Animali Vertebr. a Sangue Freddo), p. 34, 1833. (Subgenus of I'cnthin without 

diagnosis or type.) 
<^Teuthis, Minding, Lehrb. Natnrg. Fische, p. Ill, 1832. 

y-Acantlmrtis, Swainson, Nat. Hist, and Class. Fishes, etc., II, pp. 255, 1839. 
yTeidhys, Swainson, Nat. Hist, and Class. Fishes, etc., II, pp. 255, 1839. 
XCte)>o(ton, Swainson, Nat. Hist, and Class. Fishes, etc., II, pp. 255, 1839. 
=Acronuri(s, Ghonow, Cat. af fish collected and described, p. 142, 1854. 
=Acanthunis j> 1, Gi'NTHER, Cat. Fish. Brit. Mus., Ill, pp. 325, 327, 1861. 
=^Acyoinn-iis, Gunther, Cat. Fish. Brit. Mus., Ill, ]k 345 (young). 
<^Bhomhoii(les, Bleeker. 
<^Acanthuru8, Kner, Novara Fxped., Fische. p]). 210. 212 (c\c ludcs Scopas and 

=Acant]iunis A. Rhombolides, Day, Fishes of India, I, p. 202, 1876. 
<^Acanfhurits, Gunther, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., (4), VIII, p. 320, 1871 (includ- 
ing Acronurus and Keris as pro))ab'lo young). 
<C_Acai)thuru>i, GCntiier, Jouni. Mus. Godeffr., 1\, p. 106, 1875. 
=Teuthis, Gill, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., VII, p. 278, 1884. 



Diagnosis. — Teuthidicls with a pair of an trorse movable caudal spiues, 
strong- fixed teeth, o-rayed centrals, and generally 9 (rarely 7 or 8) 
dorsal spines. 

Ty2)e. — T. hepatits, hiNN ^li-Uii — AcanthiirHs chirnrgus, Blooh, etc. 

The forms actnally belonging to the genus Teuthis as here under- 
stood are the followino-: 

I'reseut names. 

Names of Giintlier iindtir Acantlmnia. 

Teitthis triostega Acanthxmis tiiostegus, I.iiniii 

T. guttata A. guttatus, Forst. 

T. hepatus A. chirurgus, Bloch. 

T. matoides \ A. matoides, U. & V. 

T. uigivfuncus A. nigrofuscus, Forsk., 1775. 

T. bipunctatuis - A. hipunctatus, Gtlir., 1861. 

T.nigroris A. nigros, (xthr., 1861. 

3'. doreensis A. dorcensiK, C. & V. 

T. cliry.soioma A. eltn/sonoma, Bikr. 

T. rubroiivnctata A . ruhropiinctattis, Eiipp. 

T. maiginata A. inarginattis, C. & V. 

T. lineata -1. Uiieatus (Liiin.). 

T. striata i A. striatus, (). & G. 

T.sohal I A. sdhal, Forsk. 

1\ undulata ! A. undidatjis, C. & V. 

T. dussumieri | A. diissumieH, C. & V . 

T.grammoiMla ' A. grammoptihts, Blkr. . 

T. caendea A. cwrule^m, Bl. «fc Sclin. 

T. lineolata A. lineolatus, C. ifc V. 

T. olivaeea \ A. olicacevg, Bl. & Sclin. 

T. pyrofcnis - \ A. pyrofcrus, Kittlitz. 

T. tennentii. 

T. gah in. 


T. glaucopareius . 

T. cclcbicus 

T. fuscvs 

T. loicd.sternon.. 

T. acliilles 

T. triangulus [A. triangulus, C. & V. 

T. fiate'rculus A. fratcrndui, C. «fe V. 

T.bahianus A. bahianus, Castelnau, 1855. 

A. tennentii, Gtlir. 
A. gahin, Forsk. 
A. nvmmi/er, C. & V 
A. glaucopareius, C. iV \ ■ 
A. celehicus, Bleek. 
A.fusctis, Steiiid. 
A. leucosternon, Benii. 
A. achilleg, Shaw. 


Tnttlns aterrima 1 Acanthurus aterrimus, Gthr., 1871. 

7'. polgzona ' I>li<i)iilioti<h-s j)olyzona, Blkr., 1874. 

T. virgata Acantlnirus virgatus, V. & S., 1875. 

T. ccerulea Acruii urua ccerideatus, Boey, 1875. 

T. bahiamis j Acronurus nigriculus, Poe.\', 1875. 

T. aurolineata ] Acanthurris aurolineatus, bay, 1876. 

T. munrovioi i A. inunrovice, Steind., 1876. 

T. plagiatn | A. idagiatus, Peters, 1876. 

j Acronurus formosus, Cast., 1873. 

2'. blvchii Acanthurus bloeJni, C. & V. (formerly 

matoides, C. & V.), (Ulir., 1875. 

T. zebra \ A. zebra,T)ii Vis, 1884. 

T. crestonis j I. crestonis, Jordan it Starks, 1895.' 

* The Teuthis crestonis has been described by Jordan and Starks in a memoir on the Fishes of Sina- 
loa received .jnst before the revised proof of the present communication. It appears therefrom that 
Dr. Jordan has reverted to the use of Teuthis in the sense here defended, as indeed he had previously 
informed me by letter he would do. 



The following forms liave been connected with the name Teuthis,Yiz: 

Former names. 

Teutkis hepatus, L., 1758 

T. jdvus, L., 1758 

T. 'aiLSfralis. Gray, 1826 

T. ciiiicateitatus (C. & V.), Cantor, 1850. 

T. dorsalis (C. & V.), Cantor, 1850 

T. brevirostris, Gron., 1854 

T. tubulosa, Grou., 1854 

(XameK of Gunther, 1S61.) 

Names adopted. 

Teuthis hepatijg. 

Teuthis trinsfeijus. 
Si(/anus coucnteiiahis. 
>S. dorsali.D. 
S. albdVUDctatiix. 
S. vulpinus. 

javiis (L.) I -S'. 

raiialiculata (Park) i S. 

cdiicateiiafa (C. iS: V.) ■ S. 

ciiralUiiaiV. &V.) I i>. 

rt'i iniciilata (C. & V.) S. 

laluiriii thodi's (Bleek.) ■ ,S'. 

M(/. ,/■(('. A V.) .S'. 

/,(« rq<i iitilera(C. S:,y.) -V. 

til III hi nil .V (C. ifc Y.) /S', 

dui-saiin{C &V.) Cantor ^ iV 

rami II (Bl. &Sclin.) Gllir '. 

aUnrpiutctata (Sclil.) 

.sti-iolata, Gtlir 

Iiexai/onata (Bleek.) 

ni'tfata (Bl.) 

xtMata ( Forsk.) 

Dotnstiftii (Kicbardson) 

fiiwcsceifi (Hont.) 

liirida (Kiipi).) 

nebidusa (Bl. \- Si-lin.) 

argcriti'a (Q. &G.) 

marmorata (Q. & G.) 

Hiieata (C. & V.) I *V. 

,si'(/«?i Of (Forsk.) 1 (V. 

tetrazona (Bleek.) 

diAiata (Cuv.) 

piiella (Schleg.) 

virgata (C. & V.) 

imlpina (S. & M.) 




















jninctatuti .' 




sigan . 







Teuthis meftensii ? (C. & V.) Kner, 1865 Siganus mertensii ? 

r. iiliiiosticta, Kner, 1 808 ,V. oligostictus. 

r. riistrata, (C. &V.)Gthr., 1874 ' S. rostratm: 

J', studeri, Peters, 1876 ,S'. studeri. 

T. gibbosiis. De Vis, 1884 j ,S'. gibbosus. 

T. tetithopHt!, De Vis. 1884 1 .V. teuthopnis. 

T.fiava, De Vis, 1884 '\ S. Jfavus. 

T. vitianus, Sauvage, 1886 jS'. vitianus. 

T. abhortani, (C. & V.) Sauvage, 1891 j ,S'. abhortani. 


Bv TiiKODOKE Gill, LL. D. 

The shark genus generally known under the name Scymnns can 
not retain that name. To show why it can not and what shonld be its 
substitute is the object of the present communication. 

The name IScymnus was given to the genus of sliarks by Cuvier in 
1817; the same name had been given by Kugelmann in 1794 to a genus 
of coccinelloid beetles, and is still in use, the insect genus now com- 
prising very numerous species. Therefore, the use of the appellation 
in ichthyology is precluded. Several names are available as substitutes. 


In ISIO Rafinesque gave the name Balatias to a genus distingnished 
from his fSqnalus {Acanthias) by the alleged absence of spiracles. Our 
knowledge of the Mediterranean fauna and Rafinesque's descriptions 
otherwise enable us to identify the two species which he refers to 
Balatias and to assume that the spiracles must have been present in 
both of them. The I), sparophagus was a Scymnus; the D. nociurnus 
a typical Squalus. Balatias of Rafinesque was, therefore, a synonym 
of Squalus of Rafinesque, and the result of a blunder and failure of 


In 1839 Swaiuson adopted the genus ^^ Balatias, Raf"' but limited it 
to B. nocturnus, incorporating with the generic diagnosis, chara(;ters 
derived from the specific diagnosis given by Ratiuescjue (furnished with 
anterior spines, etc.) of B. nocturnus. 


In 181:0 Bonaparte first substituted for the name Scymnus the new 
term Scymnorlmius, doubtless for the reason that he had ascertained 
that the coleopterous genus had received the former name before the 

Proceedings of the United States National Museum, Vol. XVIII— No. 1053. 




In 1850 Gray revived the name DnlaUas for the Scymui, on the ground 
of priority for the former and iiot because Scymnus was preoccupied. 


I conclude that Balatias was to all intents and purposes a pure 
synonym of Sijuahis, and the addition of a species of another genus 
was surely insuflftcient to affect its character. Seym n us would therefore 
have been available as the first independent name of the shark genus, 
so called, had it not been already used. Under the circumstances, how- 
ever, DalaUas might have been revived with the moditied sense attrib- 
uted to it by Gray, if its revival had not been precluded by other con 
siderations. But the previous limitation of Balatias by Swaiuson and 
substitution of a new name by Bonaparte barred such revival. The 
name given by Bonaparte must therefore be used for the Scymni of 

VI J. 

The following synonymy will give other data respecting the names 
referred to : 


<^Les Leichcs (Scymnns), Cuvier, Regne Aniirial, II, p. 130, 1817; 2il ed., II, p. 

392. 1829 (not of Kugehnaiin, 1794). 
<:^Scjfm.)iorhinus, I?onaparte, Cat. Met. Pesci Enropei, p. 16, 1846. 
<^Dalatias, Gray, List Fishes Biit. Mns., I, p. 75, 1851. 

We may congratulate ourselves that such a barbarous compound as 
Balatias (of unknown formation) need not be used. Scymnorhinushas 
the merit of being of classical origin and correct formation, although 
meaningless' as a denominator of generic characteristics. 


The change of the generic name entails a corresponding cliange in 
the name of the family of which the genus is the type. The nomencla- 
ture of that family is summarized in the following synonymy: 


<^Abtbeilniii; der Haitische, Mt'LLER aud Hent.e, Arcliiv Naturgescb., 3. .labrg., 

I, p. 39!), 1837. 
<Fourth division of Sharks, MfLi.EU aud IIenlk, Mag. Nat. Hist., n.s.. II, 

p. 88, 1838. 
<lSci/iitni, MuLLER and Henle, Syst. I'.eschreib. Plagiostomeu, p. -91, 1841. 
<^Sci/mnidw, Adams, Man. Nat. Hist., p. 89, 1854. 
<lSc!i7nni(l(i', Richardson, Encycl. Brit., 8th ed., XIT, p. 325, 1856. 
<CSc!imnoidei, Bleeker, Enum. Sp. Piscium Archipel. Indico, p. xii, 1859. 

' Scyinnorhinns <^aK{)/j.voc, cub or whelp -{-'pivri, shark. Why Sci/mniis was iipplud 
to beetles is not evident; it may have been given in alhision to their small size. 


<^Sc!jm»oidw, Gill, Ann. N. Y. Lyceum Nat. Hist., VII, p. 405, 1862. 
<C^Scyrnni, A. DuMl?;RiL, Hist. Nat. Poiss., I, pp. 310,450, 1865. 
<^Spiuacida', Gunthek, Cat. Fish. Brit. Mns., VIII, ])p, 355, 417, 1870. 
<CSc!))niii, FiTZiNUER, Sitzuns^sber. K. Akad. dcr Wisseusch. Wieu, LXVII, p. 56, 

<^So»niiofiid(V, .JoKDAX, Man. Vert. An. N. U,. S., 5tli eil., p. 1.5, 1888. 
<^S2n)tacida\ Woodward, Cat. Fossil Fishes Brit. Mus., I, jj. 30, 1889. 
= l)alatnd(v, Gill, Mem. Nat. Acad. Sci., VI, p. 129,1892. 

Subfamily SCY JVINORIIIlNriN"^^:. 

<^Sc!imnini, Bonaparte, Mem. Soe. Hist. Nat. Neuchatel, II, 1838; Nuovi 

Aunali dalle Sci. Nat., II, p. 199, 1838; IV, p. 183, 1840. 
<^Dahttiaiia, Gray, List Fish. Brit. Mus., pt. 1, i>. 74, 1851. 

Proc. N. M. 95 13 


By Theodore Gill, LL. D. 

In a recent article on '' The Nomenclature of the Myliobatidic or 
Aetobatidit^," I retained the names MyUohaUs and A'etohntis with a pro- 
viso. Adopting temporarily the views of Agassiz, 1 remarked: 

This, it seems to nie, is a perfectly legitimate view aucl use of the two names. 
P>oth names, Ai'tobafiis and My liobat is, might have beeu retained for ditterent sections 
of the old genus, if no other considerations had forbidden. Both of those names, 
however, as President Jordan has reminded me, were anticipated by a name given 
by Rafinesque in 1810. 


Rafinesque, in his " Indice d'lttiologi;; Siciliaua," has the genus Cephaleuiherua 
interposed between his Mohuhi, ( = Cephaloptera Uiim.) and Uroxis {Trygon auct.), 
which, according to Dr. Jordan, is a Myliobalis. It is not, however, mentioned by 
Doderlein in his very fall synonyms of the MyUobatids of the Mediterraneau, and 
the book in question can not be found. While 1 have little doubt that Y>v. Jordan 
is correct in his identification, and that the name Ceplialeuthenis should be taken for 
Myliobatis, I defer doing so until I am able to consult the "Indice" or a copy of it. 
Meanwhile I retain the name Myliobati.s, but adojit for the family Aetobatichv. 

Since that publication, Dr. Jordan kindly sent me a copy of the 
description of CepJialeutJierun, und the "Indice d'lttiologia Siciliana" 
was found. These data have compelled me to refuse to adopt Cepha- 
leutherns as a substitute for MyUobutis, and led me to consider that 
nominal genus to have been based on a teratologic specimen exhibit- 
ing an arrest of development. Ratiuesque's description follows: 

Gen. Cephalcuthcrus. Capo sciolto, e diviso dall' ale laterali, occhi, e'spiragli uniti, 
e situati al lato del capo, due ale sopra la coda, nessuua alia sua estremitii. Oaserv. 
Questo genere e rimarchevolissimo, a motivo del carattere che oiferi^ce il suo capo 
sciolto, il quale <■ unito all' ale laterali o.ssiauo pettorali, in tutti gli Jiltri generi 

Sp. n. Ceplialeuthenis maciilatas. Fulvastro al disopra con delle macchie fosche, 

bianchiccio al di sotto, capo appuntato, ale laterali anteriori, appuntate, e scabre 

anceriormente, un ordine di spine sopra la Schiena, e tre sopra la coda, che 6 acuta. 

Osserr. H:l alcuue spine disposte regolarmente sopra il capo, e dietro *gli occhi, la 

bocca c sitnata sotto il capo, ed in un fosso, e le aperture brauchiali sono sotro la 

Proceedings of the United States National Miisemn, Vol. XVIII— No. 1054. 



parte auterioro del corpo, cinque da ogui lato; fra le ale lateiali anterior!, a poste- 
teori vi e nn appendice <i[ digitate alia puuta, 1' auo <' piii vicino del capo, cLe della 
punta della coda, qnesta «■ couvessa al disopra, e piana al disotto, e le alo, cbe porta, 
sono niolto viciue alia sua estreuiita, approssiiuate fra esse, e cou una si)iua fra il 

A free liead separated from tlie pectoral flus, and tlie lateral eyes and 
spiracles, are characteristic features of myliobatoid rays, aud these attri- 
butes have evidently led Ur. Jordan to identify (k'phaleuthcrus macula- 
/?/6' with Myliohatis hovinus, but other characters assigned to the species 
are in direct contravention of such an identification. Such are the two 
dorsal fins (due ala sopra la cauda), the approximation of those fins to 
the end of the tail (molto vicine aHa sua estremita) and to each other 
(approssimata fra esse), the distinct anterior lobes of the ventrals (fra 
le ale laterali anteriori e posteiiori vi e un appendice quasi digitato alia 
puuta), the pointed snout (capo appuntato), the pectoral fins pointed 
and scabrous anteriorly (ale laterali anteriori appuntate e scabre ante- 
riorniente),the row of spiny bucklers along the middle of the back, the 
spines elsewhere, and the dark yellowish back with blockish spots (ful- 
vastro al disopra con delle nmcchie fosclie). These (and other charac- 
ters mentioned) are not shared by Mediterranean Myliobatids, but are 
by different skates. The ray described by Rafinesque appears indeed 
to have been a true skate (apparently liaja clavota), but the notice of 
the distinct head indicates that there was something anomalous about 
it. What, then, was it? 


There is a liability in any skate to an arrest of development in the 
growth of the pectoral fins forward and consequently their continuity 
with the head, but in most of such cases there is an independent ex- 
tension forward from the base of the pectorals. tSuch anomalies have 
received generic names, Propter ygia having been jiroposed for one phase 
of development and Hicro'ptera for another. An analogous phase was 
probably manifest in the specimen noticed by iiaflnesque, and appears 
to be noticed in the terms '' ale laterali anteriori appuntate e scabre 
anteriormeute," which may be interpreted as referring to pectoral fins 
pointed forward. In such cases, the head is distinct from the pecto- 
rals, and the eyes and spiracles more nearly lateral, although not lateral 
to the degree manifest in Myliobatids. The anonmlies represented by 
the generic names Propterijoia and Ilicroptera were described by Otto 
and Fleming. 


The Propterygia of Otto. — Otto, in 1818, obtained a ray in Scotland 
(New Haven), and in 1820 described it as a new generic type — Pro- 
pterygia hyposticta. The genus was defined as follows : 

Raja; altero pinnaruui pectoralium pari ad latera capitis a corpore distiucti ot 
in rostrum subacuiiiiuiitum dt'sineutis; spiraeiila. (luinque;' cauda brevis absque 

'Zum Unterscliied der Secbs bei Ceplialoptera. (Sic I) 

18't3. I'll CEEDING S O F TU E NA TI OX A L M USE U^f. 197 

The description and fignre of Otto represent a skate {Raia intermedia?) 
with pectoral fins distinct from the head, nevertheless witli iini>erfect 
{'ephalic appendages. 

A similar monstrosity is noticed and figured in llichardson's edition 
otYarreirs History of British Fishes,' with the caption, "A monstrons 
thornbaek maid," — that is, Raia davata. 


The Hieroptera of Fleming. — In 1841, the Keverend Dr. John Flem- 
ing gave a "Descrijjtion of a Sjiecies of Skate ncAv to tlie British 
ranna.'' To him it " appears sufficiently evident that this skate can 
not be referred to any known British species. The form of the snout, 
of the ventrals, and of the spines, and the distribution of the latter on 
the back and tail, furnish satisfactory distinguishing characters. But 
above all the peculiar anterior prolongation of the pectoral fins, their 
synnnetrical character preckiding the notion of monstrosity, justify the 
belief tlmt it is a new European form, and entitled to be regarded as 
the tyi)e of a new genus, which [he saysj I proi)Ose to term Eieropiera 
(;c-/M/c, sacerdos, and nT^pau, ala); and 1 further pi'opose to designate the 
present species by the trivial name of Abredonensis, to mark the i)ar- 
ticular locality [Aberdeen Bayj Avhere it was first observed. The 
newest of the modein genera to which it approaches is perhaps the 
Fropterygia of Professor Otto, tlie relatiimship to which immediately 
suggested itself to that profound ichthyologist. Professor Agassiz, 
when [Fleming remarked] I showed him the specimen during the visit 
with which he favored me in October last (ISIO). It difters, however, 
from the Fropterygia in the condition of the pectorals anteriorly, and 
in the absence of those lateral processes or finlets which occur on each 
side of the head opposite to the eyes." 

The reverend doctor evidently had some i)eculiar ideas about mon- 
strosities and their asymmetrical character, and probably such ideas 
Ijrevented him from recognizing his specimen as the monstrosity 
which his mind appears to have considered. The Bieroptera, how- 
ever, did denote a monstrosity, apparently representing a still greater 
arrest of develoi)nient of thei)ectoral fins than Fropterygia, and a com- 
plete absence of cephalic fin elements. 

Fleming's specimen was apparently a form of Raia clarata. 

The Hieroptera stage was probably that exemplified by Rafinesque's 
skate. .It was also represented by a specimen described and illustrated 
by Dr. Louis Bureau in an article "Sur une monstrosite de la Eaie 
estellee, Raia asterias,^ Bond." 

' Vol. II, p. 584, 1859. 

- Bull. Soc Zool. Franre, XIV, p)). :nr>-:U(i, 1889. 

198 XOTIiS ox CEPHALEUTHEJiUS—GILL. vol. xvm. 


The Frophygia of Gray. — Gray, in 1851, cited the name Prajyleygia, 
Otto, in the syuouy my of the geuus Raja^ but without reference to pUice 
of publication or date. Propleygia is, of course, merely a slip for Prop- 
terygUi. The statement is made that the nominal genus "is founded 
on a monstrosity rather frequent among the Eays.'' 

The various names tliat have been given to the monstrosity, or stages 
of arrest of development, of the pectoral fins maybe combined here: 


CvpJialt It thtr )(■•<, liAiiNKStiUE, ludice Ittiol. Sicil., p. 61, 1810. 

Hieroptera, Flemixc, Ediubnrgh New Phil. Journ., XXXI, p. 2M, ]>ls. 4, n, 1841. 


I'lopterijgia, Otto, Nova Acta Acad. Caes. Leop. Car. Nat. Cur., X, p. Ill, x)]8. 5, (3, 

1820; CoDspectus Animal., 1821 (fide Fleming). 
I'rophiiijia. Otto, ./?f/<; Cray, List Fish. Brit. Mus.. I, p. 10.5, 1851 ('misprint?). 


The Ictaetus of Rafincsque. — Although CcphaJeutlieruSj as has been 
shown, was not identical with Myliohatis, one of Eafinesque's genera 
was, in all probability. In his "Analyse de la ^N'ature''' the name 
Ictaetus, Raf., occurs between Mobula, Raf., and Cephaleutherus, Eaf., 
and this is doubtless merely a Greek e(piivalent of " Eagle-ray," a 
quasi-popular designation of Myliohatis. Ictaetus is, however, a pure 
nomen nudum, and can not therefore be revived. 

= 1815, page 93. 

notp:s ox characinoid fishes witit ctenoid scales, 
with a description of a new psectrogaster. 

By Theodore Gill, LL. D. 

DurinCt a recent examination of the Characinoid fishes of the United 
States National Musenm, I found a Curimatine which I at once recog- 
nized as rehited to the long known Anodus or Curimatus ciliaixs, but 
which was much slenderer and apparently undescribed. The rough- 
ness of the body arrested immediate attention and brought up to my 
mind a late article by an ichthyologist of deserved eminence calling 
attention to the presence of ctenoid scales in an African representative 
of the family as peculiar. 


The existence of ctenoid scales in several Characinids has long been 
recorded. In 1S45 Miiller and Troschel named one species Anodus 
ciUaius^ on account of such scales. In 1861 the present writer called 
attention to their presence in an ally of Xiphostoma, and gave the name 
Ctenolncius to commemorate the character. '^ In 1S85 Sagemehl referred 
to the development of ctenoid scales in Curimatus^ Xiphostoma and 
DisticJiodusJ In 1889 Dr. and Mrs. Eigenmanu recognized ctenoid 
scales in some species of typical CurimaU.* Finally, in 1893, Professor 
Vaillant described and illustrated the squamation of the XmiaiJiiops 
umtaniaUis^ from Western Africa.^ Ctenoid scales have therefore been 
found to have become developed in representatives of no less than four 
distinct subfamilies, Curimatinte, Hydrocyoninje, Distichodontinaj and 
Tetragonopterinte, while most of the members of the three polytypic 
subfamilies have cycloid scales.*^ It follows that in each case ctenoid 

1 Horae Ichthyologic«, I, p. 25, pi. iv, fig. 4 (scale). 

2 A Catalogue of the Fishes of the Eastern Coast of North America. ]>. 8, 1861. 
^Morph. Jahrbuch, X, p. 2, 1885. 

< Various other Curimatiues with ctenoid scales have been described by Steiudach- 
ner and the Eigenmanns. 

■■Bull. Soc. piiilomathique de Paris, (8) V, p. 13, 1893. 

^ DinHchodus is the only representative of the Distichodontina?. 

Proceedings of tlie United States National Museum, Vol. XVIII— No. lO.W. 



scales have been developed independently and lu forms by no means 
closely related. Each of the genera in question manifests peculiarities 
in the development of the ciliation or ctenoid type. 


The new species of Curimatina* belongs to the genus named Fsectro- 
^«sfer by Professor and Mrs. Eigenmann, and maybe intercalated in 
the ^'Analysis of the Species" recognized' by them with tlie following 
characters : 

a-. "Origin of dorsal about eijuidistant between tip of suont and base of npper 
caudal fulcra. Origin of ventrals nearer to base of caudal than to 
tip of snout. 
h. Body "rhoniboidal, the dorsal and ventral outlines making angles at the 
origin of tlie dorsal and of the ventral fins;" scales, 5o\^..rhomboides. 
hh. Body saliuoui form, the dorsal and ventral outlines being regularly con- 
vex; scales 54-55{7, aiirofiis. 

aa. "Origin of dorsal about equidistant from tip of snout and from 1ip of adi- 
pose Hn. 

c. "Depth ,-f and 9 about 2] : Lat. 1. 49-56" amazonicus. 

cc. "Depth 9 2,'^; scales Hfi; jirofile convex ciliatus. 

Such would be the position of the P. auratus on the assumption that 
the primary characters have already been indicated, but in fact the 
new species seems to be more differentiated from all the others than 
any one of them is from the other, and the following analysis would 
appear to be more nearly expressive of the comparative divergence of 
the several species : 

a. Depth of body 1:2^-25; color "plumbeous above, gradually becoming lighter 
below; a dusky area., .at end of lateral line."""' 

h. Depth 2i-2| rltomhoides. 

bh. Depth 2^ ama^oiiicus. 

Ihh. Depth 2f (? -2^ 9 cUiatus. 

a. Depth of body 1:2*; color golden immaculate aitraius. 

'A Revision of the Edentulous Genera of Curimatinfe, etc. <^ Ann. N. Y. Acad. 
Sci., IV, pp. 409-440, 1889. A most useful summary of our knowledge of the grouii. 

-The categories "a" and "aa" are primarily distinguished by the Eigenmaims by 
the (a) "air bladder extending to origin of anal" contrasted with the (rtrt) "air 
bladder extending to posterior end of anal," but as there is only a single specimen 
of the new species, the rules of the ^Museum preclude dissection to reveal the char- 
acter in the species now to be described. 

•The Eigenmanns describe the color only in P. rhomboides, but declare that /'. 
amazonicus "agrees in almost all respects with P. rhomboides,'' and that the male of 
P. eUUifits "can not be told from specimens of /'. amozonicus." Miiller and Troschel 
call the color of P. ciliatus " metallischen schillernd." 



This new species lias been in tlie colleetion of the United States 
IS^ational .^luseiun for many years, the single si>ecinien being recorded 
as collected by Lieutenant Gibbon in Bolivia. The specimen is about 
5i inches long aud is in good preservation, except the vertical tins, 
which are broken. The color is so striking that I experienced doubt 
whether it was real, but I know of no agency which would produce 
such a hue, and other si^ecimens collected bj' the same officer offer 
nothing peculiar in such respects. 


Depth 1 by I'f ; head !:;>;' D. 12;^' A. 10; P. 15; Y. 0. 

Body elongate and saluiouiform, with the dorsal contour not angulate 
but convex from axilla of dorsal to nape, and the ventral contour regu- 
larly arched from axilla of anal to chin; preventral region transversely 
convex and postventral keel well defined. Head oblong, with the pro- 
file nearly straight and declivous and nearly flat at middle. Eye with 
narrow anterior and posterior adipose lids, with its vertical diameter 
less than snout and half the interorbital area. Scales all deeply pecti- 
nate, and slightly reflected from the body, largest on the sides of the 
abdomen, nnich smaller on the back and nape, and extending on the 
base of caudal. JDorsal at its first ray midway between tip of snout 
and base of caudal fulcra. Adipose narrow and rather long. Anal 
moderate, emarginate. (Jaudal with extended lobes nearly or quite 
three times longer than entire median rays and with the inner margins 
straight or concave. Pectorals nearly reaching to ventrals. Ventrals 
reaching about two-thirds the way to anal and under first half of dorsal, 
with root of first ray as near base of caudal as front of eye. Color 
golden, with rufous suffusion on back and without sj^ots. 

P. auratus appears to be the most distinct species of the genus. The 
coarsely i)ectinated ui)lifted scales^ and the golden color remind one 
somewhat of a holocentrid. 


Relations of the toothless Curimatines. — A review of the several 
genera of edentulous Curimatines leads me to believe that they have 
diverged from a common stock most like Gurimata but with branchial 
rakers, and their degrees of divergence may be expressed in the fol- 
lowing manner: 

' The length is exclusive of candal fin. 

-The rucliinentary first dorsal and anal rays are inclndod. 

^ Mud had been retained on the inner field of some of these scales in the specimen 




fl. Gill arches -with obsolete or no rakers. 
h. Tongue " sLort and thick," aduate. 

c. Postventral region with a median row of scales; scales mostly cycloi<l. 

0. Postventral region with two lateral overlapiiing rows of scales; scales 
d. Preventral region transversely convex and not distinctly limited. 

(Id. Preventral "region flat"' and bordered on each side by a serrated 
keel extending from the pectoral to the outer ray of the ventral. 


hi). Tongue long and narrow, (juite free^ CnrimatopHis. 

an. (iill arches with long, slender rakers EJopomori^hus. 

In other teims, while the typical Curimatiue series has lost the gill] 
rakers, it has diverged most in other respects from the common pro-J 
geiiitors, while ElopomorpJins has developed gill rakers of increased size 
and added other striking characters. In a genealogical table the snpl 
posed facts may be thus represented : 




I'sectvogiister. Potauiorhina. 



The chief of the Curimatine genera has been generally called Cnrima- 
/ws, but the name should be spelled Cnrimata, as the following early 
synonymy shows : 

'For all other characters, see Steindachner, Ich. Beitr., V, j). 34, 1876. 
I have accepted the genera and, in several cases, the language of Professor and 
Mrs. Eigeumann, who, in the analysis of their valuable Pevision of the Edentulous 
Genera of Curimatina', have arranged the genera in the following se(iueuce: 
Anodus ( := EJopomorplms), rotamorhina, Psecfrogasler, Ciirintatopsis, Cin-'tmafiis. 
Later they adopted the name Elopomorplms in place of Anodus (Proc. P. 8. Nat. 
Mus., XIV, 1891, p. 46). 



<^ri/)v'm«/t'.s,Crvii;R, Mem. Miis. Hist. Nat., I, p. 109 (Frciuli uauw only, uiiaccom- 

pauied by diagnosis or name of type), 1S15. 
<Ze.y (Utrimates, Civieh, Regno Animal, II, p. 1(55, 1817; 2' rd.. II, p. 809, 1«29. 
<CMr(«trtto, Cloquet, Diet. Hist. Nat., XII, p. 240, 1818. 
<^C'uriiHates, Goldfuss, Hand. Zool., II, p. 24, 1820. 
<^A nodus, Agassiz, Sel. Gen. et Sp. Pise. Brasil., p. 60, 1829. 
<^Characinus, Minding, Lehrb. Nat. Fische, p. 119,' 1832. 
<^Curimatus, Valenciennes, Hist. Nat. Poissons, XX. p. 4, ete., 1849. 

The type, by elimination, is G. edentula=cyprmoides. 

' Mnnd wenig gespalten, Ziihne klein wie l>ei den vorigen (!. e., Chorer/on = Core- 
gonus + Thymallus). C. curimata is the only species named. 


r>y Theodore Gill, LL. D. 

In my list of Families and Subfamilies of Fishes (131)3) I have 
ndmitted two families of Ileteroguaths, Characida' (oi- Chaiaciiiida-) 
and Erythrinid;e. As the limits and concepts of Miiicli they are the 
exjiressions are quite different from those hitherto current, it is a duty 
to no longer defer the reasons which have influenced me. 

The two families in question have been adujitted byotlier naturalists, 
but have only been differentiated by the development of an adipose fin 
in one (Characiuids) and the absence of it in the other (Erythrinids). 
The mere x)resence or absence of a bag of adipose tissue is, however, of 
too little importance to justify distinction as a family character, although 
in most cases it happens to be coordinate with other features, and hence 
available as a diagnostic mark.' Nevertheless, in at least the entire 
subfamily Stevardiiuu' it fails, for the small fishes in (piestion appear 
to be more nearly related to Tetragonopterines than to Erytiirinines. 
A character of more importan(!e, apparently coordinate with other 
structural modifications, and which has been the cause of my acce[»t- 
ing the two families, is to be found in the structure of the posterior 
part of the skull. The differences observable in due examination are 
expressible in the following diagnoses: 


( I'rimarij Si/noiiyiny.) 

<^D€rmoptifes, Dumkril, ZooL Aualytique, p. 146, 180(i. 
<6rtZ;«o)iidi, Rafinesque, ludice d'lttiolog. 8iciliaua, p. .32, 18U). 
<C^Dvrmo])teria, Rafinesque, Analyse cle la Nature, p. <S7, 815. 
<^Characini, Mulleu, Arcliiv Natnrgescb., 9. Jabrg., I, p. 323, 1843. 
<^Characins {Characidce), Agassiz, Rep. Brit. Assn. Adv. Sci., 1844, p. 293. 

'The developipent of an adipose fin may occasionally fail as a generic and even 
specific character, as among the Nannostouii. " Xur Lei eiuer einzigen dieser Arten 
IVhlt.-die Fettflosse vollstiindig; bei einer zweiten Art besitzen von vier Exeni- 
lil;>ren drei einc Fettfiosse, wiibreud sie dem vierten Individnum fehlt '" (SteiudacL- 
uer, Icb. Beit., V, p. 74, 1876). 

Pruccedings (if flic I'liitid States X.-ilinnal Miisomn, \c.l. XVI I I. Nd. 1056. 



X Cliaradns, Valenciennes, Hist. Nat. des Poissons, XXI, p. 159, 1848. 

<^('haracina, Vogt, Zool. Briefe, II, p. 150, 1851. 

y.^^letldce., Adams, Man. Nat. Hist., p. 108, 1854. 

xCharacinido', Richardson, Encyd. Brit., 8th ed., XII, p. 245, 1856. 

XCharacinoidei, Bleekeu, l';unm. Sp. Piscium Arcliipel. Indico, p. 31, 1859. 

<^Cha7-acinidw, GuNTHEU, Cat. Fish. Brit. Mus., Y, p. 278, 1864. 

<^Cliaracinidw, Cope, Proc, Am. Assn. Adv. Sci., 1871, p. 333 (1872). 

<^CharacinidcB, Gill, Arrang. Fam. Fishes, p. 16, 1872. 

<^Citharini, Fitzingeh, Sitzungsber. K. Akad. "NViss. Wien, LXXVII, 1. Abth., p. 37, 

<CCharnci)iida, Schmauda, Zool., II, p. 377, 1878. 

<^Characinidw, Jordan and Gilbert, Syu. Fishes N. Amer., p. 254, 1882. 
:^Characid<v, Gill, Mem. Nat. Acad. Sci., VI, p. 131, 1893. 

(Secondary Sipionymi/.} 

<^SalmoneH, Cuviek. Regne Animal [l-^^d.], II, p. 1.59, 1817; 2' cd.. II, p. 301, 1829. 
<^Sal)nonides, Latreille, Fam. Nat. Regne Animal, p. 119, 1825. 
<^Salmones, Ag.\ssiz, Sel. Gen. et Sp. Piscinm q. roil. .Spix, p. .56, 1829. 
<^Salmonida', Bonaparte, Giorn. Accad. di Scienze, III, p. 95 (Saggio Distrib. 

Metod. Animal. Vertebr. a Sangue Freddo, p. 37), 1832. 
<^Salmonid(r, Swainson, Nat. Hist, and Class. Fishes, etc., II, pp. 184, 283, 1839. 
<:^Sahnonid(v, Bonaparte, Nuovi Anuali delle Sci. Xat., II, p. 132. 1838: IV. p. 272, 

< Characin'iden, Sagemehl, Morph. Jahrb., X, ]>. 1, etc.. 1885. 

(Syvouyms of Characinhuv.) 

<^Characini, Latreille, Fam. Nat. Regne Animal, p. 119 ('• Tribu "'). 
<^SaImonini, Bonaparte, Giorn. Accad. di Scienze, LII, 95 (Saggio Distrib. 

Metod. Animal. Vertel)r. a Sangue Freddo, p. 37), 1832. 
<^Salnwnina', Swainson, Nat. Hist, and Class. Fishes, etc., II, pp. 185, 286, 1839. 
<^Hydrocyonini, Bonaparte, Nuovi Aunali delle Sci. Nat., II. p. 132, 1838; IV, 

p. 273, 1840. 
<C^CharacinUn, Bonaparte, Cat. Met. Pesci Eur., p. 5, 1846; Consjiectus Syst. 

Piscium, 18.50. 
<^Lciogast)ifoniHS, Bleeker, Enum. Sp. Piscium Archipol. Indico, jt. xxxii. 1859. 
<^Hydyocyoiiiiia, (iuNTiiER, Cat. Fish. Brit. Mus., V, pp. 280, 345. 1864. 
<^Hydrocyonina. Gill. Mem. Nat. Acad. Sci., VI, p. 131, 1893. 

Heteroguaths with the skull above more or less invaded by reenter- 
ing valleys from behind, and the supraoccipital having a horizontal 
extension and carinated by a procurrent crest. 


( Primary Synonymy.) 
<^Erythroides, Valenciennes, Hist. Nat. Poiss., XIX, p. 480, 1846. 
<^Eryfhrinida', Richardson, Enc. Brit., 8th ed., XII, p. 250, 1856. 
<^Erythrinoidc( , Bleeker, Enum. Sp. Piscium Archipel. Indico, p. xxxi, 1859. 
^Erythrinido', Gill, Annals Eye. Nat. Hist. N. Y., YI, p. 410, 1858. 
<^Erythrinida', Cope, Proc. Am. Assoc. Adv. Sci. 1871, p. 333 (1872). 
<^Erythrini, Fitzinger. Sitzungsber. K. Akad. Wiss., Wien, LXVII, 1. Abth., 

p. 37, 1873. 
—Erylhrinida', Gill, Mem. Nat. Acad. Sci., VI, p. 131, 1893 


{Secondary Synonymy.) 
<^Siagonotes, Dumeril, 180(5. 
<^Chipeido;, Bonaparte, 1832-1840. 
<^Characini, Mulleu et al. 
<^Chararinida', GiJNTHER et al. 

{Synonyms of Erythriulna'.) 
<^Eryilirichfluni, Bonaparte, Niiovi Auuali Sci. Nat., II, p. 13'J, \.Ki^\ l\ , p. 19(), 

<^Cypr'um', Swainson, Nat. Hist, aud Class. Fislies, etc., II, pp. 184, 283, 1839. 
<C Erythrichthiul, Bonaparte, Traus. Liua. Soc., XVIII, p. 300, 1840-41. 
<^Erytliriclithini, Bonaparte, Cat. Met. Pesci Eur., p. 5, 1846; Cons. Syst. Pise, 

<^Eryih)inina, Gunther, Cat. Fish. Brit. Mus., V, pp. 278, 281, 1804. 
<^Erythrini formes, Bleeker, Euum. Sji. Piscium Archipel. Indico. p. xxxi, 1859. 
—Erythrinvup, Gill, Mem. Nat. Acad. Sci., VI, p. 131, 1893. 

Heteroguaths with the skull above more or less truncated beliiud, 
aud the supraoccipital coufiued to the posterior surface and cariuated 
by a rudimentary or obsolete yertical crest. 

There is good reason to believe that the Characiuida', as here still 
preserved, constitute a heterogeneous group, and may hereafter be sub- 
divided into two or more families, but the nuiterial at hand is insufiQ- 
cieut to confirm the suspicious entertained or to ])roperly refer the 
species to their respective families. Great differences are observable 
in the relative development of the jaws, the composition of the lower 
jaw, the branchial ax)paratus, etc' 


The illustrations of the skeletal features of the representatives of 
the family being much scattered, a list of most of them is here appended. 
More valuable than all others and a(H;ompanied by i)hilosophical views 
are those given iu Sagemehl's Memoir. 


Sagemehl (Dr. M.). Beitriige zur verglinclieudeu Anatoiiiie dcr Fisclie. I-IV. 
Morph. Jahrbiich, IX-XVII, viz: 

I. Das Cranium von Auiia calva. IX, pj). 177-228, ^d. 10, 1881. 
II. Einige Bemerkungeu iiber die Geliiruhiiute der Kuochentisrlie. IX, 
pp. 457-474, pi. 23, 1884. 
III. Das Cranium der Characiuiilcu, nebst allgemeinen Beuierlvungeu 
iiber die luit eiaem Weber'scbeu Apparat verselieneu Physostomeu- 
familien, X, pp. 1-119, pis. 1, 2, 1885. 
' IV. Das Cranium der Cyprinoiden. XVII, pp. 489-595, pis. 28, 29, 1891. 

' According to Sagemehl (III, p. 105, pi. 1, fig. 14), Citharinus lias the lower jaw 
composed of only two lateral elements, a greatly elongated articular bone and reduced 
dentary. These peculiarities are coordinated with other cranial characters and 
with modifications of the branchial apparatus. Citharinus seems therefore to be the 
type of a peculiar family (Citharinidas). Of course such a family is very different 
from that named Citharinloi Fitziuger, which is the same as Characinida'. It would 
also differ much from the subfamily Citliarina of Thominot (Bull. Philomath Soc, 
(7) VI, p. 250, 1882), which includes the Cithariniu;B and most of the Curimatiua», 
but not Iho typical geuus Curimata or the edentulous forms. The genera included 
by Thominot are 6'accof?OH, Heniodus, Parodon, Citharinus, I'rocliilodun nnd Cnnotropus. 



Subfamily KR,YTH:RIlSri]Sr.yE:. 

Erythrinus iniitwnialiis, Spix.' 

Efjithrinns unitaniatus, Sagemehl, Morph. Jabrb., X.p. 26, pi. 1, tigs. 1-12 
(skull), 1885; Eigenmann, Pruc. Cal. Acad. 8ci. (2), II, p. 105, pi. 1, fig. 2 
(jaws), 1889. 
Macnnloii tareira, Bloch. 

Maciodon /)•<?/(«*■«, Steindachxei?, Deuksclir. Akatl. Wies. Wien, XLII (Fiscli 

Cauca, p. 14), pi. 5, tig. 3 (articulation of deutary), 1879. 
Macrodon malab(iriciti<, Eigexmaxx, Pioc. Cal. Acad. Sci. (2), II, p. 102, pi. 
1, fig. 1 (jaws), 1889. 

Sublaiiiily T'^JiFilTJJl^lJsHNJE,:' 

riiirhnViuii (juttafa ( Steixdaciiner). 

I'ljrihuHua ijuitaia, Eigexmanx, Tioo. Cal. Acad. 8ci. (2), II, p. 108, pi. i, 
fig. 3 (jawts), 1889. 

Lebiasina btinacnJatn (Cuvier and Vai,ex«ienxe.s). 

Lehiasina himaculuia, Eigex.manx, Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci. (2), II, p. 113, pi. i, 
fig. 5 (jaws), 1889. 

Subfamily 'rETRAGO>s OFa^ERIN JE. 

Tetragonoptcriis mexlcanus, FiLirri. 

Telrafjouoptents mexicanns, Steixpachxek, 8itzuugsLer. K. Akad. Wiss., 
Math. Nat. CL, LX, 1. Abth., p. 300 (Ich.Not., IX), pi. 4, figs. 2-4 (Phar. 
bones), 1869-70. 

Subfainily SERRASAI-.JVlOlSriN^E:. 

Serrasahno . 

Serrasaliiio , Kosexthaf,, Iclitbyotoni. 'J'alchi, pi. 6, 1816. 

Pyyoccnlrufi piraija, Laoepede. 

fl. iY'yo(('H/r«.s' jj(/-rti/fl, Hypti,, Denkscliriftcn K. Akad. Wiss. Wien, IMatb. 
Nat. CI., XXI, p. 7, pi. [1], fig .") (br. skel.), 1863. 
. h. Serrasahno inraya, Klkix. Jalireshefte d. Vereins f. Vaterl. Naturk. in 
Wiirttemberg, 40. .Talirg. (1884), pp. 157, 226, pi. 2, figs. 12, 13 ; 42. Jabrg. 
(1886), p. 261, pi. 7, tig. 28; p. 291, pi. 8, fig. 53 (cr. bones). 

.Ujllcles , Gepvais, Castelnan's Expcd. dans I'Anidriqne dn 8ud, 

Anat., p. 97, pi 2 (skull), 1856. 
Myleus oUgacanthus (Mueler and Tposchep). 

Ali/leti's ohjijacanihus, Klein, Jahresbel'te d. Yereius f. Vaterl. Naturk. in 
Wilrtvemberg, 40. .labrg. (1884), pp. 159, 227, pi. 2, figs. 14, 15. 

'The genus Eriilhr'nuis (Grouovius, Scopoli) was based exclusively on a .species 
without pterygoid teeth, and cou.sequeutly the section so distinguished should retain 
the name instead of Hitererythrinii.f, while the subgenus (or genus) differentiated 
by the development of pterygoid teeth (typified by E. itiiildiiiaiit.i, Spix) may be 
called Uoplcryfhrhuis. 

-It seems advisable also to direct attention to the (irundulits of Valenciennes, 
referred by that naturalist next to Iljidruniyra (XVIII, jip. 216-220). It appears to 
me to be related to PyrrhnJina, if not a species of that genus, and therefore a 
Characinid. Valenciennes himself. (XVIII, p. 219) remarked that it cannot be 
denied that the number of branchiostegal rays and the bilobate air bladder agree 
Avith Chararin characteristics. 


SulDfainily HYDROCYONTlSr^:. 

Hydrocyon forskaJii, Cuvier. 

Hydrocyon forskaU, Klein, Jaliresliefte <1. A'eioins i'. Vaterl. Naturk. in 
Wiirttemberg, 35. Jahrg. (1879), ]>. 104, pi. 1. lig. 13 (mast.); 40. .lalirg. 
(1881), p. 156, pi. 2, tigs. 10, 11; 41. Jahrg. (1885), pp. 195, 211, pi. 3. ligs. 
73, 74; 42. Jahrg. (1886), ]>. 261, pi. 7, fig. 27; p. 291, pi. 8, fig. 52 (cr. 

SviTa family ISL^^I^F/riN.^:.' 

Myletes deiitex, 

Alestes dentex, Sagemehi., ^Morph. .Jahrb., X, p. 2(1, p]. 2, fi^s. 17, 18 (.skull), 

SiTbfainily Dlt^^TICHODOlSrTIlSrvK. 

Distichodiifi (vyyptius, Gmelin. 

a. Distichodns viloiictis, Hyrtl, Denkschrifteu K. Akad. Wiss. Wien, Math. 

Nat. CI., XXI, p. 7. pi. [1], fig. 6 (br. skel.), 1863. 

b. Distivhodus kammar. Mettenheimek, Disq. auat. comp. inembro pise, pect., 

pi. 2, fig. 12 (sh. girdle), 1847. 

Subfamily ^NOSTOlVIIlSr^^. 

Leporinns elongatus, Steindachner. 

Leporinus elongatus, Steindachner, Denkschr. K. Akad. Wiss. Wien, Math. 
Nat. Kl., XXXIX (Fish. Mag., pp. 38, 39), pi. 10, figs. .3-5 (preop. and 
quadrate), 1878. 

Siiblkmilv CUK,IM:A.TIlSr^gE. 

Prochilodns hrama, Valenciexxes. 

Prochilodus hvataa, Hyrtl, Denkschrifteu K. Akad. Wiss. Wien, Math. Nat. 
CI., XXI, p. 7, pi. [1], fig. 3 (br. skel.), 1863. 

SulDfkinily CITH^SlRUSTIN^E. 

Ctfharinits geoffroyi, Cuvier. 

Citharinus geoffroi, Hyrtl, Denkschrifteu K. Akad. Wiss. AVien, Math. Nat. 
CI., XXI, p. 7, pi. [1], fig. 4 (br. skel.), 1863.— Sagemehl, Morph. Jahrb., 
X, p. 26, etc., pi. 1, fig. 14; pi. 2, figs. 1-11 (skull), 1885. 

'Myletinpe (or better Mylitinse), not Myletidini — fiv?i.i-7ig, ov, millstone or grinder. 
Proc. N. M. 95 14 



By Theodore Gill, LL. 1 ). 

In 1834, Bonaparte, iu the seventh faseicuhis of his •■I'auiia Italica" 
and iu the chapter on l^cj/UiKni caiiicula, proposed to divide the genus 
ScylUuin into three genera. Orecfolohus, ScyJlium and Pristiurns. The 
genus Oreetolohus was defined in the following terms: 

Xiir Orivlolohus, >.''ob. (le cni specie sono tutte esotiche) ; 11 muso o bievM;, la Ixx'ca 
pros.siiua air estreinita tli quelle; 11 luarglne ilelle uaricl e fornlto all' esteruo d' una 
\ alvula assai Inuga, rlvolta all' iiulletro; le aperture brauchlali sono iilcciole, le due 
posteriori dell' uno e dell' altro lato vlciue fra loro e quasi confuse In una; la i)lnua 
anale e coUocata dietro la seconda dorsale. Questa dlvislone, clie trovasi gia accen- 
nata uelle opere del Cuvler e del lilainvllle comx)rende lo Squulus harbattis, Guiel. 
(2)iinct(tti(s, Scbueid-), lo S(]) fasciaius. Pdocb (iigrinus e longicandiis, Gmel. ) e lo 
S<iii((lii.s }<ih((tiis, 8cbnei<l. 

The species thus included are by no means congeneric, but belong to 
two widely distinct genera. IJoth genera in 18.'>7 were distinguished 
by ^Midler and Ilenlc in the same ])aper and named Stcf/o.stoDia and 

The Squal ua fa.sciati(s was i-egarded as typical of tlie genus SiqiostoiHa 
and named S. fasviatum. 

The Squalus barhatiis and ;S', lubatus are generally regarded as con- 
specitic, and were united by Miiller and Henle under the name Crosso- 
rhinus harhatus. 

The i^qnalu.s ''-punctains^ Schneid.," identiiied by Bonaparte with 8. 
barbatus, is now considered to be tlie same as Giiu/lymostoiiui cirratnm. 

It is obvious that one or tlie otlier of the later names must give i)]ace 
to the earlier Orcc.tolobns. The applicability was comiilicated, however, 
by Bonaparte himself, who later used Orectolobus instead of Chiloscyl- 
liiDii. For this usage there a[)pears to be no justification. Bona])arte\s 
action, nevertheless, did not vitiate his previous work, and the name 
Orectolobus had best be revived for the one later called Crossorhinus, 
whose synonymy will then be as follows: 

Proceediiig.s of tlie ruitt-d Siale.s National Museiiiu, \ol. XVIIl— Xn. lOiiT. 



<^Orectololiiis, Bonapaute, Fauna Tta-1., Pesci, 7. fasc, 1834. 

=CrossorMuus, Muller aud Hexlk, Archiv Naturgesch., 3. Jalirg., I, p. 396, 

Squalus, sp., Block, Sciixeidf.k, et vet. 

The subfamily name should tlieu be OrectoloMnw aud the family 
name Oreciolohidw. 


By Theodore Gill, LL. D. 

For over fifty years the family name Characini or Gharacinidw has 
been iu use, but during all tbat time no one bas used tbe generic name 
Characimis. Tbe family name, indeed, bas remained without a recog- 
nized name-giving genus. It is time tbat tbe nomenclature sbould be 
accordant with tbe facts, and tbe object of this note is to resuscitate 
tbe long-neglected name. 

In 1754 Gronovius took tbe name Chafa.r for two Sontb American 
fisbes, subsequently referred to tbe genera Anacyrtns and Teiragonop- 

In 1758 Linnteus referred tbe two Gronovian fisbes to bis genus 
Salmo, and to tbe section of tbat genus named Characini. 

In 1777 Scopoli adopted tbe genus Charax from Gronovius, and thus 
formally introduced it into tbe binomial nomenclature. 

In 1S02 Lacepede adopted tbe section of Cbaracini as a genus and 
gave to it tbe singular form Gharacinus. 

It will only be necessary to examine tbe tentb edition of tbe " Systema 
Nature" of Liunoeus to select tbe type, but, for the sake of comparison, 
tbe species admitted into tbe twelfth and Gmeliu's editions are added. 

liefereiices io Cliaracbii in the tenth, ttcelflh mid thirteenth editions of Linnaus' Si/stema 














Myletes niloticns (1). 

1384 48 

Gasteropelecus steruirla. 
Characinus sibbosns (2). 








Tetragonoptcrus ? 

Tetragonopterus biniaculatus. 




518 t 22 
513 2:! 

513 24 

514 25 
514 26 

Synodus fcetens (4). 
Curimata cviiriiioidos. 



Mvletes niloticns (1). 

Distichodus a'gyptius (6). 

Tetragonopterus ? (7). 

SeiTasalnius rhombeu.';. 







Anostonins auostonui.s. 

a Myletes nilolims ^ Salmo niloticus ^ Gyprinus dentex, Linna?u8 S. N., 10. ed., p. 325; Mus. Ad.Fr., 
p. 108, 1764. Many would therefore jirefer Jf. niloticus. 

Proceedinsis of the United States National Museum, Vol. XVIIl— No. 105S. 



It is to be remembered that Gmelin intercalated the species he added 
to the " Systenia Xatur;v" according to their sui)posed affinities, but 
with the numbers continued from the highest of 

The species with numbers after tlie accepted names recjuire some 

1. The Mj/lefes niloticKS or flenfe.r is tlie Alestes kotschyi (not dentex) 
of Giintlier, and as it was the only described species for which Cnvier 
originally' framed the genus, it should retain the former generic name. 
The South American species referred to Myietes should take the name 
Myleiis of Miiller and Troschel. This genus has been divided into two 
subgenera, Mylcfcs and Myleiis. For the former. MyJopht^ may be 
taken as a substitute. The classical form Mylites {dente.v) has been used 
for the typical form by Minding-, and perhaps will be accepted by 
purists. The *V. dentex of Hasselquist, or *S'. uiloticKs of Forskal, is a 
different species — M. hasselqidstii, Cuvier. 

2. The Chdravinus f/ibbosKS is Alesfes gihbosus, (liinther. as already 

■i. The Sidmo (Characinns) inimactilatus is at present unidentifiable. 

4. The Synod us fcetensis Sanrns fcpfenfi of Giinther, and of course has 
no affinity to the Characinids. 

5. The Curimata cyprinoides must take that name, as Curlmafa was 
the first Latin form of the name given.' 

(>. The Distichodus (vgyptlus is D. niloticus, Giinther. Dr. Giinther 
takes the name from Hasselquist, whose Avork was published in 1757, 
but if the precepts of the British and American Associations for the 
Advancement of Science and other biological societies are adopted, no 
names behind the tenth edition can be accepted. ])r. Giinther, in his 
synonymy ^ quotes ^^ Salnio a'{/y])tiaru.s, liinnteus, Gmelin, I, p. 1380," 
but the form used by Linnaeus and Gmelin was S. (vyyptius. As JEyyp- 
tius was the older and more classical form, it is not obvious why any 
one should have wished to alter the name to JEgyptiavus. 

7. The Salmo {Characinus) pulverulentus has never been identified, 
but was probably a Tetragonopfcrus. 

Inasmuch as Liunieus really derived the conception of the genus, as 
well as the basis of this name, from Gronovius, we should take one of 
the two species originally referred l)y that author to his genus Gharax. 
Swainson, as early as 1839, revived the Linntean designation {Cluo-aci- 
nns) for the G. gibbosus, and Valenciennes was inclined to adopt the 
Grouovian name {Gharax) for the genus, to which he nevertheless 

I Mem. Mas. Hist. Nat.. 1, 11.5, 1815; Regne Animal, II, 66. 1817. Dr. Giinther weut 
back tor Mjiletes only to Cuvier, Mem. Mus., IV, p. 444, when the South Americau 
species attributed to it Avere first described. 

-Lehrbuch,p. 121, 1832. 

3 Cloquet, Diet. Hist. Nat., XII, p. 240. 1818. 

* Cat. Fish. Brit. Mus.. X, p. 860. 


applied tlie name Epkyrtns.^ For that ,i>eiius, therefore, Characinus 
may be revived.^ 

The species of thetentii edition of the "Systeiua Xatura''' were referred 
to liew genera in the following sequence: 

1777. Anostomus, Scopom (ex (inoN.). 

181;"). Tetra(jonoptcre, CuviF.i:. 

1815. Myletes, CuviKH. 

1817. Les Tetragonojttercs {Tetra(jonoiiteru», Aktkdi)"' Cuvieh. 

1845. Distichoflus, Mi'LLKk and Troschel. 

1845. .ili'sfes, MfiXER and Troschel=: Characinn^ restrictfd. 

Thus by successive eliminations the genus was linally restricted to 
C. f/ibhosus. Its synonyms are as follows: 


J're-binoinidJ si/tioni/Dis. 

<C/(«mj!'. Gronovius. Mns. Icbtli., I, p. 19 (?). 1754. 

Binomial synonyms. 

<^Characini {Salmo - ^ -) Linneus, Syst. Nat.. 10. ed., p. 311, 1758. 

<^<'hara.r, Scopoli, Int. Hist. Nat., p. 455, 1777. 

<^Characinus. Lacepede, Hist. Nat. Poiss., V, p. 2(19, 1802. 

<CCharacinHS, Swainsox, Nat. Hist. Fish., etc., II, p. 289, 1839 (not of Vol. I). 

<^EpicyrtHs, Muller and TitoscHEL, Hor:B Ichtli., II, p. 17, 1845. 

-^Anacyrtus, Gt'NTHER, Cat. Fish. Brit. Mus., Y, p. 346, 1864. 

<^('ynopof(tmus, Gauman, Bnll. Essex Inst., XXII, p. 11, 1890. 

==./Ha(>]/r<(/s, EiGENMANN, Proc. 11.8. Nat. Mus., XIV, p. 57,1891. 

Salmo, sp., LiXN.Ers et al. 

Piabnques esp., Cuvier, 1817. 

The name Characinus has been misapplied by at least two natural- 
ists, viz: 

Characinns, Minding, Lehrb. Nat. Fische, p. 119, 1832 (=Cnriniata). 
(7/«)-aomHS, SwAiNSON, Nat. Hist. Fishes, I, pp. 241,255,259, 1838 ( = ('uriniata). 

1 Cuvier and Valenciennes, XXII, p. 41, 1849. 

-Some may prefer to take Cluirnx, because Linna'us used the plural form Characini 
for a section not formally designated by him as ;i subgenus, and I have felt and still 
feel inclined to adopt it myself. 

■■The generic name Telrat/onopferus has been erroneously attri))uted to Artedi, who 
was too good an ichthyologist to have confounded a Telrafjonopieriis (Cuvier) Avith a 
Tetraijonoptrns {K\&\n, ^' TETpayuvoKTpog, \. e., quadratus aspectu"). Inasmuch as 
Artedi died in 1735 and the "Missus" in which Klein's name first occurs was pub- 
lished in 1744, we have another good reason for believing that Artedi had nothing 
to do with the name. 


By Theodore Gill, LL. D. 

The universally accepted name Elamte must unfortnuately be 
supplauted by one entirely unknown to fame, overlooked by all natu- 
ralists, and found in no nomenclator. A brief history of the nomencla- 
ture of the genus is timely. 

In 1814: Dr. Mitcbill, of New York, tirst described, as a new generic 
type, a flsli which he called Gentronotus spinosus. He specifically des- 
ignated the genus as "new" and distinguished it by the broad head, 
distant eyes, prominent lower jaw, and eight dorsal spines, besides other 
less important characters. It was apparently merely through a coin- 
cidence and natural fitness that he gave the same name as Lacepede 
had previously used for a heterogeneous genus, including the same 
species as well as the pilot-fish. Nevertheless, the previous use of the 
name by both Schneider (1801) and Lac6pede (1802), precludes the use 
for the genus of Mitchill. 

In 1820 Dr. Kaup treated of the same fish and gave to it the name 
Rachi/centron typus. He gave a good diagnosis, erring only in attribut- 
ing seven rays to the ventral tins. The following abstract will prove 
this claim : 


"Keuuz. der Gattung. Ziiline fein nnd borstenformig ; Kopf plattgedriickt; 7 
Kienieustrahleu. Brustflossen kleiu ; Bauchflosseu 7 strahlig. Erste Riickt'iiflosse 
eutliiilt freye vou eiuauder enferute Stacbelu. Zweyte Riickenliosso imd die After- 
liosse lang, vom Scliwanze unterschiedeu. Schuppen fein." 

Diese Gattung liat selir viel iihuliclies mit Echeneis und liat uur die freyen Staclielu 
mit Centronotiis gemein, die sich dnrch den zusammengedriickten Korper sehr vou 
dicser uutersheidet. Eine Art liaehticentrou ii/jyus. 

The identity of the fish with the Gusterostens canachis of limuxns, the 
"Motta" of Russel and the " Ceixupira" of Marcgrave, was recognized. 

In 1827 Kaup amended the name into Rachicenlron and expressed 
his views as to the affinities of the genus in the following terms: 

Wegeu des plattgedriickten Kopfes, «&c., babe icb diese Art, welche fast in alien 

Meeren verkommt, zu einer eigeneu Gattung crboben, welcbo am nJicbsten uiit Teira- 

gouurus verwandt ist. 

I'roceediiigs of tlie United States National i[useuni, Vol. XVIII — Xo. 1059. 



Kaup now further identified the Scomber niger of Bloch, Centronotus 
gardenii of T.acepede, and Contronotus spinosus of Mitchill with his 

In 1820 Cuvier proposed tlie generic name with the French phi- 
ral form ^'lea Elacates^' for the same genus, basing on the "Pedda 
niottah" the species ^' El. niotta,'^ and for the Centronotus spinosus sub- 
stituting the new name '-'■E}. americana.^' The ^'■Geixnpira'''' or Scomber 
niger was retained in tlie same genus with the pilot-lish, as in the first 
edition, although those names ace mere synonyms of the typical Elacafe, 
as had been recognized in 1827 by Kaup. 

In view of these facts, it will be obvious that adherence to the rules 
of priority compels us to take up Kaup's name for the genus iu ques- 
tion, and for the family name, if the including group Eachicentrid^ 
should be employed. Those who adhere strictly to rules of iniority 
and will retain all errors and slips because they were iu the earliest 
names, will prefer Rachycentrida> and Rachycentron, although the latter 
was merely a slip in Kaup's original memoir and was speedily corrected. 
I prefer to regard it as a typographical error and to take the later and 
correct form. 

The history of the nomenclature is epitomized in the following 


:^Cent)-o)iotiis, Mitchill, Traus. Lit. Phil. Soc. N. Y., I, p. 490, 1814. 

=Rachycentron, Kaup, Isis, XIX, col. 89, 1826. 

^liachicentron, Kacp, Isis, XX, col. 624, 1827. 

=Le8 Elacates, Cuvier, Regne Animal, 2. ed.,' II, p. 203, 1829. 

=Elacate, Cuvieu and Valenciennes, Hist. Nat. Poiss., VIII, p. 328, 1831. 

=Eh(cate, Swainson, Nat. Hist. Fishes, etc., II, pp. 176, 243, 1839. 

<^MeI(tderma, Swainson, Nat. Hist. Fishes, etc., II, pp. 176, 243, 1839. (Type 

" ^f. nigerrima'' = •' Pedda mottah.") 
GiXHterostenn, sp., Linn.evs et .al. 
Centronotus, sp., LACEPfi^DE. 

The only now recognizable species rejoices in a very large number of 
names, as the following synonymy will show. This synonymy expresses 
the general belief of all recent ichthyologists. Nevertheless, it may 
well be that two or more si)ecies have been confounded, and at least a 
renewed critical and comparative examination of sufficient material is 
very desirable. 


Gasterosteitf! canadtis, s, Syst. Nat., ed. 12, I, p. 491, 1766. 
Scomher niger, Bloch, Ichthyologie, X, p. 48, pi. cccxxxvii, 1797. 
Centronotus gardenii, Lackpkde, Hist. Nat. Poiss., Ill, pp. 310, 318, 1802. 
[Centronotus] niger. CrviER, Rt'gne Animal, II, p. 320, 1817. 
Centronotus si)inosns, Mitchill, Trans. Lit. Phil. Soc. N. Y., I, p. 490, pi. 3, fig. 
9, 1815. 

•Les Centronotus (Centronotus) sp., Cuvier, Regne Animal, II, p. 321, 1817. 


Raclitjceniron typus, Kaup, Isis, XIX, col. 89, 182H. 

Raclncentron typus, Kai'p, Isis, col. 624, 1827. 

[Xaiicraies] n'ujer, Cuvieh, Et-gne Animal, 2. ed., II, p. 203, 1829. 

El[acate] motta, Cuvier, Rogue Animal, 2. ed., II, p. 203, 1829. 

El[acate'] americana, Ci'ViRR, Ri'gne Animal, 2. ed., II, p. 203, 1829. 

Elacotf pondieeriaiia, CrviEit and Vai.encikxxes, Hist. Nat. Poiss., VIll, p. 329, 

Elacate motia, Cuviki: and ^'ALE^•(•IE^'^■Es, Hist. Nat. Poiss., VIll, p. 332, pi. 

ccxxxii, 1831. 
Elacate malaharica, Ct'viEu and Vai.ex<'iknnes, Hist. Nat. Poiss., VIll, \u 332, 

Klacatc atlantica, Cuvif.i; and ^^\I.ENCIl■.XNES, Hisr. ^at. Poiss., ^'III, ]>. 334, pi. 

crxxxiii, 1831. 
Elamte bivilfala, Cuvieu and Vai.exciexxes, Hist. Nat. Poiss., VIII, p. 338, 1831. 
Elacate aUantica, Swainsox, Nat. Hist, and Class. Fishes, II, p. 243, 1839. 
Meladrrma nifjerrima, Swaixsox, Nat. His. and Class. Fislies, II, p. 243, 1839. 
Naucmtes nUjer, Swainson, Nat. Hist, and Class. Fishes, II, p. 24.5, 1839. 
Elacate Canada, Dekay, N. Y. Fauna, Fishes, p. 113, pi. xxv, fig. 77, 1842. 
Elacate falciphiDis, (Josse, Nat. Soj. .Jamaica, ]}. 208, 1851. 
Elacate nigra, Guntiier, Cat. Fish. Brit. Mus., II, p. 375, 1860. 

:n()tk ox the nomenclatukr of the pcecilioid 


By Theodore Gill, LL.D. 

It is generally believed that Agassiz was the first to detach the 
ryprinodouts from the cypriuids. After the publication of my note 
on the nomenclature, however, I came across an earlier paper by 
Kudolph Wa.U'iier,' in which he named ('' Oyprinofdae") and well diag- 
nosed the family; and, singularly enough, this article iiinnediately fol- 
lowed Agassiz's maiden ichthyological contribution, a description of 
Ci/priniis [Barhns] vranoscopnsr Agassiz must therefore have been 
l)erfectly cognizant of Wagner's article and must be blamed for not 
having referred to it. Further, Wagner well defined the new family, 
while Agassiz did not. The differential characters specified by Wag- 
ner were as follows : 

Die Gattuug Lehia-s biklet luit deu Gattungen PoeciUa, Fundnhis, LUiprniodoH uiid 
MoliencKia Lesueui', weim sicli letztere Gattuug durcli ^yeitere Uutersncliung 
l)est;itigen sollte, eine sehr schone kleiue Familie, wclche ieh die Familie der 
Cypriuoiden geuaunt liabe, wegeu ihrer grosseu Yerwaudtsc-baft mit deu Ciiprinns- 
Arten, wovou sie sicli jedoch durch die Ziiline iu dem Ober- uud Futerkiefer, durcb 
die Lage der Kiickeu- uud Schwauztiosse uud die Zahl der Strableu der Kieuieu- 
baut uuterscbeideu. 

This statement of differences is supplemented by a correct formal 
diagnosis in Latin nnder the name Cypri)io'i(lae, and a synopsis of all the 
genera and species. 

rinfortunately, Wagner gave a name in accordance with a custom to 
some extent prevalent at his time,^ but now universally discarded. Con- 

' Beitriige zur ICeuutuiss der Gattuug Lehias Cuvier uud der verwaudteu Gat- 
tuugen, [etc.] < Isis, XXI, col. 1050-1058, pi. 12, figs. 1-10, 1828. 

-Bescbreibuug eiuer neueu Species aus deui Gattuug Cypr'niiis, I.iuu. <^ Isis, XXI, 
col. 1046-1049, pi. 12, fig. 1 fa-d), fig. 2 (a-d), 1828. 

^As an iustance of similar usage tbework of Miudiug (1832) may be cited, Avbcreiu 
tbe families Clupeoidea (p. 78), Cypriuoides (p. 78), Bleunioides (pp. 80,92), Scom- 
beroides (pp. 80, 88, 130), Percoides (p. 87) are named, uot because they are typified 
by the uame-giviug genera, but because their representatives are like them. The 
same names are nevertheless giveu to the families containing the genera. The 
names are, therefore, descriptive adjectives, aud to be considered iu connection with 
the ordinal names, as Apodes malacopterygii clupeoides, Apodes acanthopterygii blen- 
uioides aud scomberoides, etc. 

Proceedings of the United States Ni'.tional ^luseuin, \'ol. XVIII— No. 1060. 



sequeutly tUe name Pceciliidie must be retained, as urged in my former 
article, and even the justitication for the retention of the name Cyprino- 
do)itcs, that it was the lirst used, disappears. 

This memoir of Waguer appears to liave been generally lost sight 
of, as no reference to it appears in any work I have examined, amoug 
which are Ouvier and Valenciennes, Bonaparte's Oatalogo (184(i),' Yon 
Marteus's article, and Giinther's Catalogue, 

The two nominal new species, however, appear to have been based on 
the different sexes of the previously described Cyprinodon fasciatna, 
Lehias liiie((to-puncfat(i beiug a female and i. sarda a male. Both forms 
had 10 anal rays, according to Wagner, a number likewise found by Von 
Martens, although Dr. Giiuther only specifies '-A. 8 (9).'' 

I nuiy add that the name " Pfpciliida^ '' was first revived by me in ISO."),^ 
but I had for the time overlooked it while preparing the synonymy of 
the family in 1894. 


The foregoing article was presented for publication May 10, 1895, 
but various causes have entailed delay in publication. ^Meanwhile a 
monograi)h of "The Cyprinodonts," by Mr. S. Garman, has been pub- 
lished as one of the "Memoirs of the Museum of Comj^arative Zoology."^ 
Although dated July, 1895, the memoir was only received by the pres- 
ent author September 17, 1895. Mr. Garman has given an excellent 
history of tlie family of Cyprinodonts, and has made known (pp. 14, 15) 
the long-neglected contribution by Waguer. 

As to the name, Mr. Garman remarks (p. 15): 

"The word Ci/prlndidw is incorrectly Avritteu: etymologically cor- 
rected, it is identical with Cypmiidw. It seems to have been Wagner's 
intention to coin a different word. This is shown both in the form he 
gives the name as ho wa-ites it, and in the reason given for bestowing 
it, 'wegen ihrer grossen Verwandtschaft mit den Cyprinus-Arten.' As 
he failed to give a distinct title, it is left for us to adopt the next sub- 
sequent applied to the family as such." 

The action of Wagner was, it appears to me, deliberate and inten- 
tional, and, as shown above, in consonance Avith limited usage in his 
day. The words Cypriuo'idae^nd Cyprinidcv are not identical ; the former 
is a compound of Kunpbuz (cyprmm) and tH^^z (form or appearance), 
while Cypriitidcv is the same main word, with the patronymic termina- 
tion — o'^ai (idic), — indicating descendants or family, as in the classical 
names Arsacidce^ Pelopid(e, Seleucidw and innumerable others. It was 
on account of the resemblance of the Cyprinodonts to the Cypriuids 
that Wagner gave the name CyjjrinouUd, nud he gave a distinctive name 

1 Under ieftms calaritana (Cat., p. 25, No. 135), " L. nifiropinicfata, Wa.!>;u.'' is uieu- 
tioned, and by it is prol)ubly meant /,. Uiieuto-jjioictaUi, but L. sarda is not irfcrnMl to. 
2 Can. Nat., n. s.. II, \>. 258. 
■•Vol. XIX, No. 1. 


because he did not cousider them to be of the same family, although 
like them. 

Mr. Garman tliinks that the use of the name Puciliidiv is precluded 
on account of the previous use of the term rcxcilidw by Kirby, in 1837, 
for a genus of beetles. The two names, however, differ m etymology 
and form (one having five syllables and two /'s, while the other has only 
four syllables and a single v). I'm-iliida- is derived from Pa'ciUa, and 
Vadl'idae from raeilns. Conseipieutly, the two do not eontiict, and it 
cannot be said properly that the WAMi^d Piecilndtv "was jireoccupied in 
insects" (p. 10). Furthermore, it nuiy be added (though not essential to 
the question) that i'«'C'///V/ft' is not in use in entomology. Indeed, the 
genus Fwcilu.s, on which it was based, is now regarded as a mere section 
or subgenus of Feronia (by most European authors) or rtero.stichus (by 
most American authors), and is referred to the Harpaline subfamily of 
the' Carabidiv. 

The name Poecilioidei of Fitzinger, 1832, was applied to an l^mbrid 
only, as remarked by Garman (p, 15), but simply because Umbra was 
the only genus occurring in Austria; evidently the name was derived 
from Poccilia, and the group • intended to be typified by that genus. 

Mr. Garman's views as to the subdivisions of the family are quite 
similar to my own. In his preliminary synopsis (pp. 18, 19), he adopts 
the subfamilies Cyprinodontinw, Pwciliina', Jenynsiind', AnahJepina', 
Gambusiinw and Eaplochilina'. These have all been given in jny 
'• Families and Subfamilies of Fishes," in which article, however, Giin- 
ther's name Fioidulinwis used iu&tead oi^ Haplochilina', and Orestiina' is 
further distinguished. Later on (p. 159) Mr. Garnnin has substituted 
for Ganibusiina' the name P>eU>n<'HOvinw and added two other subfamilies, 
Oresti((.sina' and NoihobrnnchHn(v. 

I have not hitherto, as a rule, adopted Bleeker's names ending in 
ini for subfamilies, because Bleeker did not give them as subtamily 
names, but as those of cohorts or stirpes, divisions of his subfamilies 
for which he used the sufhx formes. jSTevertheless, I am not indisi>ose(l 
to do so, and perhaps Mr. (iarman should be followed in taking the 
Bleekerian names with the modified Ibrm Haploehlliiiiv and Bclojirso- 
ciiKV. Bleeker's cohorts were, however, very different in limits Worn 
the subfamilies Funduliiuv and (Jambusihuv, Bleeker restricting them 
respecti\ely to the type genera, while most of the genera of Fundulinoi 
and Gambusiime were referred to the cohors or stirps GyprinodonUni. 

'Fitzinger gave names ending in o/rtfi only to the groups typified liy tlie genera 
involved in the names. The groups named after the genera with the suffix oidel 
were not ranlied as families by Fitzinger, but as groups of genera under families. 
For example, the Poecilioidei constituted the first group (Grnppe); the Cijpriiioidei 
the second group, and the Salmonoidei the third group, of what Fitzinger designated 
as the family EUiptosomafa (p. 333), while the family Cylindiosoiuata and the group 
(Gruppe) Esocoidel (p. 339) included the pikes. Consequently I have not heretol'ore 
included Fitzinger's names iu the lists of synonyms of families. 


The subfamily Orestiinu' or Orestiasiui' is of very doiibtful validity, 
and in view of the discovery of E)itpetrie]ith)js and the existence of 
Tellia and an apodal Ci/priHodon, I am disposed to relegate the repre- 
sentative genus to the subfamily FundKlinfv or HaplochiUiuv. 

I can not close this addendum without testifying my admiration of 
the knowledge of the literature of the subject manifested in Mr. Gar- 
man's monograijh.^ The work will be of great value, but it will be 
wished by many, who will have occasion to use it, that he had given in 
the form of analytical synopses or diagnoses, the benefit of his experi- 
ence and his views as to the relationships and essential characteristics 
of the species of polymorphic genera; thereby the wearisome task of 
identifying specimens would have been much diminished. 

'The more correct form for the sub-family name would be Orestiadina' {<^bpEaTuiq, 

^One of the extremely few works beariuj;- on the subject uot included in the " Lit- 
erature" of ilr. Carman's monograph is Minding's " Lehrbucli der Xatnrgeschichte 
derFische" above referred to. It maybe well also to add here that the article 
attributed to Jaxos would be rather looked for under Kauoh, the former being a 
Christian name, the Hungarian e(iuivalent of John. Mr. Garman evidently allowed 
himself to be misled by the custom of the Hungarians of putting the family name 
tirst aud the Christian name last. 


Bj^ Theodore Gill, LI.. D. 

The pkincipal genus of Characiuids has been generally ascribed 
to Artedi, with the name Tetragonoptenis. The history is a remarka- 
ble one and worth}^ of detail. 


In 1814 Cuvier, in his '' Memoire sur la Composition de la Machoire 
superieure des Poissons," called attention to the diversities among- the 
''Characins," and outlined the characteristics of Tetragonopterus in the 
following terms: 

,Ie retaljlis le genre U'tracionoptcre de 8oba, tlout ou a iiial a propos coui'oudu 
I'espt're avec le sahito himaculatus ; il a la nieme structure de machoirea que le 
serrasalme, mais il porte deux rangs de deuts a la superieure, et sou ventre u'est 
point treneliaut ui dentele. 

Ill 1817 Cuvier, in his Eegne Animal,' gave the Latin name Tctra- 
ijonopterus, and attributed it to Artedi.^ 

In 1818 Cuvier, in his memoir "Sur les poissons du sous-genre 
Myletes"' remarked as follows: 

Mon deuxienie sous-genre * ^^ * a et6 parfaitement dccrit et represent('> i)ar 
Artedi dans ses Species, pag. 44, sous le nora de Coregonus amboinensis, et daus le 
cabinet de S6ba, tome III, pi. xxxiv, 6g. 3, sous le nom g6u6rique de tetrarionoptcnis 
que je lui conserve. Cependent Artedi le lui avoit doune par erreur, croyant que ce 
poipson pouvoit se rapporter aux tetragon ojit^res do Klein, lesquels ue sont que des 

Ill 1861 Giiiither attributed the genus Tetragonoptenis to Cuv'ier* 
and gave the following note : 

Klein formed the name Tetragonoptrus for Hsbes of the Linnoean genus Teirodoii, 
giving at the same time an etymological explanation of the word. Artedi after- 
wards referred a South American characinoid to the Kleinian genus, preserving the 
original and correct spelling. Cuvier, taking Artedi's species as the type of the 
genus, adopted the name erroneously used by Artedi, but, misunderstanding the 
derivation of the Avord, wrote TetragonopttrHH. 

■Vol. Ill, p. 166. 

"Les Tctragonoptcres. {Tetragonopterus, Artedi.) 

3 Mem. Mus., IV, p. 455. 

^"Mem. Mus., 1818, IV, p. 455". 

Proceedings of the T'nited States National Musenni, Vol. XVIII— Nn. nwi. 

Proc. X. M 95 15. 


The name Tetragonopterus lias been almost universally attributed to 
Artedi by other authors. Nevertheless, Artedi had nothing to do with 
the particular description in Seba's work;' Artedi was droAvned (in 1735)^ 
many years before the "missus quartus" with Klein's name was pub- 
lished (1744); the name Teirmjonopterns was due to a lapsus oculi of 
Cuvier and never appeared in that form till 1815; and the name Tetra- 
f/oiioptrus was inuijiined by Klein for compressed quadrate or rliombi- 
form tishes, ' such as Chictodonts and the like, and liad nothinji- to do 
with "Tetrodou/'' whose species were referred by Klein to his genus 


In 1758 the third volume of Seba's " Locupletissimi rerum naturalium 
Thesauri Accurata Descriptio" was published, and on plate 34, fig. 3, 
was depicted, and on page 10(1 was described a fish of the genus now 
named Teira<j(ntopiirus. Tlie species was called " Tetraijonoptrus ar- 
fjenteus, capite grandi, exserto; appendicula mcmhranacea in extremo dorso ; 
Cauda multum hifurca.''^ It api)eared to the describer to belong to the 
genus Ti'tragoiioptrus of Klein ("Ad genus Tetragonoptrmn Kleiui- 
ianum pertinere videtur pisciculus admodura concinnus, quem exem- 
plum Musei Sebani curate delineatum, ac dein ex i(;one descriptum 
exhibemus"'). An extended description follows. The description is 
that of one unfamiliar with fishes, and as much unlike the manner of 
Artedi as is the reference of the species to a genus composed mainly 
of Chjetodontids and related fishes.^ References to Artedi are given 
in a preceding paragraph'' and in other pages, but the paragraphs 
were evidently from a later hand and less informed mind ; nevertheless 
it is quite probable that Artedi actually had examined a specimen of 
the same species and described it. 

' I am, of course, acqiiaiuted with the statement of Cuvier and Valenciennes (1, 109) : 
'•le texte avait 6te prdpard des 1784 et 1735 par Ai'tedi, <]Uoiquil u'ait jiu etre livre 
au public qu'on 1758, aux frais et par solus de Guabius." The statement is only 
partly true. 

2" Die vigesima septima Septembris 1735, vocatur ex hospltio suo, et cum Seba 
cdenam sumeret, coufabulantur amici plures in seram uoctom, tandem hetus Sc con- 
teutus valedicit, domum tendeus per tenibricosas minusqui ipsi coguitas plateas 
Amstelii'dameuses, dum infelici passu lossam iutrat, decidit, clamat, frustra opem 
petit, submergitus, perit." (Linnaeus iu " Vita Authoris " prefixed to Artedi) Ichthy- 
ologia, 1738. 

'■-TsTpayuvoTzTpoi:, i. e., (^uadratus aspectu. 

^Dr. Uiinther's substitution of Teirodon for Chatodon was the result of following 
Valenciennes. The French naturalist (Vol. XXII, p. 126), referring to Ciivier's use 
of the TetragonopUrus, added, "II a aiissi en soin de remarquer, dans ce memoire, (ju' 
Artedi lui avait doun6 par erreur la denomination de Tetragonopteres de Klein, qui 
lie sont autres c^ue les T^trodons de Linne." Tetrodon was doubtless a heteropheme 
for Chatodoii. 

■' Tetragonoptrus also included Pomacentrids, vomeriue Caraugids, etc. 

•^Pisciculus elegans ad Balisfns Artedi. aut ad Capriscos Kleiuii, pertinere videtur. 
Seba's "Locupletissimi rerum naturalium Thesauri Accurata Descriptio" (p. 106). 




In 1735 (published iii 1738) Artedi prepared a description of a- tish 
evidently closely related and apparently conspecilic with the fish fig- 
ured in Seba's "Thesaurus" aud called it Coregomis amboinensis. The 
only indication of locality was embodied in the sentence ^^ Coref/onoidf.s 
vel Albula ad Amhoinam Iwliw Orieiitalis.^'' Of course, the alleged 
habitat is incorrect. No information as to the museum in which he 
saw the specimen was given. The fish could not have been the same 
as Si'ba's, for Artedi's individual was 3 inches long and 1 inch and ."> 
lines high, while Seba's was 3 inches and lines long and 1 inch and 
[) lines high. Valenciennes asserted that the type was in the old 
jVluseum of the Stadholder, and claimed to have seen it.' He has not 
indicated, however, how he ascertained that such was the case. Dr. 
Giinther'^ has exj)ressed the opinion that " it is quite evident that it 
\T. artedii, Valenciennes] is not the species examined by Artedi and 
figured by Seba, Avhich agrees in every respect with T. chalceus." 


The early history of the genus is recapitulated ir. the following- 

Coreyoniis, sp., AiriEDi. 
Tetrmjonoptrus, sp., Seba. 

Teiragonnptere, Cuvikr, Mem. Mus. Hist. Nat., I, p. 114, 1815. 
Les tetragonopteres (Teti-agonopterns), Cuvier, Kegiie Animal, II, p. 16(), 1817. 
Tetragonopterus, Cuvier, Mem. Mus. Hist. Nat., lY, p. 455, 1818. 

Since the preceding article was presented for publication, an imi)ort- 
ant analytical synopsis of the genus Tetragonopterus has been pub- 
lished by Prof. Albeit B. Ulrey. Professor Ulrey quite correctly refers 
the generic name to Cuvier, ami in the synonymy of the genus omits 
all reference to Seba's and Artedi's works. In his synonymy of T. 
argenteus (p. 277), however, he refers to it — Tetragonopterus argenteus, 
etc., Artedi, in Seba, [etc.] — and identifies the Coregomis (misprinted 
Daregoitus) ainhoinensis of Artedi with the same. 

It is to be hoped that hereafter all association of Artedi with the 
name Tetragonopterus or with the Tetragonoptnis of Seba's work, will 
be abandoned. Artedi had nothing to do with either of those names. 

The analytical synopsis of Professor Ulrey will prove a valuable 
adjunct to students of the genus Tetragonopterus, but it must be used 
with caution, for it appears to have been based to a large extent on 
descriptions and figures. Just one hundred species of Tetragonopterus 
are admitted by Professor Ulrey, but only eighty-six have been suffic- 
iently described for admission in the synoptical tables. 

' Comme j'ai sous les yeux, daus les collections du Museum, uu des T^tragouoji- 
tl'res du cabinet du Stathouder, (^ni a servi aux travanx d'Artedi, Je snis a ineme de 
reconuaitre la ligure peu correcte que nous trouvcms daus Seba (XXVI, 128). 

- Cat. Fish, i'.rit. Mus.. IV, p. 31!t. 


By W. J. Holland, Ph. D. 

The collectiou of Lepi(ioi)tera referred to me for determination from 
tlie U. S. National Museum, contains ninety-one species of Rbopalocera 
and forty-six species of Heterocera. They had all been pinned and 
expanded at the National Museum, and a small ticket with the word 
Zanzibar written upon it afiQxed to the pins in most cases. In a. few 
cases there was in addition a label in another handwriting, presumably 
that of Dr. Abbott, giving information as to the exact locality from 
which certain specimens came. An examination renders it probable 
that these latter labels are clipped from the envelopes in which the 
insects were originally packed. In a number of instances it is plain 
that instead of having come from Zanzibar or its immediate vicinity, as 
the small labels affixed at the Museum would indicate, they must have 
come from the interior, and from a relatively high altitude above the 
level of the sea. The collection contains only a small number of species 
new to science, the great majority being species well known from other 
localities, and noticeably from temperate South Africa, many of them 
species named in the last century. The presence ofaiiAi'gynnis and a 
CJinjsophanus in tlie collection is ])eculiarly interesting, and suggests to 
the student the thought that when a more thorough exploration of the 
lofty heights of Kilimanjaro, Kenia and Ruwenzori shall have been 
made, there will be some very remarkable, if not astonishing, facts 
brought to light as to the geographical distribution of animals. 


Family NYMPHALID^E, Swainson. 

Genus DANAIS, Latreille. 

DANAIS CHRYSIPPUS, Linnaeus, var. KLUGII, Butler. 

Limnas klugii, Butler, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1885, p. 758. 
Euplwa (Jorippus, var. khcgii, Klug, Syml). Pbys., pi. XLViii, fig. 5. 

There are two females and one male specimen of this species in the 
collection. The females differ in size, and the larger example exceeds 

Proceediiiga of the United States National Museum, Vol. XVIII— No. 1002. 



iu expanse of wing the average-sized specimens in the writer's collec- 
tion from the vicinity of Aden and from Mamboia-land. The smaller 
of the two females is labeled "Taveta, January, 1889'', 


Dunais limnioce, Cramkr, var. Petiverana, Doubleday aud Hkavitson. Gen. 

Diurn. Lep., p. 93, pi. xii, fig. 1 (1847). 
Danais leonora, Butler, Proc. Zool. Soe. Lond., 1862, p. 51; Lepid. Exot., p. 

53, pi. XX, fig. 2. 

There is but one example of this s|)ecies, a male, iu the collection. 
It does not differ in the least from examples taken upon the western 
coast of Africa. 

Genus AMAURIS, Hubner. 


/'aiiais ninvius (LiNN.EUS), var., Trimex, Trans. Linn. Soc, XXVI, pp. 511,521, 

pl.XLii, tig. 6(<?) (1869). 
Amauris dotnin'icauns,, Trans. J]nt. Soc. Lond., 1879, p. 323; .Sontli 

African Butterflies, I, p. 61 (1887). 

There are two specimens of this species, both males, and both rather 
smaller than typical examples from Xatal, otherwise not difleriug at all. 
There is no ckie to the exact locality from which the specimens came, 
but Gerstsecker ^ gives Mombasa as one of the localities of the species, 
and it is therefore probable that they were taken somewhere in the hot 
lowlands. The genus is best represented in the hottest parts of trojjical 
West Africa. 

SxilDlainily S^VTYRI^^^E, Bates. 

Genus MELANITIS, Fabricius. 

MELANITIS LEDA, Linnaeus, var. SOLANDRA, Fabricius. 

PavUlii hda, Lixn.kus, Syst. Xat., I, 2, p. 773, n. 151 (1767). 
Pnpilio solatnh-a, Fahricius, Syst. Ent., i>. 500, Xo. 244 (1775). 

Two specimens, in nothing differing from examples taken upon the 
Congo and the Ogove. 

Genus MYCALESIS, Hubner. 

Mycalesis safitza, Hewitsox, Gen. Diurn. Lep., ]). 394, n. 10, pi. LXVi, fig. 3 
(1851); Exot. Butt., Ill, p. 80, pi. XL, fig. 4 (1862).— Trimen, S. African 
Butt., I, p. 105. 

Mi/calesis eusirns, Hopffer, Monatsber. d. K. Akad. Wiss., Berl., 1855, p. 641, n. 
13, and Peter's Reise n. Mossarab., Ins., p. 393, pi. xxv, figs. 3, 4. 

There is one example of the male of this species closely agreeing 
with Hoi^tter's description and figure of M. eusirns., the proofs of the 
identity of which with .1/, safitza, ITewitson, Mr. Trimen has most 
forcibly presented in his recent work upon the South African butter- 

' Gliederthier Fauna des Sansibar-Gebietes, p. 367. 


MYCALESIS SAFITZA, Hewitson, var. EVENUS, Hopffer. 

Mi/calesis evenus, Hopffer, Monatsber. d. K. Akad. Wiss., Berl., 1855, p. 6U, n. 
14; p. 394, pi. XXV, figs. 5, 6 (1862). 

There is a good female of tlie EvenuN wiwiety in the collection, 


Mi/calesis perspioia, Trimex, Trans. Ent. Soo. Londou", 1873, p. 101, pi. t. fig. 3. 
Tlie collection contains a beautiful male specimen of this well-marked 

Mijcalesis sanaos, Hewitsox, Ex. Butt., III. pi. vi, fig. 34. 
The collection contains one example of the male, which does not 
differ materially from specimens coming from Gaboon and the Gold 

Subfainily ACTi^zEllsr.,^. 
Genus ACR^^A, Fabricius. 

ACRiEA CERASA, Hewitson. 

Acnea cerasa, Hewitsox, Exot. Butt., II, pi. xx, fig. 10 (1861).— Trimex, Soutb 
African Butt., I, p. 139 (1887). 

Three specimens, rather smaller than the average. 


Acraa insignis, Distaxt, Proc. Zool. 8oc. Lond., 1880, p. 184, pi. xix, fig. 6. 
Acraa huxtoni, Hewit.sox (nee Bntler), Ent. Mon. Mag., XIV, p. 155. 
Acro'a halbhia, Oukrthur, Etudes d'Eut., XII, p. 6, pi. iii, fig. 8. 

The National Museum collection contains seven specimens of this 
very pretty species, all of them of the form mentioned by the author 
of the species, in which the black spots upon the secondaries are fused 
into one large spot. 

ACRiEA SGANZINI. Boisduval. 

Acra'a sgamini, Boisdu-\ai,, FauneMadgr., p. 34, No. 10, pi. vi, figs. 6, 7 (1833). 
There are a number of fairly good specimens of this species. A slight 
variety ot this species has just been described by M. Vuillot, of Paris, 
under the name A. usiigarw, and has been marketed in quantity by Dr. 
Staudmger, of Dresden. One or two of the specimens agree with the 
form [/sugard', being slightly lighter in the ground color than typical 
A. syanzinij and having the S])ots less developed. 

ACR.ffiA SERENA, Fabricius. 

Papilio screna, Fabricius, Syst. Ent., p. 461, n. 76 (1775). 
The sjiecimens of this species contained in the collection differ from 
the common form found upon the west coast, in that the dark transverse 


subapical band does not extend in them to the border of the outer mar- 
gin and unite with it. Otherwise I can see no difference. The speci- 
mens are labeled " Kilimanjaro, 5,000 feet." 


Acrcea cabira, Hopffer, Mouatsber. iL K. Akad. d. Wiss. Berlin, 1855, p. 640, No. 
•7; Pet. Reise, ZooL, Y, p. 378, pi 23, figs. 14, 15 (1862). 

Several good specimens from Kilimanjaro. 

ACR.(EA PHARSALOIDES, new species. 
(Plate VII, fig. 3.) 

Agrees with A. pharsalus^ Ward, in size and in the disposition of the 
spots upon the upper and lower surfaces of the wings, save that the 
transapical band of the primaries is fulvous and entirely without white 
markings, and the spot at the end of the cell of the primaries coalesces 
with the large quadrate spot which bounds this band internally, form- 
ing a very large black spot extending from thecosta to the second sub- 
median nervule. The general color of the upper surface is bright ful- 
vous, whereas in A. pliarsahis it is fuscous. There is one female speci- 
men in the National Museum collection. This may be merely a local 
race of A. phar solus. 

Locality. — Kilimanjaro. 

ACR.ffiA MINIMA, new species. 

Allied to Eponina, Cramer, but from one-fourth to one-third smaller 
in size. The upper side of the wings is deep black, with a subapical crim- 
son spot as in Eponina., and with the discal area of both wings traversed 
by a broad band of the same color. The inner edge of this band upon 
both wings is nearly straight, and forms a continuous line from near 
the outer extremity of the cell of the primaries to about the middle of 
the inner margin of the secondaries. The cell of the primaries is not 
traversed longitudinally by a ray of scarlet fusing with the discal band 
as in Eponina. The outer margin of the scarlet band upon the second- 
aries is produced opposite the extremity of the cell, and gives the band 
a strongly angulated appearance. Upon the under side of the wings 
the scarlet of the subapical spot of the primaries and of the entire 
secondaries is replaced by ocher-yellow, while the scarlet of tlie discal 
band of the primaries reappears upon the lower side, though not as 
vivid in tone as upon the upi)er surface, and extends inwardly quite to 
the' base of the wing. The secondaries are ornamented just before the 
base by a diagonal row of very black spots more or less fused togetlier 
and forming a narrow band. Upon the outer margin on the interspaces 
there are seven small triangular white spots.' In some specimens a 
similar spot appears near the outer angle of the primaries. 


Female. — In tlie case of tlie solitary female in the collection, the under 
side of the secondaries from the basal band of spots outwardly to tlie 
margin is broadly suffused with fuscous. Whether this is a constant 
teatiire of this sex, it is imjjossible to say without more material at 
command. It has the appearance to the writer of being a case of 
aberrant melanism rather than as the normal coloration, but until we 
know more of the species it will not be safe to nmke any positive 

Expanse of wings: male, 27-3.5 mm.; female, 3(5 mm. 

There are seven males and one female of this very i)retty little species 
in the National Museum collection.' 

ACR^A NATALICA, Boisduval. 

Acrwa naialica, Boisduval, App. Vov. de Deleg. dans I'Afr. Austr., p. 590, ii. 57 


There are seven males and three females in the collection, and they 
do not differ materially from specimens from the region of the Cape, 
except that the females are more or less suffused with whitish upon the 
upper surface of the disks of the secondaries. Collected at Taveta. 

ACRiEA EGINA, Cramer. 
rapilio eijina, Ckamer, Pap. Exot., I, pi. 39, figs. F, G (1776). 

One male example, the antennae of which have been lost. 


Acrwa johnstoni, Godmax, Proo. Zool. Soc. Loud., 1885, p. 537. — Butlek, Proc. 
Zool. Soc. Loml., 1888, p. 91. 

There are two pairs of this beautiful insect in the collection. 

ACRiEA ABBOTTII, new species. 
(Plate YII, fig. 1.) 

Allied in some particulars to A. cahira, Hopffer, but widely different. 

Male. — Upper side: Anterior wings pale ochreous, with the base, 
the cell, excex^t a small triangular space at its lower edge near its 
outer end, the costal margin, the apex, and the outer margin broadly 
black. The ground color is disposed in the form of an oval subapical 
spot and a broad discal baud parallel to the outer margin. The inner 
margin of the black apical area is minutely excised just above the 
origin of the second median nervule, and just below there is a round 
black spot. The black of the basal part of the wing is extended in the 
form of a narrow streak for a short distance between the median and the 

1 This species is identical with A. planesium, Obertbiir, Etudes d'Eutouu, XVII, 
p. 24, pi. I, fig. 11; cf. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., October, 1893, p. 24 . 


submecliau nerves. The secondaries are broadly jiale ochreous, of the 
same tint as tlie primaries, with the outer margin broadly and evenly 
bordered with black. There is a small black spot on the costa near 
the base, iind another near its middle, followed beneath by two minute 
spots, the three forming a short transverse series. Under side: The 
base, the costal margin, and the outer margin of the primaries are 
grayish fuscous. The nervules at their extremities are shaded with 
blackish, and between them there is a series of marginal greenish 
ochreous triangular spots, the apices of which pointing inwardly are 
surmounted each with a short blackish ray or dash. A narrow black 
line crosses the cell near its middle, and at its end there is a broad 
subai)ical bar of black, which extends from the costa, where it is widest, 
about two-thirds of the distance to the outer margin, and is slightly 
excised upon its inner margin. The secondaries are bordered with 
black as upon the upper surface, and have a marginal series of whitish 
triangular spots upon the interspaces, and a few small black spots near 
the base, viz: upon the costa, one at the base, one just beyon<l it, and 
one at the middle; one in the middle of the cell, and five or six quite 
small ones disposed in a semicircular series near the middle of the 
inner margin. The bodj- is black, spotted with yellow; the antenme 
are black. The lower side of the palpi and of the thorax and abdomen 
are pale gray. 

Female. — The female does not differ materially from the male, except 
that upon the upper side there is an additional black s[)ot situated 
between the submedian and first median nervule, and the small spots 
upon the costal area of the secondaries are obsolete except the two 
immediately upon the costa. The under side is as in the male, with 
the exception of the presence of the additional spot between the sub- 
median and the first median nervule. 

Expanse of wings: Male, 38 mm.; female, 45 mm. 

The National Museum collection contains one male and two females, 
one of which is lighter upon the under side than the other. 

Family NYMPHALIN^, Bates. 

Genus LACHNOPTERA, Doubleday. 
LACHNOPTERA AYRESII, Trimen, var. ABBOTTII, new variety. 

Female. — Differs from typical L. ayresii. Trimen', in having the 
under side of both wings broadly tinged with lilac instead of "brassy 
greenish." In other respects it appears to be very much as the South 
African insect except that the markings are somewhat more distinct. 

The National Museum collection contains one slightly damaged 
female of this interesting form. 

1 South African Butterflies, I, p. 197. 


Genus ARGYNNIS, Fabricius. 


(Plate VII, fig. 2). 
Argipinh hanningtoni, Elwes, Trans. Kut. Soc. Loud., 1889, p. 558. 

The collectiou contains six males and three females, in good condi- 
tion. There is no clue to their habitat, but as A. hauningtoni came 
from Taveta, it is highly probable that these specimens came from the 
same region. 

Genus HYPANARTIA, Hubner. 


Hifpanartia hippomene, Hubner, Sammluug Exot. Schmetter., 1816-1824. 

Two defective specimens of this species. 

Genus PYRAMEIS, Hubner. 


Papilio cardui,, Faun. Suee., p. 276, n. 1054 (1761;. 
Two examples of this, the most cosmopolitan of all butterflies. 

Genus JUNONIA, Hubner. 

Junonia, Trimen, Trans. Eut. Soc. Loud., 1870, Y'. 353; S. Afr. Butt., 
I, p. 210. 

One female. 


Fapilio clelia, Cramer, Pap. Exot., I, pi. xxi. tigs. E, F (1779). 
Four males and five females, Taveta. 


Junonia hoopis, Trimen, Trans. Eut. Soc. Lond., 1879, p. 331; S. Afr. Butt. 
I, p. 217. 

Two examples of this form, which is very doubtfully distinct from 
J. onthyia, Linnteus. 

Genus PRECIS, Hubner. 


Papilio doantha, Cramer, Pap. Exot., Ill, pi. cccxxxviii, figs. A, B (1782). 

There is one example of the female sex of this species in the collec- 

PRECIS CERYNE (Boisduval). 
Salarnis ceryne, Boisduval, App. Voy. de Deleg., p. 592, n. 68 (1847). 

There is a damaged specimen of the male of this species. 



Precis sesamus, Trimen, S. Afr. IJiitt., I, p. 231 (1887). 

There are two specimens of this form to which Mr. Trimeu has given 
the foregoing specific name, separating it from P. amestris, Boisduval, 
witli which it has hitherto been always associated in collections. 

Locality. — Kilimanjaro. 

PRECIS ELGIVA (Hewitson). 

Junoma elgiva, Hewitson, Exot. Butt., Ill, pi. 13, fig. 1 (1864). 
There is a solitary male of this species. 


Precis natalica, Felder, AVieu. Eut. Mod., IV, p. lOG (1860). 
One female example in poor condition. 

PRECIS SOPHIA (Fabricius). 
Pajnlio Sophia, Fabricius, Ent. 8yst., Ill, 1, p. 248, No. 771 (1793). 

There are three si)ecimens of this species, two females of thepale form, 
which seems to be most common on the eastern coast and in the inte- 
rior, and is rarely fonnd upon the Avestern coast. 

Genus EURYTELA. Boisduval. 

Papilio hiarhas, Drury, 111. Exot. Eiit., Ill, pi. 14, figs. 1, 2 (1772). 

Three good specimens. 


Papilio dryope, Cramer, Pap. Exot., pi. Lxxviii, figs. E, F (1779). 
Three good examples of this species, the coloring of the outer limbal 
fascia of which is rather brighter fulvous red than in examples from 
the region of the Cape and Angola. 


Papilio ophione, Cramer, Pap. Exot., II, pi. cxiv, figs. E, F (1779). 
Six examples quite like those from the west coast. 

Genus HYPANIS, Boisduval. 

Papilio ilithyia, Drury, 111. Exot. Eut., II, pi. xvii, figs. 1, 2 (1773). 

The collection contains two males and five females, all of them dif- 
fering slightly from each other, and illustrating the remarkable variabil- 
ity of the species. 

Locality. — Taveta. 


Genus HYPOLIMNAS, Hubner. 
I'aplUo misippus., Mns. Ulr., p. 264 (1764). 

Three males and one female of the typical form. Avhicli mimics 
BaiKiis chrysippuH, Linna^ns. 
Locality. — Taveta. 

Genus NEPTIS, Fabricius. 
Papilio melicerta, Dkuky, 111. Exot. Eut.. II, pi. xix, figs. 3, 4 (1773). 

Two examples. 

Genus EUPH.<^DRA, Hubner. 



liomaleosoma neophron, Hopffeu, Monatsber. d. K. Akad. d. Wiss. Ht^rlin, 1855, 
p. 640. 

There is one good example of this species, which is widely distributed 
upon the eastern coast of Africa. 

Genus H AMANUMID A, Hubner. 
I'apilio dadalus, Fabrk'H's, Syst. Ent., p. 482, n. 174 (1775;. 
One finely i^reserved specimen. 

Genus PALL A, Hubner. 

I'apilio varancs, Cramer, Pap. E^xot., II, pi. clx, figs. D, E (1779). 
Two fairly good examples. 

Genus CHARAXES, Ochsenheimer. 

Charaxes citlwron, Felder, Wien. Eut. Mou., Ill, p. 398. pi. viii, figs. 2, 3 (1859). 
One female of this species. 

Family LYC^NID^, Stephens. 

Genus TINGRA, Boisduval. 
TINGRA MOMBASiE, Smith and Kirby. 

Tinyid momhas(v, Smith and Kirhy, Rbop. Exot., I, p. 31, Lycajuida' (African), 
pi. VIH, fig. 11. 

One female specimen of this s])ecies. 


VOL. xvni. 

Genus LYC^^NA, Fabrieius. 
LYCiENA GAIKA, Trimen.' 
Lycana (jaika, Tkimp:n, Trans. Eut. 80c. Loud., 3d. ser., 1, p. 403 (1862). 

The correctness of Mr. Triineu's ideutilication of this insect with 
Zizi-ra pijiimiva, Snellen, is uuquestiouable. I happen to have a good 
series of the latter species from various parts of orieutal Asia, and 
after a comparison with an ecjually good series of L. gailm coming 
from Natal and the specimens contained in the present collection, 
am able to attirm with INIr. De Niceville that injgmcva is "jm absolute 

Four examples in good condition. 


Lyeana hicidu, Trimen, Trans. Ent. Hoc. Lond.. 18S3, p. 348; S. AtVifau liiitt., 
II, V -1^- 
One female of this very distinct species, which comes nearest to L, 
erschoffii, Lederer, from northern Persia, so far as the marking of the 
under side is concerned. The upper side of the male sex is very differ- 
ent, in L. ersehoffii being dark, bordered upon the costa with deep 
ultramarine blue, and in L. hu-ida being light blue, inclining to i)inkish. 

LYC/ENA MORIQUA, Wallengien. 

Lycann moriqita, Wallkngrex, K. Sv. Vet.-Akad. Handl., 1857; Lep. Rliop. 
Caft'r., p. 39. — Trimen, S. African Butt., II, p. 75. 
Two good specimens of this common South African species. 


J'apUio ielicauus, Lang, Verz. sein. Scbmett., II, p. 47, n. 387-389 (1789).- 
Four males and one female of this species, which is one of the most 
widely distributed species of the geiins, attaining its maxininm size 
and most beautiful coloring in the region about the head of the Gulf 
of Guinea. 

LYCiENA PARSIMON (Fabrieius). 
Vapillo partiimou, Fabrkius, Syst. Eut., p. 526, n. 349 (1775).'' 

One excellent female specimen is the only representative of this 
large and beautiful species. 


Lyvdua methymna, Trimen (part), Trans. Eut. .Soc. Loud., 3d series, I. p. 280 

(1862); S. African Butt., II, p. 27. 

One female, referable according to my view to the female sex of this 


' For synonymy, see Triuien, South African Butterflies, II, p. 50. 

2 For further synonymy see Trimen, South African Butterflies, II, p. 69. 

'•* For further synonymy see Trimen, South African Butterflies, p. 18. 


LYCiENA BiETICA (Linnaeus). 
Fainlio ba-iicus, LiNN.i:rs, Syst. Nat., I, 2, p. 789, n. 226 (1767). 

This, the most widely distributed Lj'^c^nid butterfly of the Okl World, 
is represented in the collectiou by two fairly j;ood specimens. 


Papilio palemon, Ckamer, Pap. Exot., IV, pi. cccxc, tigs. K, F (1782). 

A hue series of twelve specimens of this species which, with L. lingeKs, 
should be separated as one of the new genera when the final revision 
of the LyciBiiidie of the world takes place. 

Locality. — Kilimanjaro, 5,000 feet. 

LYCy^NA PERPULCHRA, new species. 
(Plato YII, tig. 7.) 

The ui)per surface is uniformly pale lilac, shading" at tlie base of the 
wings into dark gray. The spots of the under surface appear faintly 
upon the upper side, being reflected through. The margin is fringed 
with blackish, and tlieie is a black spot surrounded with red between 
the first and second submcdian nervules upon the secondaries. The 
under side is utiiformly pale lilac gray. The fringe is black. There is 
a uniform submarginal baud of subsagittate brown marks upon both 
wings. At the anal augle of the secondaries there is a black spot 
slightly irrorated with blue, and between the first and second sub- 
median nervules a black spot marked with bright blue scales in the 
center. At the ends of the cells in both wings there is a curved black 
streak. In addition to this, u[)on the primaries there is a curved row 
of five large and very distinct black sj^ots, and upon the secondaries 
three similar black spots at the base, and beyond the cell a row of eight 
large black spots, forming a longer and shorter loop at the sixth spot, 
which is the innermost of the series, and is situated just below the 
black streak at the end of the cell. 

Expanse of wings, 40 mm. 

This species may be distinguished from other African species by its 
large size and the distinctness of the large black spots upon the under 
side of the wings. 

One female specimen in the National Museum collection from Kiliman- 

'Since the foregoing description was written, this species has been described and 
renamed by both Mr. A. G. Butler and Mr. Roland Trimen; by the former under the 
name Castalim hypoleucus (Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1893, p. 660), and by the latter 
under the name Lycwria exclusa (Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1894, p. 47). Inasmuch as 
the new species in this paper were, through the kind permission of Professor Riley, 
all briefly diagnosed and published in The, London, September, 1892, 
the name herein given to the species has priority and must stand. 


Genus CHRYSOPHANUS, Hubner. 


(Plato VII, tig-. 4.) 

The markings of the anterior wiugs upon the upper .surface are niucli 
as in ('. phlwas^ Linnaeus; the markings of the posterior wiugs upon 
the same surface recall those of (J. ochimxs, Herrich-Schaffer, female, 
or of C. thersamon^ Esper, female. 

Male. — Ui)per side: Auterior wing: The apex of the wing is more 
acute than iu any other species of the genus thus far described. The 
color is bright metallic orange red, inclining very slightly to dusky at 
the base. The costa beyond the middle is very narrowly edged with 
blackish; the outer margin is evenly bordered with a band of black of 
moderate width; the body of tbe wing is adorned by spots of deepest 
black, arranged as follows — one on the cell, one at the end of the cell, 
four below the costa coalescing as a subapical band, a pair disposed 
ujjon the interspaces between the median nervules, and a quadran- 
gular spot near the outer angle between the first median nervule and 
the submediau nerve. Posterior wing: The ground color is the same 
metallic red which prevails upon the forewiug, inclining very slightly 
near the outer margin to opaque scarlet. The base and the inner 
margin are somewhat densely adorned with a vestiture of dusky hairs. 
The costal margin is heavily bordered with black, and the outer margin 
very narrowly Avith the same color. There is a row of small marginal 
spots disposed upon the interspaces and fusing with the narrow outer 
border and causing the red area of the wing within to have a scalloped 
or crenelated appearance. In addition to these markings there is at 
the end of the cell a dusky bar, beyond the cell an interrupted trans- 
verse series of spots, one near the costa, in some si)ecimens fusing 
with the dark costal margin, two opposite the cell, a pair u]ion the 
interspaces of tlie median nervules, and a pair upon the inner margin, 
more or less obscured by the dusky hairs which clothe the base. There 
is in addition a submarginal low of black spots forming a regular 
series conformed in the line of curvature witli tlie outer margin of the 

Under side: Anterior wing: The under side of the anterior wing 
differs from the upper side in that the black margin of the outer edge 
of the wing is lacking, being sim])ly represented by three obsolescent 
spots, one at the outer angle and two situated between the median ner- 
vules. The black spots of the basal and liinbal areas of the wings 
reai)pear upon the lower side, and are larger and more distinct than 
upon the upper side, not coalescing at all, and each being surrounded 
by a faint bluish- white line. Posterior wing: The posterior wing is 
heavily dusted with dark ferruginous scales, and the markings of the 
upper side reappear very obscurely u})ou this side. 


Female. — The female does not differ in anything from the male except 
that she is lighter in color and the markings are somewhat less distinct. 
Expanse of wings, 27-28 mm. 
Eight males and two females in the National Museum collection. 

Genus LYC^^NESTHES, Moore. 

The National Museum collection contains three male examples much 
ligliter in color than specimens from west tropical Africa, the region 
from which the type came. 


Lijrwiu'slhts JenDws, Hewitsox, 111. Dinni. I^ep., p. 221, No. 8, pi. xc, ligs. 13, 
U (1878). 

There is one male of this species in the National Museum collection. 

I can not agree with Mr. Trimen in sinking L. lenuws ns a synonym 
of L. sylvanus, Drury. I have an immense series of the latter from 
Sierra Leone and adjacent regions, all of which are much darker upon 
the under side than any specimens of L. lemnos from the eastern coast 
that I have ever seen, and differ noticeably in having the spots upon the 
basal area and near the costal margin of the under side of the secon- 
daries very dark and conspicuous. This is not the case in L. lemnos, 
Hewitson; and besides, the general color of botli the under side and 
the upper side of the wings of the last-mentioned species is much 
lighter than in L. sylvanus, Drury. Mr. Druce, after a careful exami- 
nation of the types in the Hewitson collection, with some typical speci- 
mens of L. syl ramify, Drury, before him at the time, reaches the same 
conclusion which I have expressed, and further gives it as his impres- 
sion that the female figured by Hewitson as the female of L. si/h-anus 
is in fact that sex of i. lemnos, Hewitson. 

Genus HYPOLYC^NA, Felder. 
Jlespevia pliUlppus, F.\biuciU!>, Eut. Syst. Ill, 1, p. 283, No. 87 (1793). 

One male of this exceedingly widely distributed species. 

Genus CHRYSORYCHI A, Wallengren. 


Papilio liavpar, Fabricius, Syst. Eiit., App., p. 829, Nos. 327,328 (1775). 
One male of this species, notably larger than any specimens I have 
ever seen from the more southern portions of the continent. 

' For synonymy see Trimen, South African Bntterflies, II, p. 96. 

Proc. N. M. 95 IG 


Family PAPILIOXID.E, Leach. 

SvibfaiTiiljr FIE;K,IN"JE, Swaiiisori. 

Genus PONTIA, Fabricius. 


Papilio alcesla, Cuameu, Pap. Exot., IV, pi. ccclxxix, lig. A (1782). 
One female of this species. 

Genus TERIAS, Swainson. 

Fapilio hrigitta,^ Cr.vmer, Pap. Exot., IV, pi. cccxxxi, lij^s. B, C (1782). 
The collection contains one male of this species, in which the marginal 
border of the secondaries is a little wider than is nsual. 


Terias regnlaris, Butler, Ann. aud Mag. Nat. Hiht., ser. 4, XVIII, p. 486 (1876). 
Four males of this species were taken. 


Terias h'lsinuata, Butler, Aiiii. and Mag. Nat. Hist., ser. 4, XVIII, p. 485 (1876), 
One male specimen. 

(Plate VII, fig. 5.) 

Recalling- T. mandarina, De L'Orza, a well-known Japanese and 
Chinese species. 

^[ale. — Upper side: Lemon-yellow. The primaries have the apical 
margin of the costa aud the outer margin as far as the first median 
uervule bordered narrowly with brown, darkest at the tij)s of the nerv- 
ules. There is also a small black spot at the inner angle. The second- 
aries have six minute black spots at the tips of the nervules, but the 
submedian nervule is not thus ornamented in any of the specimens 
before me. Under side: Primaries and secondaries have the ends of 
the nervules tipped with brown. There is a black spot in the middle 
and oue at the end of the cell in the primaries, and a number of Avaved 
and broken lilies upon the secondaries. 

Female. — The female is paler, and the markings are less distinct. 

Expanse of wings, 35 mm. 

Three males and two females are included in the National Museum 

It is with great reluctance that I add another to the long list of names 
that have been applied to the insects which fall into this genus, but 

' For further synonymy see Trimen, Butterflies of South Africa. 


alter a vain attempt to tind any figure or description api)licable to the 
five specimens before me, I have resolved to gi\e tliem a name which, 
at least to the student of Asiatic lepidoptera, will prove suggestive and 

Genus MYLOTHRIS, Hubner. 

Mi/lothri8 lasti, H. G. SMiTif. Auu. ami Mag. Nat. Hist., February, 1889, p. 124. 

The collection contains two female specimens of this most beautiful 

Genus PIERIS, Schrank. 


Pieris ihysa, Hopffer, Mouatsber. K. Akad. Wiss. Berl., 1855, p. 639, No. 1; 
Peter's Reise ii. Mossamb., Ins., p. 349, pi. xxi, figs. 7, 8, male; 9, 10 
female (1862). 

One male specimen. 

PapiUo mesottina, Cramer, Pap. Exot., Ill, pi. cclxx, figs. A, B (1782). 
Five males, one dwarfed female. 


Papilio severina, Cramer, Pap. Exot., IV, pi. cccxxxviii, figs. G, H (1782). 
Two females. 


Sijiichloe Johnstonii, Crowley, Traus. Ent. Soc. Lond., 1887, p. 35, pi. iii, figs. 1-3. 
The collection contains three specimens of this species from Kiliman- 

Genus TERACOLUS, Swainson. 


Callosune hUdehrandfii, Staudixger, Exot. Sclimett., j). 44, pi. 23. 

There is a solitary female of some species of this genus, which I refer 
with a great deal of doubt to the male described and figured as Hilde- 
braiidtii by Staudinger in his "Exotische Schmetterlinge." 


P(i2>Uio Calais, Cramer, Pap. Exot., I, pi. Liii, figs. C, D (1779). 
There are two males of this species in the collection. 


Idmais casfalis, Staudixgek. Exot. Sclimett., p. 43, pi. 23. 
There are two males of this species in the collection which present a 
wonderful likeness to the genus Colias, and might be easily mistaken 
for albino females of ('. elcefra. 


TERACOLUS ANNiE (Wallengren). 

Thestiaa anna-, Wallengren, K. Sv. Vet.-Akad. HamU.,1857; Lep. Rhop. Caffr., 
p. 16, No. 1.— Trimen, South Afr. Butt., Ill, p. 114. 

There are several males of this species in the collectiou, which do not 
appear to differ from specimens coming' from Natal. This species 
j)asses in many collections as T. dana', Fabricius, and was named as 
Cinerascens in 1873 by Mr. Butler. Mr. Trimen in his recent work has 
unraveled the maze of the synonymy in such a way as to clear up all 


AntJwcharis anxo, Lucas, Kev. et Mag. Zool., 1851', p. 422. — Trimen, South Afr. 
Butt., Ill, p. 120. 

The collection includes four males and three females of this common 
and widely distributed species. 

TERACOLUS GAVISA, Wallengren, var. 

Anthopsyche fjavisa, Wallengren, K. Sv. Vet. Akad. Hamll., 1857; Lep. Rlio23. 

Caffr., p. 13, No. 6. 
TeracoJus garisa, Trimen, S. Afr. Butt., Ill, \>. 134. 

The collection contains two males and four females, which I refer 
with some doubt to this species. The black bar on the inner margin of 
the upper side of the primaries is obsolescent, the black spot on the 
under side is absent, and the nervules of the secondaries on the under 
side are black, and there is a black band connecting the tirst and second 
costal nervules near their extremities. In all other respects the speci- 
mens agree with typical T. gavisa, Wallengren. The females are, as is 
characteristic of T. (/a visa, somewhat variable. 


Fieiis omphale, Godart, Euc Meth., IX, p. 122, No. 12 (1819). — Trimen, South 
Afr, Butt.,I[I, p. 142. 

This species is represented by a solitary' female. 


Anlhodiaris jjhJetjetoiiia, Boisdcval, Spec. Gen. Lep., I, j). 576, No. 25 (1836). 

This pretty little species is represented by two males and one some- 
what dwarfed female. 

Genus COLIAS, Fabricius. 


Papilio elecira, Linx.ecs. Syst. Nat., I, 2, p. 704, u. 101 (1767). 

Several males and two females. 


Genus ERONIA, Hubner. 


Evonia dilaiata, Butler, Proc. Zool. Soc. Loud., 1888, p. 96. 
The species is represented in the collection by six males, most of which 
are in very good condition. 

Genus CATOPSILIA, Hubner. 


FapUio fiorella, Fabricius, ,Syst. Eiit., p. 479, No. 159 (1775).— Trimen, South Afr. 
Butt., Ill, p. 185. 

There are iiamierous specimens of the male, and several specimens of 
the female of this species. The course which Mr. Trimen pursues in 
making all the forms of CatopsiUa [GalUdnjas) found upon the African 
continent to be merely forms of the one species, Fiorella, seems to me 
reasonable. Three of the females in the Abbott collection are of the 
yellow (Rhadia) form, and one is white. The yellow is the form I have 
prevalently received from Gaboon and the Congo region, from Avhich I 
have in recent years obtained scores of specimens. It is the predomi- 
nant form of the female. 

Snbfainily PA^FILIONIN".^], Swaii:ison. 

Genus PAPILIO, Linnaeus. 


FapiUo demoleus, Linn-EUs, Mus. Ulr., p. 214 (1764). 
Numerous examples of this exceedingly common species. 

PAPILIO LY^flEUS, Doubleday. 

FapUio hicnifi, Doubleday, Ann. Xat. Hist., XVI, p. 178 (1845). — Trimen, S. 
Afr. Butt., Ill, p. 237. 

I follow Mr. Trimen in separating this form from P. nireus, but do so, 
as JNEr. Trimen admits that he himself does, with nuicli doubt as to the 
scientific accuracy of this course, though there is some profit no doubt 
in clearly discriminating between the two forms. 


FapUio corinneus, Bertholini, Mem. Acad. Sci. Bologn., 1849, p. 9, pi. i, figs. 1-3. — 
Trimen, S. Afr. Butt., Ill, p. 217. 

Two specimens of this species. 


FapUio cenea, Stoll, Suppl. Cram. Pap. Exot., p. 134, pi. xxix, figs. 1, la (1791). 
Two males of the variety with the very broad black submarginal 
band u})ou the secondaries. 


Family HESPERID.E, Leach. 

Genu3 CYCLOPIDES, Hlibner. 


rapilio metis,, Mus. Ulr., p. 325 (1764). 
There are two males in the collection which agree very well in all 
respects with specimens of G. metis from the region of the Cape, 
except that upon the under side of the primaries there is no basal yel- 
low ray coalescing with the yellow spot in the cell. Otherwise I can 
see no reason for discriminating between them and the typical form. 

Genus PARDALEODES, Butler. 


Hesperia (lalenus, Fabricius, Eut. Syst., Ill, 1, p. 350, No. 332 (1793). 
One damaged female. 

Genus PAMPHILA, Fabricius. 


Tamphila erinuiis, Trimen, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond.. 3d ser., I, p. 290 (1861). 

One good male of this species corresponding with the description of 
the aberrant form given by Trimen. ^ 


Pamphila zeno, Tri^ien, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., 3d ser., II, p. 179 (1864); S. Afr. 
Butt., Ill, p. 313. 

The collection contains one male which I identify as that sex of P. 
zeno, though in one or two minute particulars the specimen before me 
does not quite tally with the description given by Trimen. 


Hesperia hottentota, Latreille, Enc.Meth., IX, p. 777, u.l33 (1823). 
One female example. 


Hesperia borhonica, Boisduval, Faune Ent. Madagas., p. 65, No. 3, jil. ix, figs. 
5, 6 (1833). 

Three males of this species. 

PAMPHILA, sp.(?) 

There is an injured specimen of an obscure species of Pamphila 
related to Hottentota, which is unlike anything known to me, and which 
1 nevertheless do not wish to attemjit to describe without better mate- 

1 South African Butterflies, III, p. 327. 


Genus ISMENE. 
Fajnlio forestall, Cramer, Pap. Exot., IV. pi. cccxci, figs. E. E (1782). 
The collection contains one male of this species in no wise differing 
from specimens from the region of the Cape. 

ISMENE CHALYBE, ^A^estwood. 

Ismene Clialijhe, Westwood; Douhleday and IIewitsox, Geu. Dinrii. Lep., pi. 
79, fig. 2 (1852). 
One example of this well-known sj)eeies. 


Family SPRING I D.1^], Boisdnval. 

Genus MACROGLOSSA, Seopoli. 


Mncroglossa /ii)v(Hf?(*, Gerstacker, Gliedorth.-Eaima d. .Sausil)ar-Gel)ietes, p. 375, 
pi. XV, fig. 7. 

There is one example of the male of this common East African 


Macroylossa irochiloUJes,, Proc. Zool, Soc. Lond., 1875, p. 5, No. 6; Trans. 
Zool. Soc. Loud., IX, p. 525. 

Tliere is one greased specimen of the male of this species in the 
Locality, — Kilimanjaro. 

Family AGARISTID.F, Swainson. 

Genus HESPAGARISTA, Walker. 
Hespagarisia interlecta, Axgas, Kaffirs Illustratod, pi. 30, fig. 10. 
The collection contains a single male of this species. 


Genus PITTHEA, Walker. 

Pitfhea trifasciata, Dewitz, Nov. Act. K. Leop. Car. Deutsch. Akad., XLII, No. 
2, p.82, pi. Ill, fig. 3. 

One specimen. 


Genus PRABHASA, Moore. 
rrahhasa iitsu/iiin, Butler, Cist. Ent., Ill, p. 8. 
Several specimens from Kilimanjaro. 


Genus LEPISTA, Wallengren. 
Lithosia paudula, Boisduval, Delegorgne Yoy. Afr. Austral., 11, p. 597, No. 130. 

The collection eoiitaius one female agreeing- absolutely with speci- 
mens in the British Museum. L. limbata, Butler, described from a 
male specimen taken at Kilimanjaro, and now in the British Museum, 
may bo the male of this species. 

Genus SOZUZA, Wallengren. 

SOZUZA STEVENSII, new species. 
(PlMte VII, fig. 14.) 

Female. — Front, anteunie, and eyes black ; top of head, collar, tegulse, 
thorax, abdomen, and anterior wings pale gray. Posterior wings 
lighter gray. Anterior wings narrowly margined upon costa with 
black. The under side is much as the upper side, save that the anterior 
wings are shaded with blackish beneath. 

Expanse of wings, 44 mm. 

The type, one example from Kilimanjaro, is in the National Museum 

I name this species in honor of Mr. Stevens, the bicyclist, who 
accompanied Dr. Abbott upon his journey to Kilimanjaro. 

Family AKCTIID^E, Stephens. 

Genus UTETHEISA, Hubner. 
Tinea pulchella, Lixx.EUs, Syst. Xat., I, 2, 884, p. 348. 

One specimen. 

Genus SPILARCTIA, Butler. 

Male. — Head, thorax, body, and anterior wings luteous. The five 
posterior segments of the abdomen are banded with black upon the 
upper side. Upper side: The anterior wings have three minute black 
spots before the base, two poorly defined spots at the end of the cell, 
a submarginal series of minute spots bifurcating near the apex, and a 
small marginal spot at the end of each uervule. All of these S])ots 
are dark brown, or black. The posterior wings are white and semi- 
diaphanous, wath a minute black spot at the end of the cell. Under 
side: The wings upon the under side are white, shading into luteous 
upon the costa of the i^rimaries. The spots of the upper side disap- 
pear upon the under side, or are very faint, except the spots at the 
end of the cell, which are much larger than upon the upper side, and, 



coalescing, form a bold, comma-shaped mark, and the two spots of the 
inner branch of the bifurcating snbmarginal series, which are nearest 
the costa of the primaries, and are relatively large and conspicuous, 
especially the one nearest the costa. 

Expanse of wings, 31 mm. 

There are several specimens in the National Museum collection 

Genus ALPENUS, Walker. 
(Plate VII, tig. 10.) 
Male— Anteuun', eyes, and front black. Collar, patagia, and thorax 
very pale ashen. Abdomen yellowish, with a row of seven small black 
spots on the top and a similar series on the sides. Legs margined 
with black upon the upper side. The anterior wings are pale ashen, 
nearly white, and have three transverse macular bands, one near the 
base, one at the end of the cell, and one on the limbal area. These 
bands are very sharply angulated about the region of the median nerv- 
ule, and the spots are here produced along the nervules as lines. The 
si'.ots composing these bands are all black, and are largest upon the 
costa and near the inner margin of the wing. The posterior wings 
liave a round blackish spot at the end of the cell, one near the outer 
angle, and another near the anal angle. The under side is somewhat 
darker than the upper side, and almost all of the spots of the upper 
surtace are obliterated, or only very faintly reappear upon the lower 

Expanse of wings, 30 mm. 
Type in the National Museum collection, from Kilimanjaro. 

Genus TERACOTONA, Butler. 

TERACOTONA CLARA, new species. 

(Plate VII, lig. 12.) 

Male.— AntemiiB light in color. Tibiic of anterior pair of legs bright 
pink. Head, collar, patagia. and thorax very dark brown. Kegion of 
metathorax clothed with long pinkish hairs. Abdomen pale brown, 
annulated and spotted on sides with black. Forewings uniformly 
brown, not so dark in color as the thorax, thickly strewn with blackish 
scales, and with a large black spot at the end of the cell and a f\iint 
curved transverse bUick line beyond the cell. Posterior wings white, 
tinged with pink and yellowish on the costa and outer margin, and 
with a black spot at tlie end of the cell. On the under side, the ante- 
rior wings are lighter than upon the upper side, and are broadly 
washed with pink upon the costa. They are darkest in color near the 
apex. None of the markings of the upper surtace reappear, except the 
spot at the end of the cell, which is very distinct. The posterior wings 
are on the under side as upon the upper. 


Ex])aiise of wings, 36 mm. 

Type ill the Natioual Museum, from Kilimanjaro. 
Tliis species is fully one-third less in size than T. ohscura and T. sub 
macula., both of which species were described by Walker. 

Genus PELACHYTA, Hubner. 
Noctua maurUid, Stoi.l, Pap. Exot., IV. pi. 345 ]5. 

Genus METARCTIA, Walker. 
(Plate YIII, tig. ::!.) 
il/^f//e.— Antenna?, head, collar, and abdomen light reddish-brown, 
brightest upon the collar. The teguhie and the upper surface of the 
thorax are darker brown, without the reddish cast. The upper surface 
of the anterior wings is of the same color as the upper side of the 
thorax. The posterior wings are pale, creamy gray, shading on the 
inner margin into luteous. The under side of both wings is pale ashen 
gray, tinged with luteous upon the costa. 
Expanse of wings, 30 mm. 

Described from one specimen in the collection. This insect is repre- 
sented in the collection of Mr. Herbert Druce by a male and female 
specimen from the Congo. 

Family LIPARIDyE, Boisduval. 

Genus LEUCOMA, Stephens. 

Male.—Uead pale luteous. Antenna-, legs, and body pale gray. The 
wings on both surfaces are white, shading into pale gray on the costa 
upon the upper surface of the primaries. The edges of the costa- and 
the fringes of the Avings upon the under side are very narrowly pure 
white. The wings are immaculate, save that at the end of the cell in 
the primaries there are two minute black spots, visible only upon the 
upper surface. 

Expanse of wings, 40 mm. 

The type, a male, is unique in the National Museum collection, and 
is labeled "Taveta, May, 1888." 

Family LASIOCAMPID.E, Harris. 

Lichoiopteri/x despecta, Felder, Nov. Reise, Lep., IV, pi. 95, fig. 5. 
One female specimen. 


Genus STIBOLEPIS, Butler. 

Male. — Front reddish. Collar, pata<ii;i'. and ujjper side of tnorax 
gray. Legs and mider side of thorax and upper and under side of 
abdomen ocherous. The wings are uniformly light gray upon the 
upper side, and thickly sown with dark scales, producing a " salt and 
pepper" effect. Upon the costa of the primaries tliere is a faint tend- 
ency of these black atoms to arrange themselves in bands, especially 
near the base of the wings. The margin is very narrowly dark gray 
and the broad fringes are pale ashen. The under side of the wings is 
uniforml}- pale gray, shading into ocherous at the base. The wings 
are thickly dusted over with dark scales upon the outer half and on 
the costa. These scales are so arranged, just beyond the cell, as to 
present the appearance of four or five faint and narrow bands. The 
anterior wings, near the base and beloM^the cell, have few markings. 

Expanse of wings, 55 mm. 

The type is unicpie in the collection, and is labeled '• Zanzibar'* by 
the authorities of the Museum. But I have a specimen in my own col- 
lection which came from near Taveta, and was collected by a French 
naturalist, so that the type was probably from the interior. 

Family LIMACODID.E, Boisduval. 

Genus COSUMA, Walker. 

COSUMA MARGINATA, new species. 

(Plate YII, fig. 11.) 

Male. — Antenuie, head, and body dark olivaceous. Upper side: An- 
terior wings pale olivaceous and the posterior wings still i>aler. Both 
wings have a silky luster. There is a well-defined round, cream-col- 
ored mark at the end of the cell of the primaries. The margins have a 
very narrow stramineous border interrupted by the darker nervules. 
The fringes are of the same color as the body of the wings. Under 
side: Both wings are marked as upon the upper surface, but are paler, 
and the marginal maculations are larger and more distinct. 

Expanse of wings, 28 mm. 

The type, in the Kational Museum collection, is unique. 

Family SATUENIID^, Boisduval. 

Genus GYNANISA, Walker. 


Saturnia isis, Westwood, Jard. Nat. Libr., Eiitom., VII, 138, pi. 13. 
One male in good condition, and larger than usual in s])ecimeus from 
Delagoa Bay. 


Genus COPAXA, Walker. 
Dreaia Jlavlnata, Walker, Cat. Lep. Het. Brit. Mus., XXXII, p. 373 

One male. 

Family COSSID^E. 

Genus DUOMITUS, Butler. 


(Plate VII, fig. 8.) 

Male. — AnteuDiV, head, thorax, body, and legs brown. Metathorax 
heavily clothed with pale cinereous hairs. Upper side : Anterior wings 
wood-brown, darkest on the costa near the base. The wing is profusely 
mottled with small brown spots, and is crossed beyond the cell by a 
broad band of very dark brown, which does not touch the costa, uor 
quite reach the inner edge. This band is split by a wedge of veryi^ale 
brown at the end nearest the inner margin. The wing is further orna- 
mented by an interrupted, irregular submarginal band of brown. The 
posterior wing is paler in color than the anterior wing. The limbal 
area of this wing is ornamented by spots growing darker and heavier 
toward the outer margin. Near the outer angle these spots are fused 
so as to form a V-shaped mark. Under side: Upon the under side the 
wings are darker than upon the upper side, and the same markings 
reapi)ear, but heavier, and more shar])ly delined. 

Expanse of wings, 58 mm. 

The type in the Xational Museum collection is unique. 

Family HP]PIALII).F. 

Genus HEPIALUS, Fabricius. 
HEPIALUS KENI.(E, new species. 
(Plate \\\, fig. G.) . 

Female. — Antenn;v, head, thorax, body, and legs brown. The meta- 
thorax is heavily clothed with pale cinereous hairs. Upper side: 
Anterior wings wood-brown. About the middle of the costa there are 
three dark brown spots. Above the cell, about one-third of the way 
from the base, is a large pale spot slightly clouded with brownish in the 
center. A smaller oval spot of like color appears in the cell near its 
end. Above the end of the cell there are two small, silvery, sagittate 
marks with their points in ojiposite directions, the one above the other. 
The larger arrow, which has its barbs toward the outer border of the 
wing, is immediately followed by a short curved baud of brown spots 
bordered inwardly and outwardly by pale cinereous; this short band 
is followed by a longer submarginal band of similar spots, extending 
from near the apex to before the outer angle; there are also two comma- 



shaped streaks below the cell on the inner margin, inclosing between 
them a dark circular spot bordered by lighter cinereous. The posterior 
wings are uniformly fuliginous grey, as is also the entire under-surface 
of both wings. 

Expanse, 50 mm. 

The type, in the Kational Museum collection, is unique. 

Genus GORGOPIS, Hi.\bner. 

GORGOPIS ABBOTTII, new species. 

(Pltite VII, fig. 9.) 

Male. — The body and the wings upon both the upper and the under 
side are very pale fawn, shading at the commissures of the wings and 
the costne. into pale luteous. The vestiture of the body and the win-gs 
is lustrous and silky. 

Expanse of wings, 45 mm. 

The National Museum collection contains a couple of specimens. 
The species is represented in the collection of Mr. Herbert Druce by an 
unnamed example coming from the region of the Cape. 

Group NOCTU^. 

Family HADENID.E. 

Genus CONSERVULA, Grote. 

CONSERVULA MINOR, new species. 

(Plate VIII, fig. 1.) 

Male. — Front white. The thorax and abdomen are pale brown. The 
anterior wings are of the same color as the thorax, lustrous and orna- 
mented with darker brown lines and spots which are all margined 
externally by paler lines. These lines are as follows: ISTear the base 
three short lines succeeding each other, and running parallel to the 
outer margin, a broader band starting at the inner third upon the 
costa and traversing the wing on a line at right angles with the lines 
at the base, and fusing just below the end of the cell with aline origi- 
nating near the costa at the outer third and running i)arallel to the 
outer margin as far as the inner margin. The Y-shaped mark thus 
formed, incloses a large spot at the end of the cell. There is a slightly 
curved submarginal band. The posterior wings are white, slightly 
tinged with r)inkish. The under side of both wings is pale grayish, with 
an obscure blotch of darker color at the ends of the cells on both wings. 

Expanse of wings, 32 mm. 

Type in the National Museum collection, from Kilimanjaro. 


Family OMMATOPHORID.E, Guenee. 

Genus PATULA, Guenee. 
rhahvna-AttacHS macrops., Syst. Nat., Ed. 12, III, p. 225 (1768). 
One example from Taveta, May, 1888. 

Genus C YLIGRAMMA, Boisduval. 
PhaJana Jatona, Ck.-vmer, Pap. Exot., I, 20, pi. xiii, tig. B. 

One good specimen. 

Family HYPOPYEID.^5, Guenee. 

Genus CALLIODES, Guenee. 


(Plate YIII, fig. 2.) 

Male. — Allied to C. jrynda, Hopffer, bat differing- in havinj^ tbe 
ground color of the upper surface brown and under side tawny. Upon 
tbe upper side of tbe secondaries tbere are more lines tbau iu Hopffer's 
species, and upon tbe under side tbere is a transverse median line augu- 
lated at tbe end of tbe cell. 

Expanse of wings, 40 mm. 

Tbe tyi)e, in tbe National Museum collection, is unique. 

OGOVIA, new genus. 

Allied to Hypopyra, and in general outline somewbat suggesting 
Sphhujomorpha. Abdomen produced fully one-tbird of its lengtb be- 
yond tbe posterior wings, and tufted at its anal extremity in tbe male. 
Forewings narrow, produced, very falcate at tbe aiiex, and rounded on 
tbe inner angle. Posterior wings subtriangular, tbe outer margin 
evenly rounded. Patagia very long", covering tbe commissures of both 
tbe anterior and posterior wings. Palpi compressed at base, porrect, 
tbe first joint flattened vertically, tbe second subconic, tbe tbird slen- 
der and sligbtly knobbed at tbe end. Tbe antenna? are long, and ser- 
rate for two-tbirds of tbe distance from tbe base. Tbe tibia^ are very 
densely clotbed witb bair. Tbe general coloration is brown, with a 
submarginal transverse line sbarply angulate at tbe apex and return- 
ing parallel to tbe costa. 

Type. — 0. taretensis, Holland. 

OGOVIA TAVETENSIS, new species. 

(Plate VII, fig. 13.) 

3IaJe. — Tbe first Joint of tbe palpi is dark brown, tbe second and 
tbird are ligbter, corresponding witb tbe general color of tlie body. 
Tbe eyes are large, prominent, black. Tbe frcmt is ligbt brown. Tbe 


Lairs of the collar are erect, and in front thickly conii)ressed and ar- 
ranged in the form of two upi ight dark-broo n fan-shaped masses. The 
body of the collar, the patagia, the thorax, and the abdomen are light 
wood-brown, corresponding with the color of tlie anterior wings. There 
are two dnsky stripes on the abdomen, one on either side. The under 
side of the body and legs are uniformly light wood-brown. The ante- 
rior Aviugs are very sharply falcate, and broadly and evenly rounded at 
the inner angle. The ground color of the anterior wings upon the 
upper side corresponds with that of the thorax. There is a round dark 
spot in the cell, and some faint darker markings about the middle of the 
outer margin and at the apex. Beginning below the costa, about one- 
third of the distance from the apex, there is a narrow yellow line, 
which extends outwardly to within about two millimeters of the margin, 
where it forms an acute angle with a similar line running from theeosta 
just before the apex to the inner margin before the outer angle. These 
yellow lines are bordered faintly on both sides by brown. The color 
of the posterior wings is dark brown, lighter at the base, and with 
some faint yellowish and black striiv at the anal angle. The color of 
the under side of the wings is light brown, slightly glossed with i)urple. 
The forewing is clouded with fuliginous near the inner margin j the 
hind wing is hoary on the inner margin. A band of minute blackish 
spots traverse the limbal area of both wings, and there are a few 
similar spots near the apex of the primaries. 

Expanse of wings, 52 mm. 

The type, in the National Museum, is unique. 

Family OPHIUSID.E, Guenee. 

Genus GRAMMODES, Guenee. 
Noctiia stolida, Fabricius, Ent. Syst., 599. 
One examj)le of this species, which is also found in Europe. 

Genus TRIGONODES, Guenee. 
TRIGONODES MAHARA, Felder and Rogenhofer. 
Trifionodes mahava, Feldei! and Rogeniiofeu, Lep. Nov. Keise, pi. cxvii, lig. 13. 

This species is very near T. acutata, Guenee. 

Family DYSGONIID^, Moore. 
SpMngomorpha monteironw, Butler, Auu. and Mag. Nat. Hist. (4), XIV, p. 106. 
Family REMIGIID.E, Guenee. 
Genus REMIGIA, Guenee. 
Eemigia conveniens, Wai-Kki;, Cat. Lep. Het. Brit. Mils, XIV, p. l.")07. 
This species is represented by one male and one female specimen. 


Family HYPENID^, Gueuee. 

Genus HYPENA, Sehrank. 
HYPENA, sp. (?) 

A specimeu too mucli worn to be identified. 


Family ENNOMID.E, Gueuee. 

Genus TETRACIS, Guenee. 

TETRACIS, sp.(?) 

The specimen is too poor to be determined. 


Genus GONODELA, Boisduval. 


(Plate VIII, fig. 4.) 

Front, the entire body, and both wings upon the upper surface as far 
as the transverse exterior line pale lilacine gray. Upper side: The 
outer third of both wings between the transverse exterior line and the 
margin broadly and uniformly dark iDurplish grey, save a few faint 
cloudings of lighter color. Both wings have a black point at the end 
of the cell. Upon the primaries there is a basal, a transverse median, 
and a transverse exterior line, all parallel, and all angulated below the 
costa. The transverse outer line is continued upon the secondaries as 
the transverse median line of the secondaries and becomes diffuse, and is 
interrupted by the black dot at the end of the cell. The transverse outer 
line of the secondaries is narrow, dark, and distinct. The margins are 
dark brown, darkest on the intraneural interspaces; the fringes are 
uniformly grayish. Under side: The ground color is whitish, tinged 
with ochreous on the cost;e of both wings, and profusely mottled with 
small brown points and blotches. The exterior margin is broadly 
rufous, save where the faint cloudings of the upper surface are repro- 
duced as broad and distinctly defined patches of the prevalent whitish 
ground color of the under side. The lines and points of the upper side 
are otherwise very indistinctly and feebly reproduced upon the lower 

Ex])anse of wings, 35 mm. 

The type, in the National Museum collection, is unique. 

(Plate VIII, tig. ;").) 

The ground color is whitish, with profuse minute maculations. At 
the base of the primaries there is an oblique brown line, which is fol- 
lowed about the middle by a line which is curved or hooked like a 


crozier just beloAV the costa. On the costa before the apex is a sub- 
triniiiiuhir brown spot. Beginning- just below the apex on tlie outer 
margin and extending- oblicjuely across the wing to the middle of the 
inner margin is a broad dark line, beyond which the entire outer por- 
tion of the wing is clouded with dark brown. A still darker curved 
line traverses this dark triangular area, and terminates just^ before 
the outer angle. The posterior wing is ornamented by a broad median 
band, and a very broad submarginal band, straight internally and 
indented externally. The margin is clouded with brown. Under side: 
Tlie markings of the upper side are rei)roduced upon the under side, 
but the bands are all warm ferruginous, and are more clearly and 
sharply detined. 

Expanse of wings, 32 mm. 

The type, in the ISJational Museum collection, is uniciue. 

GONODELA, sp. (?) 

The specimen represents a form very near, if not identical with, a 
species to which Mr. Warren has afdxed the name maculosa in the col- 
lections of the British Museum, and as Mr. Warren has prepared a 
manuscript description which maj' shortly be published, I refrain from 
characterizing this form. 

Genus TEPHRINA, Guenee. 


Tephr'ma obserrafa, Walker, Cat. Lep. Het. Brit. Mus., XXIII, p. 963. 

Genus EUBOLIA, Boisduval. 
EUBOLIA, sp. {?) 

The hind wings are almost entirely wanting from the specimen, and 
I cannot therefore attempt to describe it. The species is not rei)re- 
sented in the British Museum. 

Genus SIONA, Duponchel. 
SIONA, sp. (?) 

I refer two specimens, with some doubt, to Duponchel's genus iSi(»i((. 
They are not found in the British Museum, but are in too poor a con 
dition to warrant description. 

Family FIDONID.E, Guenee.^ 

Genus STERRHA, Hubner. 
riialnua-Geomeira sacraria, LiNX.EUS, Sj'st. Nat., I, 2, p. 863 (1766). 

Several examples. 

Gen. (?) sp. (?) 

A geometer too poor to determine anything about it. 
Proc. N. M. 95 17 



Genus STEMORRHAGES, Lederer. 

Botls thalass'nialh, Boisduval, Faune Eut. Madgr., p. 117, p]. xvi, fig. 6. 

Boisduval makes this insect the same as sericea, Drury, and applies 
the name upon the ground that there is already a Bofis sericcalis. But 
the anal tuft in sericea, Drury, is black, whereas in the present form 
it is grassy-green as the rest of the body. I therefore retain the name 
of Boisduval, iu spite of the fact that Walker has sunk it as a synonym 
of sericea, Drury. This it most certainly is not, though the author 
of the name regarded it as identical with sericea, Drury. Sericea^ 
Drury, and fhalassinalis, Boisduval, must both stand. 

One example. 

Genus HYMENIA, Hubner. 
Phahma fasc'ialis, Chamek, Pap. Exot., IV, pi. cccxcviii, fig. O. 
One example. 


Genus CANTHELEA, ^A^alker. 


One example. So determined by Mons. E. Eagonot, of Paris. 

Besides these species, there are two specimens of small Tineid moths 
in bad condition, which I am altogether unable to name, and which no 
one to whom I have shown them can assist me in naming. 



By W. J. Holland, Ph. D. 

xVccordinCt to informatiou given me by the authorities of the National 
Museum, the collections before me consist of two lots, the first contained 
in two boxes, and representing specimens captured in tlie region of the 
Tana River, uiDon the journey from the coast to Hameye; and the sec- 
ond, contained in one box, representing collections made solely by Mr. 
Chanler, but taken upon practically the same territory. The specimens 
are not always in good condition, and in many cases represent, as the 
following list will show, species which are common in collections. 


SulDfaiTiily DA-NA-IN".^:. 

Genus DANAIS, Latreille. 


One typical male, labeled " Tana River." 

DANAIS CHRYSIPPUS, Linnaeus, var. KLUGII, Butler. 

Thirty-two examples, one male with the secondaries white, as in the 
variety Alcippus. 


One example, from the Tana River. 

* SubfaiTLily SA.T YRIISTJE. 

Genus MELANITIS, Fabricius. 
MELANITIS LEDA, Linnaeus, var. SOLANDRA, Fabricius. 

One specimen. 

Proceedings of the United States National Museum, Vol. XVIII — No. 1063. 



Genus YPHTHIMA, Hubner. 
YPHTHIMA CHANLERI, new species. 

Upper side brown, paler toward the outer margin and the apex. The 
ocellar tract is not separated in any way from the adjacent portion of 
the wings, the brown color shading by imperceptible degrees from the 
base, where it is almost black, to the outer margin, where the wings are 
pale wood-brown. There is a narrow dark submarginal line, which does 
not quite reach the inner margin on either wing. On the j)rimaries there 
is a large, sharply defined subapical ocellus, bipupilled, with the iris 
orange-red, surrounded with a narrow dark-brown shade. Tpon the 
secondaries there are two unipupillate ocelli of moderate size, one upon 
each of the median interspaces. Upon the under side the primaries are 
as upon the upper side, but slightly paler. The secondaries have in 
addition to the two ocelli of the upijcr side another of equal size upon 
the first costal intersi)ace, and a very small one adjacent to tlie inner- 
most of the two on the median interspaces. The ocellus of the primaries 
on the under side is bipupillate, as upon the upper side; the ocelli of the 
secondaries are unipupillate. A narrow, slightlv irregular dark-brown 
band runs from the ocellus at the costa across the wing to the inner 
margin. The sex mark is not apparent upon the upi)er surface of the 

Expanse of wings, 40 mm. 

The type in the National Museum collection, from tlie Tana Kiver, is 

Having carefully examined the descriptions of all the species enu- 
merated in the recent monograph of this genus by Messrs. Elwes and 
Edwards, I can find no account of any species from the African region 
which applies to the specimen before me. Y. vinsoni comes nearest to 
meeting the requirements, but the underside of the secondaries is totally 

Siabfamily J^C^IJRT.1!^ JE.. 

Genus ACR^^A, Fabrieius. 
ACR.(^A MINIMA, Holland. 

Eleven examples from the region of the Tana. 


Thirty-three specimens, male and female. 

ACR^A SGANZINI, Boisduval. 

Three specimens. They are referable to tlie varietal form named 
A. usugarw by Mons. Vuillot. 


Onfe female. 


ACRiEA LYCIA, Fabricius. 

Oue example. 

ACR.(EA CABIRA, Hopffer. 

A single specimeu of the male. 

A solitary female. 

ACRi^A sp.(?) 

A badly damaged female, which agrees with specimens labeled "A 
biixtoiii, Butleiy' which I have received from Mr. Trimen, but which I 
think can scarcely be the females of that species. If they are, then the 
female is dimorphic in a surprising manner. The long suite of J., hux- 
toni in this collection shoM'S that the females on the Tana Eiver do not 
have the primaries as dark as in these specimens from Mr. Trimen, 
nor the subapical transverse band nearly white, as in them. It is haz- 
ardous to question the determinations of so experienced a student as 
Mr. Trimen, but I think there is an error here. 


Genus JUNONIA, HiAbner. 
Two males and one female, 

Four males and three females. 

Genus PRECIS, Hubner. 

Six examples. 


One fragmentary specimen. 


One si)ecimen. 

PRECIS CUAMA, Hewitson. 

Two specimens. 

Genus EURYTELA, Boisduval. 

One x)oor specimen. 


Genus HYPANIS, Boisduval. 

Five examples of the typical form and one of the variety Cora, 

Genus HYPOLIMNAS, Hubner. 


Two males and one female of tlie tyx)ical form, and two females of 
the dimorphic form Inaria. Cramer. 


One example of this species, which is identical with Waldbergl, Wal- 

Genus EUPH^^DRA, Hubner. 


Two specimens. 

Genus CHARAXES, Ochsenlieinier. 
One badly injnred male. 


Two fairly well-preserved males. 


Two si^ecimens. 

CHARAXES CHANLERI, new species. 

This species comes nearer to C. l-irkii, Butler, than any other, bnt 
maybe distinguished from that species by the fact that the secondaries 
have no red inclosed spots or curved dashes in the first four di\ isi(Uis 
of the marginal markings, as described by Dr. Butler; the subuiar- 
ginal series of lunulate spots are not white edged, as in Klrlii, and 
there is no discal lunulate green line as in Dr. Butler's species. The 
prinmries, moreover, are not shdt with steel blue at the base. 

Expanse of wings, G5 mm. 

Four damaged males of this species in the Xational Museum collec- 
tion. The species is allied to C. giideriana, Dewitz, resembling the 
latter in the form of the wings. 

Genus PALLA, Hubner. 

There is one specimen of this species in the collection. 


Family LYC^NID.^^. 

Genus LUCIA, Swainson. 
LUCIA BIBULUS, Fabricius. 

One specimen. 

Genus LYC^NA, Fabricius. 
The collection coutiiins a siniilc specimen of this species. 

LYC^NA ByETICA, Linnasus. 

One example. 

LYC^NA GAIKA, Trimen. 

A single specimen. 

Subfamily PIERIN.ZE]. 

Genus TERIAS, Swainson. 

TERIAS ZOE, Hopffer. 

Four males and three females. 


Six specimens. 

Genus PIERIS, Schrank. 


One pale specimen of the male, to which the label P. ahi/ssinica, 
Lucas, had been attached before it came into my hands. The specimen 
does not belong' to the form described by Lucas. 

PIERIS LILIANA, H. Grose Smith. 

A number of examples, male and female. 

Genus E RON I A, Hubner. 

One male. 

Genus CATOPSILIA, Hubner. 


A single specimen. 

Genus COLIAS, Fabricius. 


Several examples, including a couple of the dimorphic females. 

Genus HERP^^NIA, Butler. 


One exam]ile. 

Genus TERACOLUS, Swainson. 

A solitary specimen. 



Seven males and two females. 

TERACOLUS GAVISA, Wallengren, var. (?) 

A single example of the form described in the preceding paper upon 
the collections of Dr. W. L. Abbott. This may be a new species, but 
in the face of the very great difticulties which surrouud the determi- 
nation of the species of this genus, I do not dare to characterize the 
form as a distinct species, and thus perhaps add another to the puzzles 
of future laborers in the field. 

TERACOLUS HETiERA, Gerstaecker. 

A sadlj^ battered specimen of the male of this"species. 

Subfamily P^PILI03Sri]Sr.aE. 
Genus PAPILIO, Linnaeus. 

A tattered male. 


A single specimen. 


A male, not to be distinguished from specimens coming from Natal 
and the region of the Cape. 



Genus CEPHONODES, Hubner. 


One bad specimen. 

Genus LOPHOSTETHUS, Butler. 

A torn example of the male. 


Genus CERANCHIA, Butler. 

One exami)le. 

Besides the .species enumerated, there are two examples of some 
zyg;enid moth, which are too poor to venture to name or determine. 
They were evidently taken just at the time when emerging from the 
chrysalis, and are not sufliciently developed to make them proper sub- 
jects for study. 


By W. J. Holland, Ph. D. 

The small collection of lepidoptera made by Dr. Abbott in the islands 
lying' west and north of Madagascar in the Indian Ocean contains but 
little that is apparently new to science, but possesses interest as illus- 
trating- the geograj)hical distribution of genera and species. Thus far 
almost nothing has been written u])()n the lepidopterous fauna of the 
Seychelles, and, in fact, with the exception of the Hora, the natural 
treasures of these islands have been apparently almost overlooked by 
students. ^Yhile a constant trade relationship with them has been 
maintained for more than a century by Europeans, they have been 
but infrequently visited by naturalists, and those who have made col- 
lections there, have apparently done but very little more than to collect 
the counuoner and most conspicuous si^ecies. I can discover only half 
a dozen references to the insects of the Seychelles in the whole compass 
ofeiitomological literature. In Kirby's "■ Catalogue.of Diurnal Lei)idop- 
tera" only one species is credited to these islands, nnd that with doubt. 
The following list will serve to show that the fauna possesses uffini- 
ties at once with that of Africa and of Asia, and tliat many of the 
species are almost cosmopolitan in their range. HyjwIinDui^! misippHS 
and llattia octo are common both to the Old World and the New. Some 
of tlie species range into Europe. This character of the fauna suggests 
its adveutitioujs nature, and I suspect that it will be found to possess 
in this respect a strong likeness to other insular faunas. It is made 
u]) of certain genera possessing great capabilities for ndgration, and 
apparently a strong i)ower to resist change under varying conditions. 

SiaTr>tairiily 1Dj^NJ^I1SI^S£,, Bates. 

Genus DANAIS, Latreille. 


PapUio chrysipims,, Mus. Uh-., j). 263. — C'i.erck, Icones, pi. 57, fig. 2. 

The collection contains eight specimens of the ty])ical form from 

Proceedings of the United Statct* jSTationiil Museum, Vol. XVIII — Xo. 10G4. 



Genus EUPLCEA, Fabricius. 
(Plate VIII, fig. 6.) 
Euphra mitra, Moore, Cat. Lep. E. I. C, I, p. 127. 

There are two speciraeus from Malie, both females, whicli agree in 
the main very well with Moore's description. The habitat of the species 
is not given by^Ioore, bnt Kirbyinliis Synonymic Catalogne refers the 
insect with doubt to the Seychelle.'*. If my identification is correct, as 
I believe it to be, all doubt as to tlie locality disappears. 

Siibfainiiy y^^j^'l'^'RllV^E;, liates. 

Genus MELANITIS, Fabricius. 
MELANITIS LEDA, Linnaeus, var. FULVESCENS, Guenee. 

Papilio leda, Lixx.Kts, Syst. Nat., I, 2, \>. 773, Xo. 1.51. — Clkrck. Icones, pi. .59, 

fig- 1- 
Melanitis fulvesccns, Guknee, Maill. Reun., II. Lep., p. 15. — GitAXDnjiEK, Mada- 
gascar, XVIII, p. 12, pi. II, figs. 5-7. 

All the examples are from the Seychelles — four from Mahe and one 
from Platte Island. 

Family NYMPHALIX.E, Bates. 

Genus ATELLA, Doubleday. 
raj)iHo phahniia, Drvky, 111. Ex. Ent., I, pi. xxi, tigs. 1, 2. 

I cannot separate the specimens before me from examples from India, 
Ceylon, Burmali, and the ]\Ialay Peninsula, from which localities there 
are long suites in my collection. They all agree in lacking the middle 
row of sj)ots on the median interspaces, which is found in most speci- 
mens from the Indian region. Indian specimens have a row of spots 
ntercalated between the row of spots near the origin of the median 
nervules and the inner submarginal row. But some Indian si)ecimens 
lack this row of intercalated spots, and thus agree exactly with the 
specimens collected by Br. Abbott. The collection contains three 
specimens from Aldabra, one from Gloriosa, and one from Mahe. 

(Plate VIII, fig. 11.) 

Male. — Allied to A. alcippe, Cramer, and A. madagascariensis, H. G-. 

The primaries are more pointed and relatively narrower and the 
secondaries more sharply produced at the extremity of the third 
median nervule, than in the allied species. The distance from the anal 
angle to the end of the third median nervule is relatively less than in 
the other species. The ground color of the upper side of both wings is 



a (lark, rich brown, as in A. Madagascar iensis, aud tlie basal area of the 
primaries is soinewliat narrowly, and of tlie secondaries very bi-oadly, 
glossed with greenish fuscous. The characteristic markings of the 
wings are broader and darker than in any other species of the genus. 
The black marginal borders of the ])rimaiies and secondaries are not 
interrupted as in .4. phalanta by the extension of the pale lunulate 
markings outwardly, these lunulate markings being represented by 
narrowlinear marks. On the secondaries the basal half is separated 
from the outer half by an irregularly curved black fascia, which with 
the submarginal fascia of heavy black intraneural markings forms a 
girdle about the four limbal black spots, of which two are located one on 
either side of the second median nervule, and the other two are located 
one on either side of the second subcostal nervule. On the under side 
the ground color is pale ochraceous, not washed with purplish as in A. 
phalanta. The spots and markings of the upper surface reappear upon 
the lower side, but far less distinctly than in A. phalanta, and the black 
lines on the mesial area of the secondaries are reproduced as pale 
silvery blue lines, the four black mesial spots appearing as reddish 
ocelli pupiled with black. 

Expanse of wings, 48 mm. 

The species is very distinct, and placed in my collection, which 
includes long suites of the hitherto described species with the excep- 
tion of A. egestina, Quoy, reveals itself as totally separate from any of 
them. The description of A. egestina given by Godart does not tally 
with this insect. 

Type in the National Museum collection. 

Genus JUNONIA, Hlibner. 
rapilio clelia, Cramer, Pap. Esot., I, pi. 21, tigs. E, F. 
One male specimen from Aldabra. 

Genus HYPOLIMNAS, Hubner. 
Papilio misippiis. Linn.ecs, Mus. Ulr., p. 264. 
Four males and one female from Aldabra, and one male from Gloriosa. 

Family LYC^FNID.E, Stephens. 

Genus LYC^^NA, Fabricius. 
Liictnia asojms, Hopffeu, Mouatsb. K. I'iimiss. Akad. Wiss., 18.55, p. 642, No. 22; 

Pcters's Keise Mossamb., Ins., p. 410, pi. xxvi. figs. U-ln. 
Ltjcivna kama, 9 Tri.mvcn, Trans. Ent. Soc. Loiul., Sev. III. 1, p. 408. 
Lijrdiia amtpiis, TiUMEX, S. Afr. IJutt., II, p. 16. 
Five examples from Aldabra in rather poor condition and notably 
smaller than specimens from the Cape and from the tropical west coast 
of Africa. 



The collection contains five examples from Alphonse Island, six from 
Malu', and one from Providence Island. 


Two examples from Mali*', two from Ali)lionse Island, and six from 
A] dab r a. 

LYCiENA, sp. (?) 

The collection contains one rnbbed specimen and the half of another 
from Aldabra, which I can not well determine with snch material. 
The insects are apparently allied on the markings of the nuder side to 
L. telicanus, Lang, bnt differ, and are very mnch smaller than that 
species. They may represent a new species, bnt with snch specimens 
it wonld be rash to venture more than a mere conjecture. 

Genus HYPOLYC^ENA, Felder. 

One male and three females from Aldabra. 

SiibfaiTiily FIKRIlsT ^^C, Swainson. 

Genus TERIAS, Swainson. 

TERIAS ZOE, Hopffer.^ 

Three specimens of the typical form from Aldabra. 
Six sijecimens from Aldabra. 

Genus CALLOSUNE, Doubleday. 

(Plate YIII, tig. 9.) 

2£(ile. — Allied to G. evanthe, Boisduval. The wings on the upper side 
are white, powdered at the base with grayish scales. The iirimaries are 
broadly tipped with orange-red. This orange red space is narrowly 
bordered with black on the anterior margin, and more widely bordered 
with black on the outer margin. The black border of the outer margin 
is produced inwardly for a short distance on each of the nervules, and 
is intlected inwardly just above the extremity of vein 2, being at this 
point somewhat widely separated from the outer margin by a white 
line. A transverse oblique band of black, poorly defined, runs from 

' For synonymy, see Triraen, S. Afr. Butt., II, p. 50. 
- For synonymy, see Trimen, S. Afr. Butt., II, p. 69. 
^ For synonymy, see Trimeu, S. Afr. Butt., 11, \). 118. 

* For synonymy, see Trimen, S. Afr. Butt., Ill, p. 16. 

* For sjnionymy, see Trimeu, S. Afr. Butt., Ill, p. 24. 


the extremity of vein 2 toward the end of the cell, and serves to 
delimit the orange red apical iiatcli from the white inner area of the 
wing along the lower half of its inner margin. There is a short, pale 
orange, transverse bar at the end of the cell. The secondaries luive the 
ends of the nervules lightly tipped witli black. On the under side the 
primaries are white, with the orange red of the ai)ical patch faintly 
showing through from the upper side. There is a nnnute black spot 
at the end of the cell. The costa and the apical area are laved with 
pale yellow, and profusely irrorated with i)alebrown spots and strig;e. 
The secondaries on the under side are i)ale yellow, profusely covered 
throughout with pale brown spots and strigip like those on the prima- 
ries. The body is blackish above and pale j^ellow below. The antennae 
are black. 

Female. — Like the male, but the black subapical transverse line 
delimiting the oi-ange-red apical patch on its inner side is in this sex 
continued across the wing to the costa, instead of terminating, as in 
the male, before reaching the end of the cell, and there is a black spot 
at the end of the cell on both the primaries and the secondaries. 

Expanse of wings, 28-38 mm. 

There are seven males and one female in the jSfational ^Museum col- 
lection, all from Aldabra. Two of the males are very greatly dwarfed. 

Genus TERACOLUS, Swainson. 


(riate A'lII, i\gs. 7, S. i 

Male. — The body is grayish above and white below. The wings are 
white on both sides. The primaries are narrowly edged with gray on 
the costa, and are also marked on the costa just before the apex with 
a small black spot. The secondaries on the under side have the costa 
laved with yellow near the base. 

Female. — The female has the wings broader and not so acute at the 
apex as the male. The apical area on the upper side is broadly black, 
inclosing six white hastate spots, of which the second from the costal 
margin is the largest and those below it regularly diminish in size. 
The sixth in the descending series located between the extremities' 
of veins 2 and 3 is separated from the inner white ])ortions of the wing- 
by an obsolescent grayish shade, which in some si)ecimens is wholly 
wanting, thus reducing the number of white hastate spots to five. 
On the under side the secondaries are pale yellow throughout, and 
the primaries have the costal margin and the apical area of the same 
color. There is a subapical transverse series of three obscure grayish 
spots upon the i)rimaries. 

Expanse of wings, male and female, 35 mm. 

There are five males and four females in the National Museum collec- 
tion, all labeled as from Aldabra. One of the males is aberrant, dis- 
])laying a conspicuous black spot at the end of the cell of one of the 
secondaries on the lower side. 


Family HP:SPERIID^. 

Genus GEGENES, Hlibiier. 
PatuphUa (/emeUa, Mabille, C. R. Soc. Eut. Belg., XXVIII, p. clxxxviii. 
The collection contains eight specimens: one from Alphonse Island, 
four from Platte [sland, and three from Mahe. 

Heaperia poutieri, Boisduval, Fauue Ent. Madgr., p. 65. 
The collection contains one most wretched specimen, from Mahi?. 
There is just enough of the creature upon the pin to make the identi- 
fication certain. 



Genus UTETHEISA, Hlibnei^ 


Tinea piilchella,, Syst. Nat., I, p. 534. No. 238 (1758). 

There are fourteen si)ecimens in the collection, distributed as follows: 

Mahe, 2; Gloriosa, 1; Poivre Island (Amirante Group), 3; Aldabra, 4j 

Platte Island, 4. 


Genus CEPHENODES, Hubner. 
Sphinx hylas,, Maiit. Plaut., p. 539 (1771). 
There is one specimen from Mahe. 

Sphinx convolviili, LiNN.EUS, Syst. Nat., I, p. 490, No. 6 (1758). 

One very poor specimen from Mahe. 

Genus ACHERONTIA, Ochsenheimer. 
Sphinx atropos,, Syst. Nat., I, p. 490, No. 8 (1758). 
Two specimens from Mahe. 



Genus PRODENIA, Guenee. 
Hadena littoralis, Boisdi'Val, Fauue Eut. Madgr., p. 91, pi. xiii, fig. 8 (1833). 
One rubbed specimen from Mahe which I think, from what remains 
of the insect, is correctly referable to this widely distributed species. 



Family CAKADRmiD.E. 

Genus ILATTIA, Walker. 
Perigea octo, GuenI^.e, Noct., I, p. 233 (1852). 

There is one specimen, from Providence Island, of this wretched little 
creature, which has been located in no less than nine diftereut genera 
by systematists, and described under fourteen different uaraes. It is 
knowu to Xorth American students as Chytoryza tecta, Grote. For 
full synonymy, the student is referred to the excellent i)aper by my 
honored friend, Dr. Butler, of the British Museum.' 

Family PLUSIID..^. 

Genus PLUSIA, Ochsenheiiner. 


Noctua chalcytes, Esper, Schuuitt., IV, p. 447, pi. cxi.i, i\g. 3 (1789). 
There are two specimens from Mahe which 1 refer to this species, and 
which seem to differ from specimens from the south of Europe in my 
collection, only by being somewhat paler upon the under side of the 
wings, and destitute of any trace of the fuscous shade which, in the 
specimens I refer to, is found at the end of the cell and on the outer 
margins of the wings. 


Genus CYLIGRAMMA, Boisduval. 

riuihvua latona, Cramer, Pap. Exot., I, 20, iil. xiii, fig. B. 
One specimen from Gloriosa Islan(^. 


Genus GRAMMODES, Guenee. 


Noctua stolkla, Fabricus, Ent. Syst., p. 599. 
Three examples, all from Platte Island. 

Family 1 )YSGONIID.E. 

Genus SPHINGOMORPH A, Guenee. 


rhahvna noctua chlorea, Cramer, Pap. Exot., II, p. 12, pi. civ, fig. C (1779). 

Two specimens from Gloriosa. 

'Proc. Entom. Soc. London, XXXVIII, p. 690. 


Genus ACH/EA, Hubner. 
ACHiEA SEYCHELLARUM, new species. 

(Plate VIII, fig. 10.) 

Mfde. — Palpi, front, patagia, and upper side of tliorax fawn color. 
The upper side of the abdomen is slightly paler fawn. The under side 
of the thorax and the abdomen is pale fawn, with the anterior legs 
outwardly darker brown. The fore wings on the upper side are fawn, 
marked by an incomplete basal black line succeeded by a heavy zigzag- 
basal transverse line, beyond which in the cell is a small black spot, 
and at the end of the cell a moderately large ocelliform spot. Beyond 
the cell, the wing is crossed by a broad black band curviug outwardly 
opi)Osite the end of the cell, and interrupted more or less on the nerv- 
ules by narrow, pale lines. Beyond this broad band, there are some 
submarginal cloudings in a double series, succeeded by minute pale 
marginal spots. The fringes are white. The hind wings on the upper 
side are pale gray, with the outer half broadly black. Tlie basal area 
is separated from the black outer area by an obscurely defined trans- 
verse whitish line. On the outer margin near the outer angle, at the 
middle, and Just before the anal angle, are conspicuous white spots, of 
which that on the middle is the largest. On the under side both wings 
are pale gray. The primaries have the inner margin broadly shining 
stramineous. There is a conspicuous black spot at the end of the cell, 
followed by a curved black ban<l running from the costa to vein 2, 
and succeeded outwardly near its lower end by a broad black shade. 
The apical area is slightly darker than the rest of the wing. The (niter 
margin is very pale gray. The secondaries have a minute spot at the 
end of the cell, followed toward the outer margin by three obscure and 
incomplete curved transverse bands of brown, which are lost in a pale 
brown clouding, which is most conspicuous near the outer and the anal 

Expanse of wings, 55 mm. 

Tjqje in the National ^luseum collection. 

ACH/EA SEYCHELLARUM, var. IMMUNDA, new variety. 

This variety only ditters from the type in the total absence, on the 
upper side, of the primaries, of all the transverse dark markings, and 
the somewhat paler tint of the under side, and the effacement of most 
of the less conspicuous markings of the under surface. 

It is well known that in this genus there is great diversity in the 
markings upon the upper side of the wings, and I have no hesitafion 
in referring the two forms before me to the same species. There are 
three specimens of the typical form before me in the collection, all 
males, and all labeled as coming from Aldabra. There are four speci- 
mens ot the variety, three males and one damaged female, from the 
same locality. 


Family REMIGIID^. 

Genus REMIGIA, Guenee. 
llemiffia convenieus, Wai.kek, Cat. Lep. Het. Brit. Mas., XIV, p. 1507. 
One injured specimen apparently belonjiing to this s[)ecies. It is 
labeled as from Make, Seychelles. 


Genus HYMENIA, Hubner. 
Phalana rccurvalis, FABr.icn's, Ent. Syst., Ill, 2, 237, 407. 
Several damaged specimens, one from Aldabra, one from Platte Island^ 
and one from Doros (Amirante (rronp). 

BOTYS, sp. (?) 

There are a couple of specimens in rather inferior condition which 
may be referred possibly to B. otreusaiis, Walker, but 1 am not sure of 
the identification. 

BOTYS (?), sp.(?) 

There is a dark-colored spei.-ies of some pyralid genus, probably FJeon- 
evtusa, represented by a specimen on a pin with a specimen of H. recur- 
valis from Platte Island, and another by itself from the same island, 
which I can not well determine. They have a wonderfully familiar look, 
but after grubbing through nearly one thousand species of pyralids in 
my collection in quest of a rmme, I give up the task as not worth the 
time it will take. The S[)ecies may be new. 
Proc. N. M. 95 18 

BY ])!{. W. I.. ABBOTT. 

By W. J. Holland, Ph. 1). 

The small collectiou of lepidoptera transmitted to me for determina- 
tion by the authorities of the United States National Museum is inter- 
esting- mainly because it adds slightly to our knowledge of the range 
of two or three species, which, while belonging- to the region of which 
Kashmir forms a part, have not been hitherto distinctly recorded as 
found there. 


Siiblamily D^'^IST^VUsT.JH;. 

Genus DANAIS. Latreille. 


Four typical specimens. Below r),000 feet. 

Two examples. Below .">,()()(> feet. 

Genus MANIOLA, Schrank. 
Maniohi Jcashiniricu, Mooim:. Lt'p. ImL, II, p. 51. pi. 104, tig. 2. 

One mutilated si)ecimen. Below 5,000 feet. 

Genus CALLEREBIA, Butler. 


CaUcrebla dalcsha, Moore, Proc. Zool. «oc. Loud., 1874, p. 266, pi. xi.iii, fig. 
1; Lep. Tiid., II, pi. 117, figs. 2, 2a. 

Three specimens. Below 5,000 feet. 

Proceedings ol'tlie tJifited States National Museum, Vol. X-'III— No. lUGo. 





Genus MELIT^^A, Fabricius. 


Melitaa halbita, Mooke, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1874, p, 268, pi. XLlii, fig. 5. 

One broken specimen. Below 5,000 feet. 

Genus ARGYNNIS, Fabricius. 
One specimen taken below 5,000 feet. 


Two specimens. Below 5,000 feet. 

A male and a female. Below 5,000 feet. 


Nine specimens. Below 5,000 feet. 

Genus PYRAMEIS, Hubner. 

Three examples. 5,000-10,000 feet. 

Genus VANESSA, Fabricius. 

Five examples. Below 5,000 feet. 


One specimen. Above 5,000 feet. 

S\al:>fainily IjIB YXH^^EIlSr^^:. 

Genus LIBYTHEA, Fabricius. 

Three specimens. Below 5,000 feet. 

Family LYC^NID.E. 

Genus LYCv^NA, Fabricius. 

One example, female. Over 5,000 feet. 


A male and a female. 5,000-10,000 feet. 



There are two examples, a male and apparently a female, which I 
refer with some doubt to this species. They appear to correspond in 
most particulars with the description given by Moore, and with what 
is recorded in reference to the species b}^ De Niceville in his work upon 
the Butterflies of India.' Below 5,000 feet. 


Four males and one female. Below 5,000 feet. 

Genus CYANIRIS, Dalman. 

Two examples. 5,000-10,000 feet. 

Genus THECLA, Fabricius. 
Six s])ecimeus. Below 5,000 feet. 

Genus CHRYSOPHANUS, Hubner. 

One specimen. Below 5,000 feet. 

Subfamily FIERIIST^^:. 

Genus PIER IS, Sehi^ank. 

Seven sj>ecimens. From below 5,000-10,000 feet. 


Four specimens. From below 5,000-10,000 feet. 


Nine examples. Below 5,000 feet. 

Genus COLIAS, Fabricius. 

There are two luales and two females in the lot sent me for determi- 
nation. They were mixed with the specimens of the following species 
by the curator of the Museum, who evidently regarded them as belong- 
ing to the same. Below 5,000-10,000 feet. 

'Vol. III. 


COLIAS HYALE, Linnaeus. 

There are one male and four females in the lot sent me. From 
5,000-10,000 feet. Eighteen specimens of Colias were sent home by 

Dr. Abbott. 

Genus GONEPTERYX, Leach. 


One male specimen. Below 5,000 feet. 

SiabfaiTiily PAPII^IOiNIN^gE. 
Genus PAPILIO, Linnaeus. 

Two examples and a fragment of another. Below 5,000 feet. 


Six specimens. Below 5,000 feet. 


Genus CEPHENODES, Hllbner. 

Three specimens. Below 5,000 feet. 

Family ARCTIID^. 

Genus ARCTIA, Schrank. 

One damaged specimen. Below 5.000 feet. 

Genus CALLIMORPHA, Latreille. 

Three specimens. 5,000-10,000 feet. 


Genus URAPTERYX, Leach. 

. One example. Over 5,000 feet. 


Genus NOTARCHA, Meyinck. 
NOTARCHA AURANTIACALIS, Fischer von Roslerstamm. 

One specimen. Over 5,000 feet. 


Plate VII. 

Fig. 1. Acrf^a abbottii, Holland. 

2. Argyiniis lianuiugtoiii, Elwes. 

3. Acriea pliarsalioides, Holland. 

4. Clirysophanus abbottii, Holland. 

5. Tcrias niandarinuliis, Holland. 

6. Hepialns keniii', Holland. 

7. Lycipna perpnlchra, Holland. 

8. Dnoniitns kilimanjarensis, Holland. 

9. Gorgopio abbottii, Holland. 

10. Alpenns tvifasciata, Holland. 

11. Cosuma marginata, Holland. 

12. Teracotoua clara, Holland. 

13. Ogovia tavetensis, Holland. 

14. Soznza stevensii, Holland. 

Tlatr VIII. 

1. Couservula minor, Holland. 

2. Calliodes pretiosissima, Holland. 

3. Metarctia incoiispicna, Holland. 

4. Gonodela kilimanjarensis, Holland. 

5. Gonodela rbabdophora, Holland. 

6. En])l(ra mitra, Moore. 

7. Teracolns aldabrensis, Holland, male. 

8. Teracolns aldabrensis, Holland, female. 

9. Callosnue evanthides, Holland, male. 

10. Acha^a seychellarnm, Holland. 

11. Atella seYchellarnm. Holland. 






East African Lepidoptera 

Reduced one-ten'th 

For explanation of plate see page 279 



East African Lepidoptera 

Reduced one-'tenth 

For explanation of plate see page 279 


By George P. Merrill, 

Curator of the Department of Geology. 

The investigations detailed below are an outgrowth of an attempt at 
classifying and labeling tlie "'asbestos" collections in the economic 
series of the geological department of the National Museum. The 
results seem of sufficient interest to warrant immediate publication, as 
the final handbook' of which they were designed to form a part may 
yet be delayed some months. 

Without going too deeply into a discussion of the origin of the name 
"asbestos,'' and the causes which led to its present loosely-defined min- 
eralogical significance,^ it may be said that as commercially used the 
name now covers at least four distinct minerals, having in common 
only a tibrous structure and more or less fire- and acid-proof properties. 
These minerals are (1) monoclinic amphibole (treniolite), (2) serpentine 
(amianthus), (o) anthophyllite, and (4) crocidolite. Of these, tremolite 
and serpentine have long been recognized in fibrous forms, and are as 
a rule readily distinguishable from one another by the silky fiber and 
greater flexibility of the last named. Asbestiform crocidolite is well 
known to most mineralogists, though, so far as the present Avriter is 
aware, the South African locality is the only source of the mineral in 
commercial quantities. That the fibrous form of anthophyllite is also 
sufficiently common to be commercially used as asbestos, seems not so 
well understood, though the leading text-books on the subject^ all 
mention the mineral as sometimes occurring in fibrous forms resembling 
asbestos. That a lack of discrimination between fibrous anthophyllite 
and the true tremolite asbestos should exist is not strange, since to 
the unaided eye they are often iu every way alike, and it is only by 
microscopic or chemical means that the true nature of the mineral can 
be made out. 

'The Nonmetallic Minerals, now in process of preparation. 

'^See "Some Misconceptions concerning Asbfstns," by J. T. Donald and A. II. 
Chester, in the Eng-. and Min. Journal for March 18, April 1, and June 10, 1893. 

^See Dana's System of Mineralogy, latest edition, and Hintze's Uandbuch der 

Proceedings of the United States National Museum , Vol. X VIII— No. 1066. 



In the aocomi^a Dying" table (pages 291 and 292) i have brought together 
all the analyses of the above noted asbestiforni minerals that have 
been made either by R. L. Packard or myself in the department 
laboratory, as well as sncli others as can be compiled from available 
literature. It will be seen that out of the 24 analyses made by our- 
selves, 12 are anthophyllite, 7 asbestiforni tremolite, and 2 uralitic 
augite. This statement must not, however, be accepted as conveying 
the idea that anytbing like the same proportions would hold in another 
series, since only such samples were selected for our analyses as had 
not been already satisfactorily determined. In all cases the optical 
and chemical determinations agree, the mineral giving extinctions 
parallel with the axis of elongation proving to be anthophyllite, and 
that with inclined extinctions, tremolite (asbestos) or uralitic augite. 
This result was not wholly exi)ected. since it was thought that possibly 
some might be amphibole anthophyllite, /. c, a mineral with the com- 
position of anthophyllite, but monoclinic in crystallization. The angle 
of extinction given, is that obtained by measuring against the axis ot 
elongation of the tibers. which is doubtless the verticaU-iystallogiapliic 

The size and shape of the rtbers in both asbestos proper and antho- 
phyllite is found to be quite variable, but I can not discover that there 
is any constant dittereuce. The Sails IMountain material (No. Gl.>.")7, 
U. S. N. M.) occurs in the form of a massive aggregate of bundles of 
short radiating tibers, rarely 20 mm. in length. The mineral is sott, of 
a somewhat brittle nature, but in small tibers very Uexible, though 
scarcely elastic. Under the microscope the interference colors are 
very faint, scarcely discernible in the smaller fibers: extinction is 
always parallel with the axis of elongation. The composition is that 
of a hydrated anthophyllite. 

The Nacoochee (White County) material (No. 00842. U. S. N. M.) is of 
a beautiful snow-white color in the mass, but colorless in single tibers. 
The fibers are long, smooth, of very uniform diameter throughout, flex- 
ible, but breaking with rectangular cross fractures. The libers not 
infreipiently show a cross parting at right angles to the axis of elonga 
tion. The mineral is not at all pleochroic, and the tibers always extin 
guish parallel with the axis of elongation. The outline of the fiber is 
polygonal. Other materials from Cleveland, in this same county, are 
precisely similar, both in physical and chemical properties. The Kabnn 
County (Georgia) material (No. 50351, LT. S. N. .M.) is colored brownish 
by oxidation, and, on casual inspection, is coarse-fibered. The fibers 
are long, somewhat stiff, but flexible, though not elastic. The ultimate 
product of hbration, obtained by rolling the material between the 
thumb and fingers, has a somewhat splintery look under the micro- 
scope, the thin fibers, some 0.002 mm. in diameter, running out to a 
point at the end. Extinction parallel with axis of elongation. 

i'no('/:icniX(;s of the x. it/ox il miskum. 



Tlic material from Albortou, Maiylaiid (No. (;2<i04, (T. S. N. M.), is 
quite similar in j^cncial aitpoarancc to tiiat from (Jlcvclaiid, (xm-ui ring 
ill tlic foiiii of librous buiidk'.s 1- to 18 iiiclics iii lengtli. The iiidividual 
liberty arc very smooth and polygonal in outline, and !j;iv<' parallel 
extinctions. The ultimate composition, it will be observed, is essen- 
tially the same as that of Nacoochee. ^Vnother variety, occurring in 
the limestonejust above Alberton, is iiure white in color, finely librous, 
and when wet is easily rediK-ed to a condition that can only be des(;ribed 
as pulpy, like wet paper. The fibers extinguish always parallel with 
the axis of elongation, but its exact mineral nature has not been as yet 
worked out (see Analysis 40 in accompanying table). 

The Carbon County (Wyoming) material (No. 02090, U. S. N. M.) is of 
the same general nature as No. ()2«)04. The material from ]\Iitchell 
County, North Carolina (No. 5087(), U. H. N. M.), is in the form of bundles 
of parallel-lying, long, soft and 
silky fibers, white in color, 
and easily reduced to a fine, 
silky ])owder, without appre- 
ciable grit, by rubbing be- 
tween the thumb and linger. 
The extinction colors are very 
faint, but always jiarallelwith 
the axis of elongation. No ap- 
preciable pleochroism. The 
fibers show occasional cross 
Xiartings, causing them to 
break with shari'), straight 
fractures. The actual size of 
the fibers — that is, the diame- 
ter — is indefinite, since there 
seems no limit to further sub- 
division. The smallest actually measured was (».()()2 mm, Down to a 
diameter of 0.00 1 mm. the fibers are of quite uniform diameter through- 
out tlieii- length and in the form of square or slightly compressed 
prisms (see Figs. 1 and 2). The smaller sizes frequently tajier off to 
wedge shaped ibrms, as shown in Fig. 3. All show extinctions and 
])lane of o[)ti<i axis parallel with the axis of elongation. 

Two samples were examined, labeled as from Franklin County, 
North (Carolina, The first, from the Brush collection at New Haven, 
kindly submitted by S. L. Penfield, was in the form of somewhat 
stiff and brittle bundles of a slight brownish color. The material was 
easily reduced to fibrous form by thumb and fingers, but the fibers were 
quite brittle. Its composition is that of normal anth()])hyllite, closely 
resembling that of Mitchell County, above noted. The second sample 
(No. 44232, U. S. N. M.), concerning the identity of which there at first 
seemed some doubt, proved microscoijically identical and was not 




A sample marked as from Tallapoosa County (?), Alabama, was 
received from Prof. Albert H. Chester, of Rutgers College, I^ew Jersey. 
It resembles very closely that of Mitchell County, North Carolina, and 
occurs in tibrous bundles ten or more inches in length. This is also 
anthophyllite, as shown by its chemical and optical properties. Material 
received from Warrenton, Warren County, the same State, is of i)ure 
white color, excepting where stained externally by iron oxide. It is 
reduced readily by the thumb and fingers to fine, soft and silky fibers, 
which do not ditfer materially from others mentioned. 

The San Diego material occurs in the form of hard, compact bundles, 
somewhat difiicult to reduce to a fibrous condition, but capable of 
almost indefinite subdivision. Under the microscope the fibers, either 
singly or in bundles, give parallel extinctions. The bundles, even 
though containing thousands of indivddual fibers, conduct themselves 
as crystal units, the entire bundle behaving optically as a single fiber. 
The larger fibers, although clear and compact, without indication of 
having in themselves a fibrous structure, yet manifest their capability 
of further subdivision by steplike ends, as in Fig. 4, where the rise of 
each step represents the diameter of a fiber which has been separated 
from it. 

As above noted, I fail to find any certain means of discrimination 
between the anthophyllite and asbestos fibers by their shape alone. 
Ol)tically there is, of course, a well-defined distinction, the asbestos 
fibers giving extinction angles from 0° to 20°, according to their orien- 
tation. These fibers, like those of anthophyllite, are angular in outline, 
often compressed, at times of a very uniform diameter throughout their 
entire length, or again tapering very gradually to a triangular point, 
as shown in Fig. 5, which is drawn from a fiber of asbestos (Xo. 02550, 
U. S. jS". M.) found in the " soapstone" (juarries of Alberene, Virginia. 
The asbestos from Chester, South Carolina (No. 73402, U. S. X. M.), is 
of a gray color, short-fibered, and rather brittle. The individual fibers 
often show the cross partings, but have frequently acute terminations 
and a splintery appearance. The material in Analysis 20 (see accom- 
panying table), marked as from Cow Flats, Kew South Wales, it will be 
observed, differs radically from that of the '' asbest-forminge mineral" 
from the same locality as given by Hintze (Analysis 20). Our material 
is of a beautiful wbite, silky appearance, very finely fibered, aiul show- 
ing under the microscope clear, colorless, straight fibers of very uni- 
form size throughout, ranging from 0.008 down to 0.002 mm. or even 
smaller, and giving extinction angles varying from 0° to 17°. The 
Corsican material is very similar, as is also that of Pylesville, in Har- 
ford County, Maryland (noted later), excepting that the last is a trifle 
more brittle and of a grayish hue. 

That from Aston, Delaware County (obtained from the Boston Soci- 
ety of Natural History, through the kindness of Prof. W. O. Crosby), 
occurs in short, beautifully silky forms, sometimes almost feltlike, or 


again in the form of compact bundles of flat fibers of a grayish hue, 
several inches in length. The larger bundles found at this locality fre- 
quently show rude cross i)artings, indicative of a rupturing through 
shearing agencies, the clefts thus formed being filled by other second- 
ary minerals. The significance of this fact is noted later. The mate- 
rial from Idaho (Analysis 32) can scarcely be considered a true mineral 
species, being partially decon^posed by cold dilute hydrochloric acid, 
the solution reacting for alumina and magnesia, while the insoluble resi- 
due consists of pure white, brittle fibers, in the form of fiat bundles, show- 
ing to the naked eye a peculiar crimping extending diagonally across 
the plates. The two samples from Nahant and Maiden, Massachusetts, 
received from Prof. W. O. Crosby, occur in diabase, the fibers running 
oblique or parallel with the walls of the "vein.'' That from JS^ahant 
is a dull, light-green gray, platy mineral, shredding up readily into flat- 
tened bundles of fibers which lie with their greatest diameters in one 
general plane. The fibers, under the microscope, are very uneven in 
diameter and splinterlike, terminating in acute points. There seems 
almost no limit to fibration, bundles not over 0.004 mm. in diameter 
being made up of a large number of short, splinterlike fibers, with 
free ends frequently projecting like the broken strands in an old rope. 
Fibers were measured down to 0.001 mm. in diameter, but smaller exist. 
Small flattened fibers, the fraction of a millimeter in diameter, give 
extinction angles, measured against the edge, of 7°, and show indis- 
tinctly the emergence of a bisectrix a little to one side, facts at once 
suggestive of cleavage splinters parallel to the prismatic faces. Meas- 
urements on a number of small individual fibers show extinction angles 
ranging from 0'^ to 17°. The Maiden material is very similar, but the 
fibers are longer and more uniform in diameter. The composition and 
optical properties of both are such as to relegate them to the "uralites" 
rather than to true asbestos, though their fibrous structure is none the 
less suggestive from our present standpoint. 

A platy, dull greenish, soft, and rather brittle mineral found at Kox- 
bury, Massachusetts, under similar coiulitions, shows under the micro- 
scope stout, faintly yellowish, and pleochroic columns, with frequent 
cross partings which give extinction angles as high as 22". The material 
is doubtless actinolite, and was not analyzed. 

Concerning the possible cause of tlie fibrous structure ot these min- 
erals, existing literature is strangely silent, though there are numerous 
references to the occurrence of asbestos as a secondary mineral. Thus 
Blum describes' the conversion ("umwandlung") of an augite from 
Pitkaranda, in tlie Ladoga-See, into an asbestos-like hornblende, the 
process being evidently akin to uralitization. He finds also a fibrous 
intermediate product having the following composition: SiO^, 45.57 per 
cent; ALO;, o.OO percent; FeaOr;, 19.73 per cent; CaO, 4.40 ])er cent; 
MgO, 23.40 per cent; H20, 2.00 per cent. In the angites from the Brozza- 

' Die Psendomor])li()sen des Jlineralreiches, 18415. 


Thai of Piedmont be also finds all transition stages between comi^act 
augite and asbestos. The first stages of the transformation are indi- 
cated by a tissue of fine fibrous material on the terminal planes, whereby 
the crystal form becomes obscured, the whole ultimately becoming con- 
verted into a bundle of flexible fibers with a silky luster. Unfortu- 
nately he gives no analyses to show how this '■ asbestus " differs, if at all, 
from the original augite. E. Schumacher also describes^ the alteration 
of dioi)side into asbestos in a manner quite analogous to that of augite 
into uralite. The secondary asbestos thus sometimes forms parallel- 
lying fibers a decimeter in length, or " verworren faserigen " masses. 
The material occurs in a granular limestone. No analyses are given, 
the determinations being based on optical properties; nor is there given 
any suggestion as to the cause of the transformation. 

Before going further, the writer should state that the idea that the 
fibrous structure might be but an extreme phase of uralitizatiou, pro- 
duced by shearing, was adopted very early in the work of this investiga- 
tion, and in perusing the literature and making his own observation, it 
has always been with this in mind. Both literature and observation 
support this idea to a limited extent, as will be noted as we proceed. 

In his work on the Mineralogy of Scotland, Professor Ileddle de- 
scribes^ an "amianthus" of unusual if not unrivaled excellence as occur- 
ring in the deep cut " goes" on the eastern coast of the Balta Sound, in 
the Shetland Islands. The length of the fiber varies from 4 to 12 inches, 
and the mineral is sufficiently soft to be readily rubbed down to an 
unctuous pulp between the thumb and fingers. It occurs in thin rifts in 
gabbro, and though not definitely so stated, the descriptions are such as 
to lead one to infer that the libration may be but a phase of schistosity. 
Indeed, he describes a highly fissile schistose mineral of essentially 
the same chemical composition, which is convertible into a fibrous form 
by beating, and which passes into the asbestos on exposure, or, as he 
expresses it, the ''amianthus" seems to '-grow out of the solid and iissile 
stone." This is almost precisely the relative condition of the fibrous 
and compact anthophyllite at Alberton, Maryland, to be described 
later. The composition of this "amianthus" is given in Analysis 34, 
showing it to be a true asbestos. A second occurrence at Portsoy, 
described by this same authority, is of interest as showing the mineral 
in veins an inch iu width in a gabbro passing into serpentine, and with 
fibers lying transversely to the veins, an unusual thing, he says, "as 
regards asbestus." Although occurring iu serpentinous rocks, this 
also is a true asbestos, as indicated by Analysis 36. The "hydrous 
anthophyllite" first noted by Jameson, and afterwards by Professor 
Heddle, as occurring at the Free Clinrch of Milltown, in Glen Trquhart, 
Scotland, is described as an alteration product after asbestos. The 

'Zeit. der Deutscheu Geol. GeselL, XL, 1878, p. 494. 

"Miueralogical Magaziue, II, 1878; also Traus. Koyal Society of Edinburgh, 
XXVIIl, 1877-78, p. 502. 


fibers were some 4 or 5 inches in length, of a green-brown color, silky- 
luster, and great toughness. These also ran transversely to the walls 
of the vein. The mineral was subsequently shown by Lacroix to be 
monocliuic in crystallization, and hence treraolite, rather than antho- 
phyllite, although tlie analysis as given' (No. 33) shows it to be very 
low in lime. F. von Sandberger describes - asbestos and epidote, so 
associated as to indicate that they result from the alteration of horn- 
blende and augite, in South Tyrol, in Nassau near llof, and in Pribram. 

The above enumerated observations, it will be observed, throw little 
light upon the subject, other than indicating that the mineral is a 
secondary product after augite or hornblende. IMy own observations 
in the field are limited to three localities, in all of which indications as 
to the secondary nature of the mineral, as well as to the probable efticacy 
of shearing, were unmistakable. These localities ;ire at the well-known 
"soapstoiie" quarries of Alberene, in Albemarle County. Virginia, 
and near Alberton, in Howard County, Maryland. 

The "soapstone" at the first-named locality is not a pure steatite, 
but rather an admixture of various alteration products, among which 
a colorless tremolite and light-green talc are most conspicuous.^ What 
the original rock may have been is not apparent from a study of thin 
sections, but the appearance in the field is such as to suggest it to have 
been a i)yroxenite. It occurs in the form of a broad dike or sheet, 
parallel and dipping with the gneiss ( ?) in which it is inclosed, and, as 
dis^dayed in the quarry opening, is traversed by numerous irregular 
veins of coarsely crystalline calcite. The rock is very massive, in gen- 
eral appearance eminently suggestive of an eruptive pyroxenite which 
has undergone extensive hydration and carbon atization, whereby a 
considerable portion of its calcium has sei)arated out in the form of 
calcite. As is almost invariably the case in rocks of this class, the 
mass is traversed by numerous joint planes, some of which are pro- 
nouncedly slickensided. Asbestos, as found, is always along these 
slickeusided zoues, with fibers parallel to line of movement. The mate- 
rial is, as a rule, in the form of thin plates or sheets, rarely over 10 mm. 
in thickness, but perhaps several feet iu breadth, which bear every 
evidence of compression, accompanied by a shearing movement whereby 
the material is drawn out into a series of lamina' and the lamiiue 
again into fibers. In one instance the material was fibrous (asbesti- 
form) only where it had been subjected to a sharp crimi)ing ju-ocess, 
such as would result from the impinging of the end of one block against 
another at a considerable angle, accompanied by a slight lateral move- 
ment. The physical and chemical properties of the fibrous mineral are 
those of true asbestos (Analvsis 12). 

' Traus. Royal Society of Edinbiugli, XXVIII, 1877-78, p. 531. 

-Neues Jalirb. fiir Min., etc., 1888, I, pt. 3, p. 208. 

■'A chemical analysis of the stone, by K. L. Packard, yielded SiO.., 39.06 per ceut; 
AlcOs, 12.84 per cent; FeO, 12.93 percent; CaO, 5.98 percent; MgO, 22.76 per ceut; 
ignition, 6.56 per cent. Total, 100.13. All iron calculated as FeO. 


At the second locality above mentioned, the asbestos (fibrous 
authophyllite, Analysis 9) occurs along a slickeusided zone between a 
schistose actinolite rock on the north, and a dark, massive, impure ser- 
pentine on tlie south. Soil and decomposition products obscure the 
outcrops, so that observations are limited to an abandoned shaft and 
a few shallow prospect holes. The evidences of movement are every- 
where abundant in the form of slickeusided, pinched-out masses of 
serpentine, sometimes more or less fibrous. The anthoi>hyllite occurs 
only along the line of disturbance, and in two forms — the one fibrous, 
asbestos-like, and of a white color; the other also fibrous, but in com- 
pact masses, with sharp cross fracture, so that tlie material as taken 
out bears a striking resemblance to a fine-grained hard wood, sawed and 
split for the fire. The color of this variety is a dull yellowish brown; 
translucent. By beating, it is readily reduced to a fibrous condition, 
though the fibers are brittle. On weatliering it appears to undergo a 
spontaneous fibration quite suggestive of the Balta "amianthus" 
described by Professor Heddle (ante, p. -80). What the origin of this 
serpentinous rock ma}' have been, is not liere apparent, but from its 
locality it seems safe to assume it to be an altered form of the gabbros 
or peridotites described by Williams.' This being the case, the closing 
remark nuide by Dr. Williams in his paper, thongh referring to a 
different locality, is at least suggestive. He says: '• It seems ])ossible 
that the asbestos deposits of Baltimore County [e. g., like the one near 
Elysville) may likewise be the results of the alteration of original 
Ijyroxenic masses." 

Just below the western edge of the lower bridge of the Baltimore and 
Ohio Railroad across the Patapsco, at this same place, is another, the 
thu'd deposit, which has come under the writer's observation. This, 
though small, offers some interesting distinctive features. 

The rock here is a granular, micaceous, magnesian limestone, occur- 
ring in narrow beds intercalated in the gneiss, and standing nearly on 
edge, with an approximately east and west strike. As exposed, the 
rock is locally traversed at varying angles across the bedding Avith 
sharp joint planes, in some cases so fine as to be scarcely distinguish- 
able, the walls being in almost perfect contact, or again separated from 
one another by a slight space, so far as observed never exceeding an 
inch, and usually much less. The walls of these Joint planes are ver- 
tically grooved and striated, indicative of a relative movement in this 
direction, wliieh was, however, presunuibly slight. In nearly every 
case noted, the walls of these joint planes are sporadically coated with 
thin fihiis of a pure white asbestos-like mineral, which fills the entire 
space, and is always arranged Avith its fibers lying in a direction 
parallel with the striations, or line of movement. Optical examination 
shows the mineral to be orthorhombic. Chemical analysis (Xo. 40) 
.shows it to be a mineral of somewhat anomalous composition, and 

1 Bull. No. 28, U. S. Geol. Survey, 1889, p. 59. 


needing' more study. It is mentioned here only on account of its bear- 
ing upon the subject in hand. 

The writer has elsewhere noted' the efficacy of pressure and shearing 
in the production of fibrous serpentine (as well as calcite). The fibrous 
seri>entine used as asbestos occurs, however, under such conditions as 
to i)reclude any such ])ossibility of origin. As is well known, this 
mineral is found in what are simply cracks rather than true veins, with 
fibers standing at right angles with the walls, and under such conditions 
tliat any lateral movement on the part of the walls themselves was 
simply impossible. The material is doubtless a reproduction on a large 
scale of the process so frequently seen in thin sections, where olivines 
and other magnesian silicates undergo serpentinizatiou. The remarks 
made here have only a slight bearing upon this mineral. 

Resume. — The points brought out in this paper and the suggestions 
advanced are (1) that a very considerable ijroportion of the mineral 
ill commercial use, and labeled as asbestos in mineral cabinets, is in 
reality anthophyllite,'^ and (2) that the fibrous structure in this case, 
and that of the true asbestos as well, is due, in many instances at 
least, to a ])rocess of shearing — is, in fact, an exaggerated form of the 
process of nralitization. The fibers are drawn out along the plane of 
the vertical axis only, the parting or line of separation between 
individual fibers taking place mainly along cleavage lines, each one 
being, therefore, an elongated prism bounded by cleavage faces, but 
with form somewhat compressed or otherwise distorted by pressure. 
Tlie broad faces on the fibers will therefore correspond to the faces of 
the unit prism.^ The fact that the fibers do not in all cases run even 
approximately parallel to the walls of the inclosing rock is not necessa- 
rily opposed to the view. Owing to a lack of homogeneity in a rock 
mass subjected to a compressive force, there may be developed at an 
early stage, a series of short, step-like folds bordering closely upon, or 
perhaps passing into faults, in which the materials forming the yielding 
portion of the mass may be ground to powder, crimped, puckered, or 
even rendered fissile, or fibrous, according to their individual qualities. 
In such cases, the fibers may stand, relative to the inclosing, more 
resisting rock masses, in all i^ositions short of at right angles. 

'On the Serpentine of Montville, New Jersey, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., XI, 1888, p. 105. 

-Penfield states (Am. Jour. Sci., XL, Nov., 1890, p. 394), in speaking of the occurrence 
of anthophyllite, " Many specimens which may be seen in collections labeled 
authophyllite will be found, when examined with the microscope, to be fine fibrous or 
radiated varieties of hornblende." My own observations, as here noted, are quite 
to the contrary, it being much more common to find fibrous anthophyllite labeled 
asbestos than the reverse. 

^See description of Nahaut material, p. 285. 

Proc. N. M. 95 19 


If the foregoing is correct, it may seein, on first tliougUt, that we should 
find asbestiform augites, enstatites,' and other members of the pyroxene 
group. This does not necessarily follow, since these minerals, as is 
well known, are peculiarly subject to alteration under conditions of 
strain, giving rise to actinolitic, tremolitic, and talcose products. These 
may or may not be asbestiform, according to local conditions. It is my 
present belief that the asbestos form is never a result of original crys- 
tallization, but is always secondary, the original mineral doubtless being 
an orthorhombic or monoclinic pyroxene, or j)erhaps an amphibole. 
The references made to the works of Blum, Heddle, Sandberger and 
others, in the earlier parts of this paper, seem to point to this conclu- 
sion. It is possible in such cases that the mineral derived from the 
rhombic magnesian pyroxenes may take the form of anthophyllite, and 
those from monoclinic lime-magnesian pyroxenes that of tremolite. 
Such a rule can scarcely be considered as universal, since in many cases 
the mineral undergoes more or less chemical as well as molecular alter- 
ation under these conditions. The absence of appreciable quantities 
of alumina in the asbestos proper is perhaps the strongest argument 
against its derivation from augite or other aluminous pyroxenes, though 
it is doubtless to such an origin that we can trace the uralites from 
Nahant and Maiden. 

There is ample field here for further observation, and should this 
paper be effective in causing collectors to note more carefully than 
heretofore, not merely where the mineral occurs, but how it occurs and 
with what associations, it will serve at least one good purpose. 

' Dana, on p. 389 of his " System of Mineralogy," latest edition, mentions the possi- 
bility that " some asbestus may properly belong to the pyroxene grouii." It is 
evident that, with the possible exception of the uralites from Maiden and Nahant, 
none of the samples examined by the writer can be referred to the monoclinic 
pyroxenes, though on strictly chemical grounds many of those called anthophyllite 
might equally well be called enstatite. 




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By Robert Ridgway, 

Curator of the Department of Ilirds. 

During the fiual elaboration of iny mouograpli of the birds of the 
Galapagos Archipelago,' the necessity of again examining some of Dr. 
Baur's specimens became evident. These were kindly lent me by Dr. 
Baur, and have been most carefully compared. As a result I find 
myself comi^elled to describe the following as new, it being impossible 
to identify them with any of the forms already named. 


Specific characters. — Similar to G. strenua, Gould, but bill much thicker 
and broader at the base than m that form, in this respect nearly or quite 
equaling G. magnirostris, Gould. Exposed culmen, plus 0.90 inch;^ 
depth of bill at base, 0,88; width of mandible at base (across chin), 0.70; 
gonys, 0.40. 

Range. — Galapagos Archipelago (Tower Island, collected by Baur and 
Adams. Type in Dr. Baur's collection). 

GEOSPIZA FATIGATA, new species. 

Specific characters. — Similar to G. intermedia, Ridgway, of Charles 
Island, but slightly larger, with the bill, legs, and toes decidedly longer. 
Wing, 2.05-2.82 inches; tail, 1.05-1.73; culmen, 0.82-0.89; depth of bill 
at base, 0.40; width of mandible at base (across chin), 0.35-0.39; tarsus, 

Range. — Galapagos Archipelago (Indefatigable Island, collected by 
Habel, Townsend, Baur and Adams ; 1 ! Chatham Island, collected by 

Type.—^o. 110048, U. S. N. M., male adult, Indefatigable Island, 
April 12, 1888; collected by C. H. Townsend. 

■See Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., XVII, 1894, p. 3.57. 

2The measuremeuts here given are taken from a drawing, the specimens having 
been returned to Dr. Baur. 

Proceedings of the United States National Museum, Vol. XVIH— No. 1067. 



The specific name is suggested by the tedious character of the work 
involved in discriminating the forms of this extremely difficult grouj) 
of birds. 


Specific characters. — Similar to C. haheli, Sclater and Salvin, of Abing- 
don Island, but rather larger, with decidedly larger bill, the latter with 
culmen much less compressed. Adult, male (type) : Wing, 2.92 inches; 
tail, 1.82 : culmen, 0.68 ; depth of bill at base, 0.31 ; gony s, 0.33 ; width of 
mandible at base, 0.45; tarsus, 0.85; middle toe, 0.60. 

Range. — Galapagos Archipelago (Bindloe Island). 

Type in collection of Dr. G. Baur. 


Specific characters. — Adult male unknown. Adult female similar to 
that of C. psittaculus, Gould, but smaller, with the bill much narrower, 
more compressed, and with straighter culmen; basal width of mandible 
(across chin) less than length of gonys, instead of greater, and basal 
depth of bill less than length of maxilla from nostril. Measurements 
of type: Wing, 2.57 inches; tail defective; culmen, 0.60; basal dei)th 
of bill, 0.40; gonys, 0.32; basal width of mandible, 0.29; ta-.sus, 0.90; 
middle toe, 0.60. 

Range. — Galapagos Archipelago (Jervis Island). 

Type No. 471, collection of Dr. G. Baur, Jervis Island, August 8, 1891. 


Specific characters. — (Adult male unknown.) Adult female most 
like that of C. compressirostris, of Jervis Island, but smaller (the bill 
especially), with upper parts brighter olivaceous and under parts 
distinctly yellowish buff. Similar in color to C. salvini, Ridgway,' of 
Chatham Island, but much larger. Measurements of the type: Wing, 
2.50 inches ; tail, 1.50 ; culmen, 0.53 ; gonys, 0.29 ; basal width of mandible, 
0.29; tarsus, 0.82; middle toe, 0.57. 

Range. — Galapagos Archipelago (James Island). 

Type No. 521, collection of Dr. G. Baur, James Island, August 13, 1891. 

H'nmarhynchxis salvini, Ridgway, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., XVII, No. 1007, Nov. 15, 
1894, p. 364. 


By Charles T. Simpson, 

Aid, Department of Molliisks. 

The naiades, or pearly fresh- water mussels, have a universal distribu- 
tion throughout the ponds, lakes, and streams of the world, not only on 
the continents, but on most of the larger and some of the smaller islands. 
Some of the genera have probably extended back with but little change 
to the beginning of Mesozoic or possibly well into Paleozoic time; hence 
their study is an extremely interesting one, which may help us in 
obtaining a knowledge of the distribution of other life, and the muta- 
tions of land and sea in time past. 


In 1800^ and 1812^ Lamarck established the family of Nayades, which 
he afterwards changed to Naiades,^ and in which he i>laced two genera, 
(nio and Anodonta. In 1819 he added the genera Hijria and Iridina, 
but i)laced Castalia wrongly in the family Trigoniacea, an error which 
was rectified by Ferussac in 1822, by Latrielle in 1825, by Blainville in 
the same year, and by Menke in 1828. In 1820 Rafinesque^ created the 
family Pediferia for Unio, Anodonta, and several related genera, includ- 
ing Cyclas. 

Blainville in 1825^ refused to accept the classification of Lamarck, 
and made a family Submytilacea, with the genera Anodonta, Unio, and 
Cardita, thus returning to the errors of Poll, who in 1795^ gave the name 
Limncea to animals inhabiting the shells belonging to the genera Unio, 
A nodonta, and Cardita. 

The name Unionidte was created in 1828 by Fleming,^ and adopted 
afterwards by Gray," Swainson,^ and other modern authors.'" 

1 Philosophie Zoologique, p. 328, 1805. 

^Extrait du Cours de Zool., p. 106, 1812. 

3 Phil. Zoologique, I, p. 318, 1830, 

^ Ann. Geuer. Sciences Physiques, p. 290, 1820. 

5 Man. de Malacol. et ConchylioL, p. 537, 1825. 

^'Testacea Utriusque Sicilia', II, p. 253, 1795. 

' Hist. British Animals, p. 408, 1828. 

«In Turton, A Manual of the Laud and Fresh-water Shells, p. 288, 1840. 

* Treatise on Malacology, p. 259, 1810. 

' ' The names of Lamarck, Ratinesque and Blainville can not be considered, since it 

18 a rule in nomenclature that a family or 8nl)faniily name must be founded on one 

of its principal genera. Hence Unionidw must take precedence. 

Proceedings of the United States Muscuiii, Vol. XVIII — Xo. 1008. 



Swaiuson in 1840 ' divided the Unionidse into five subfamilies, from 
a study of the shell : First, TTnioninie ( TJnio, Lamarck ; jEglia^ Swaiu- 
son; Mt/sca, Turton); Second, HyrianiC {Iridea, Swaiuson; CastaMa, 
Lamarck; Byria, Lamarck; Hyridella, Swaiuson); Third, hidiuime 
(//■/>/;»«, Lamarck; CalHscapha, Swaiuson; 3Iycetopus, A. d''Orhiguy); 
Fourth, Auodoutm^e (subgenera Anodon, Lamarck, etc.); Fifth, Alas- 
modontinai {Alasmodo)i. Say). 

Gray in 1847,^ following the anatomical papers of A. d'Orbiguy aud 
other authors, proposed to form a new family, Mutelidic, with the 
genera Muiela, Leila ^ Pleiodon, and a part of Pcuyodon of Schumacher. 
These genera differ from Unio by the presence of two distinct siphons, 
aud were separated from the Unionid;e for that reason. Previously 
Gray, in 1842,-' had made a family Mycetopodidte for the genus 31yce- 
topoda, d'Orbiguy, on account of the foot presenting a remarkable con- 

The views of Gray have been adopted by many authors, who have 
admitted among the Naiades of Lamarck two or three families ; others 
an equal number of subfamilies. Thus H. aud A. Adams ^ admit two 
families: Uniouidje (subfamilies Unioninae and Mycetopinee) and Mute- 
lidie. Chenu^ enumerates three subfamilies: Uniouinie, Mycetopiuie, 
and Iridinne; Gill,*^ three families: Unionidte, Iridiuidie, aud Mycetopo- 
dida^; Clessin," two subfamilies, to which he gave the names generally 
adopted for the families — Uniouida? and Mutelida?; Tryon,^ three fami- 
lies: Unionida^, Iridinidic, and Mycetopodid*; and Fischer,^ two sub- 
families: Unioninte and Mutelime. 

We see, then, that all the authors agree to make two grand divisions 
among the Naiades of Lamarck, based upon the fact of the siphons 
being more or less complete. The other organs of the animals, which 
to a lesser extent serve for i)urposes of classification, liave been exam- 
ined by Troschel'" and characterize the nine genera which are known 
in the family Unionida?. The anatomical classification of Agassiz^' is 
not applicable to these moUusks in North America. Isaac Lea'- at- 
tempted to classify the Unionidae by the external characters of the shell, 
the hinge (dorsal border symphynote or non-symphynote), the sculp- 
ture and the form. This classification is, of course, largely artificial, 

'Treatise ou Malacology, p. 377, 1840. 

sProc. Zool. Soc. London, p. 197, 1847. 

•■'Syu. Brit. Mas., pp. 81, 92, 1842. 

-•The Genera of Recent Mollusks, II, p. 505, 1857. 

'^Manuel Conchyl. et Paleont. Couch., II, pp. 136, 147, 1862. 

t^Arrang. Families of Mollusks, p. 20, 1871. 

'Malakozool. lilatt, XXII, p. 12, 1875. 

«Strnc. and Syst. Conch., Ill, p. 237, 1884. 

^Manuel de Conchyliol., p. 998. 
10 Wit'gmann's Archiv, XII, 1847. 

"In W. Stimpson, The Shells of New England, 1851. See also Archiv fiir Naturg., 
1852, p. 41. 

'♦ A Synopsis of the Family Unionida*, pp. xxiv, xxv, 1870, and in earlier editions. 




Since it brings together many unrelated species and widely separates 
others that have strong affinities. In justice to Dr. Lea it should be 
said that he regarded it as merely a temporary expedient, to be super- 
seded by a more natural method when a better knowledge of the soft 
parts could be obtained. ., .• , ,• ^i % 

II von Ihering has recently proposed a new classihcation ot the 35 
Naiades, taking the form of their larv* as a distinctive character. While 
the species of Europe and North America have a larva (Glochidmm) 
furnished with a bivalve shell, which can completely inclose it, a cer- 
tain number of forms of South America pass through a pecuhar stage, 
named Lasidimn by v. Ihering, in which the larva is Wed of three 
segments, carrying only a small single shell on the middle part The 
same stage is probably passed through by the young of several Atn- 
can oenera. In consequence he divides the Naiades into two fami- 
Hes-the Mutelida? (genera Leila, Gray; Fosmla, Lea; Mi/cetopus, A. 
d'Orbignv; Glaharis, Gray; Aplodon, Spix; P/ar/iodon, Lea; Solenma, 
Conrad ;^^/^<ie/^^ Scopoli; Iridina, Lamarck; Spatha, Lea) and the 
Unionid* (genera Hyria, Lamarck; Oa.toiia, Lamarck; Castahna v. 
Ihering; CTTiio, Philipsson ; Margaritana, Schumacher; Cristaria, Schu- 
macher; Pseudodon, Gould, and Anodonta, Lamarck). 

The foregoing sketch of the classification of the Naiades is taken in 
part from the admirable work of Fischer and Crosse on Mexican and 
Central American mollusks.^ , , , i i p 

In the present state of our limited, and in some cases total lack ot 
knowledge of the anatomy of several of the genera of Naiades, any classi- 
fication must be move or less tentative. The division of these mollusks 
bv most authors into two families, Unionidai and Mutelid*, or two sub- 
families, Unionina. and Mutelin^e, founded upon the incompleteness or 
completeness of the development of siphons, can not stand. This has 
been shown by the researches of Lea and d'Orbigny into the anatomy 
of Glaharis many years ago; for while some species of this genus have 
the mantle closed posteriorly so as to form siphons, mothers, which are 
evidently closely related, the mantle is free. More recently v. Ihering 
hasshownnhat a given species of his genus Castalina may have an 
animal which has the two siphons completely developed, thus placing 
it with the Mutelida^ or it may be that of a perfect Unio, having no 
siphons at all, thus belonging with the Unionid.^. The same thmg is 
true to some extent in the well-known genus Castalia, and it is quite 
probable that this character will be found to vary in other genera ot 

Naiades. -, ., ^ t , a ■4-\ 

So far as conchological characters are concerned, Castalia (and with 
it Castalina, which has been separated from it) and Hyna, though 
hitherto placed with the Mutelid*, are evidently memb ers of the 

'ArohivfiirNaturgeschichte, p. 52, 1893. . tt „ r,n-. 

:Mi8Si(.n Scientifique an Mexiqiie et dans rAmerinue Centrale, .th part, II. V-oVo, 


^■Zuol. Auzeiger, Nos. 380 and 381, 18Ul-til>, pp. 1-14. 


Unionidne.' The Castalias, Castalinas and Hyrias have the radial beak 
sculpture whicli is found on every species of South American Unio^ but 
on none of the other Naiades. The hinge teeth consist of cardinals 
and laterals, the former being more divided than is usual in Unio., 
though there are some species in the latter genus which have the car- 
dinals separated into several parts. The laterals are Unionoid, but are 
more or less vertically striated in CastaUa and Castalma, and some- 
times, to a certain extent, in Hyria. This latter character, however, is 
not generic or even specific. The hinge teeth in the bivalves were 
undoubtedly developed in order to lock the valves of such species as 
were subject to shock, and prevent them from being twisted out of 
place. I believe it will be found that in most, if not all cases where they 
are needed, the shell never opens so far but what they lock one valve with 
the other. The mantle is carried as a thin, tough, elastic sheet between 
the hinge plates and over the teeth in the Naiades, and it will be 
readily seen that any unusual roughening, such as the development of 
granules or vertical striation, would render them much less liable to 
slip than if they were smooth. Hence, in many solid-shelled Unionids, 
especially in elongated species, the character of vertical teeth stria- 
tion will be found. It is especially developed in many of the heavy Chi- 
nese Unios, and I have noticed it in Unio parallelopipedon of South 
America, in Unio shepardianus, ligamentinus, crassus, luteolus, anodon- 
toides, and otliers, of the United States.^ 

Unio kraussi, Lea, of Surinam, of which the type is in the National 
Museum (No. 84379), seems to stand about midway, conchologically, 
between Unio and CastaUa^ but in a ditterent direction from Castalina. 
It has the strong radial beak sculpture of Castalia, especially near the 
posterior ridge, where it extends more than one-third of the distance 
from the beaks to the periphery. It is much inflated, and has a form 
more circular than that of Castalia, a brown epidermis and strong con- 
centric sculpture. The teeth stand about midway between those of 

'Ihering believes that Hyria will be found to vary in the character of its mantle 
openings in the same waj' that Ca8<rt?ma and Ca«<aZia do. (Zool. Anzeiger, Nos. 380 
and 381, 1891-92, p. 5.) 

-The characters of the teeth of the four genera Unio, Hyria, Castalia and Castalina, 
are very variable. Unio charruanus, d'Orbigny, has about 4 strong cardinals and sev- 
eral minor teeth in each valve, besides the ordinary laterals, which, with quite a 
number of not closely related species from Brazil, show traces of vertical striation. 
Unio acutirostris, Lea, from southern South America, has about 12 denticles in the 
cardinal area of each valve. In the younger shells there are usually the ordinary 
compressed cardinals, one in the left valve and two in the right, and as the specimens 
become adult they split up and assume a very difiereut appearance. Unio pata- 
gonicus, d'Orbigny, shows this transition finely. In Unio gibbosus, Barnes, of the 
United States, the laterals are quite often somewhat vertically striated, and some- 
times have oblique striai pointing anteriorly or posteriorly. Specimens of Castalina 
martenai, v. Ihering, in the National Museum (No. 125736), plainly show both vertical 
and oblique strife on the laterals in the same hinge, the oblique lines being finer 
and partly laid over the vertical ridges. 


JJnio and Castalia, the cardinals being somewhat elongated and broken; 
and these, with the laterals, are more or less corrugated, and show traces 
of vertical striation. It was named Castalia sulcata by Kiauss, but 
was placed in Unio by Lea, and as its specific name was preoccupied in 
the latter genus, he changed it to l:rai< 

dastaUa duprei, Lea, shows characters in the teeth which approach 
Hyria. It is a smooth, light yellowish green shell of thin texture, trian- 
gular in outline, and much intlated, with an excessively high, sharp 
keel running from the beaks to the posterior basal margiu. The cardi- 
nals are much elongated and sometimes brokeu, as in Hyria. The 
arch of the hinge plate under the beaks is high and sharp. There is no 
radiating sculpture, and there appears to be none of any kind on the 
beaks. I agree with von Ihering that this should quite probably be 
placed in a new genus. 

Hyria, on the other hand, seems to be equally connected with Unio. 
In U. stevensi, Lea, from northern South America, the form, sculpture, 
and external appearance are decidedly like that of Hyria corruyata, it 
being furnished with quite a distinct anterior dorsal wing and a slight 
hint at one posteriorly. This species of Hyria is sometimes destitute 
of a wing behind, and this part of the shell occasionally ends in a some- 
what obtuse angle. The hinge teeth of Unio stevensi partake, to some 
extent, of the characters of both genera, though they are more U nion- 
oid than Hyrioid. The si^ecies should probably, however, be placed in 

Unio ortoni, Lea, of which the type — a single left valve, and the 
only specimen I have seen — is in the Museum collection (No. 25430, 
U. S. X. M.), approaches the form of U7iio somewhat, but its sculpture 
is very much like that of Hyria, and its cardinals are multifid. It is 
very doubtful which genus should receive it, and it quite probably 
should have a new generic name. 

I think there can be little doubt that the relation between these four 
genera, Unio, Hyria, Castalia and Gastalina, is a close one anatomically 
and conchologically, and that they must all be placed in one family in 
any natural arrangement. Yet in a classification based upon the devel- 
opment or wantof develoi^meut of the siphons, the former has been made 
the type of one family, the Unionidiie, and the other three have been 
placed in another, the Mutelidte. Glabaris, which, as I have shown, 
may have either perfect siphons or an open mantle, has generally been 
placed in the genus Anodonta, in the Unionidte, though some authors 
give it a place in the other family. 2Iycetopus, which has an open 
mantle, has generally been put in the Unionidje, but it is, as I expect 
to show farther on, more likely a member of the Mutelidie. 

So far as I am aware, nothing is known of the larval state of any 
of the African Naiades, so that the character of the embryo, on which 
von Ihering bases his classificaiuion, can not yet be used in determining 
the relationships of the peculiarly African genera. 


Genus UNIO, Retzius. 

Tt seems to be impossible to ascertaiu with certainty avIio is tbe 
author of this genus. In 1788 Laurentius Miinter Philipssou described 
it in a thesis delivered under the presidency of his master, Retzius.^ 
at the University of Lund, in Sweden, at a public examination for a 
doctor's degree. Whetlier Philipsson or Retzius should be credited 
with the genus can not be positively known, as it is believed by some 
that the master was the author of the dissertation, which the student 
merely defended. I am inclined to take this view of the matter, for the 
reason that Retzius was an author of repute, while it is not known that 
Philipsson ever gave any attention to natural history or was the author 
of any genera or species before or since. There was no special desig- 
nation of any type, but the species were mentioned in the following- 
order: Uniomargaritifervs, U.crassus, U.tnmidus, U.pictorum, U.ovalis, 
and V. corruf/atus. 

We can not consider the genus Manjaritana, founded on the absence 
of lateral teeth, a valid one, because the first species which is mentioned 
in this list is the type of the genus U)iio (and also of Margaritana, 
founded many years later), and this is placed by itself in a section 
which is designated as lacking lamellar teeth,- while the other five spe- 
cies are put in a second section, characterized by lateral teeth. There- 
fore, in case of a generic separation, founded on the presence or absence 
of lamellar teeth, the species wanting them avouUI have to be j)laced in 
the genus Uirio, and another name given to the forms having both sets 
of teeth. But, as I shall show farther on — I think satisfactorily — that 
the different species usually placed in Margaritanu are merely Unios 
with ordinarily imperfect teeth, we can use Retzius' generic name to 
include all the forms that are commonly placed in the two genera. 

The genus Unio is by far the most numerous in species, and is the 
most widely distributed of any of the Naiades, as well as the most 
variable in its characters. It is found in the fresh waters of all the 
continents, especially in the rivers and streams, while the nearly related 
Anodonta is more commonly an inhabitant of lakes and ponds. 

In the Bast Indian Archipelago it is met with in perhaps all the larger 
islands, extending east into the Solomon group; it is abundant in Aus- 
tralia, New Zealand, Tasmania, the Philippines and Ja[)an. It is 
found in Ceylon. Madagascar, the British Isles, and in Cuba. The only 
considerable continental areas in which it is believed not to occur are 
that part of North America lying south of the fortieth parallel of north 
latitude, having a drainage into the Pacific; the extreme arctic regions, 
and a considerable area of the Sahara and Gobi deserts. 

'Dissertatio historico-naturalis, sistens nova testaceorum geuera, p. 16. The fol- 
lowing is the original diagnosis: "Unio. — Animal ascidia. Testa bivalvis, jcqui- 
valvis, ajquilatera. — Cardo. Dens ani in valvula destra solidus, subiutrusus, in 
sinistra duplex; omnes crenulati. In pliiiimus dens vulva' lougitudiualis lamel- 
laris intra siuistr* valvule bilamellarem. 

- Dente vulvie uullo, sed margo horizoiitalis. 



''O^^'^^.l^^^^^^t^fth^^^^^^ of the Shell and 

•mimal of many of the (Ufferent species, a luimber of con.-hologists, among 
whom are Ratinesqiie/ Swaiuson,^ Agassiz^ and others, have attempted 
to divide the genus into other genera and subgenera. These groups 
are I believe, unworthy of any scientific standing on account ot the 
abs'ohite blending of conchological characters in many cases and the 
great variability of the soft parts. 

Iheriughas stated^ that the South American Unios, so far as Ins 
knowledge goes, develop the embryos in the inner branchui; and not m 
the outer Sutor has examined a number of the New Zealand Unios in 
order to determine whether they were closely related anatomically t.» 
those of South America, and he states^ that he found nearly all the 
embryos in the inner branchi:^. Conchologically there is a very close 
relation between the Unios of New Zealand, Australia, Tasmania and 
South America, and there can be little doubt that the species throughout 
have this anatomical peculiarity. In addition to this, the embryos of the 
austral species seem to be mostly destitute of hooks, and von Ihermg 
believes that they do not pass a part of their larval stage encysted on 
the fins and gills of fishes, as do many of those of the northern hemi- 

^^ On' the other hand, the Unios of the northern hemisphere, so far as is 
known, bear their embryos in the outer gills, and a considerable pro- 
portion of them have hooks. Lea found these appendages m a large 
luimber of embryos of Unios and Anodoutas, but absent in others In 
those of U. hiteolus he found no hooks, but the nearly related L . radiatus 
was furnished with four small ones, while in some specimens of Ano- 
donta ovata, Lea. they were present and in others absent.' 

It is possible that hooks may be in some cases developed on the 
embryo at one stage of its existence, and become broken off or obsolete 
at another, as Lea found some examples in which they were imperfectly 
developed. Some of the species of Europe luive been actually observed 
attached to the gills and tins of ftshes by these hooks, and it is quite 
probable that many of those of North America have similar habits.^ 
During this period of attachment, which occupies two months or more, 
the larvcc become encysted, and tlie organs develop, though the shell 
does not increase greatly in size 

So far as I know, all the Unios of SouUi^ America, south ot the Isth- 

-TMor^:^l^s7;.;irBl^^^F^^ ^nn. G^n. des Sci. Phys., Brux., 

p. 291. 

-A Treatise on Malacology, 1840, p. 266. 

^'Archiv fiir Nat., 1852, p. 42. 

4\ew Zealand Jonrnal of Science, I, No. 4 (n. s.), p. 1..L, 

T'New Zealand Jonrnal of Science, I, No. 6 (u. s.), p. 2.-)0. 18!tl . , ^n 

•Lea fonnd hooks on the embryos of Umo peculians and ^- f'-'"l''' 'jl^'''^: 
known Sonth American species. (Obs. , XII. pp. 26. 28.) He also states that Una « , - 
tiplicatus, Lea, U. r„bu,hwsns, Lea, F. lleinianns, Lea. and I . .uI,rot,nulu., Lea, bear 
the embryos in all four leaves of tlie branchiie. 

- Obs. on the Genus Uiiio, VI, p. 49, X, p. 89. 


mus of Panama, have radial beak sculpture, wbieli sometimes extends 
well over the body of the shell. I know of no others having- this char- 
acter excei^t Unio rotundatns^ Lamarck, of Texas and Louisiana, which 
occasionally exhibits this peculiarity in a slight degree, and which, 
singularly enough, by its form resembles many of those of South Amer- 
ica. The Unios of New Zealand and Australia have, so far as I have 
been able to observe, curved or imperfectly radial beak sculpture, 
approaching somewhat that of several of the species of South America. 
Nearly all the austral forms (excepting those of Africa) have peculiarly 
compressed cardinal teeth, there being a single one in the right and 
two in the left valve, sometimes slightly multifid, and between those 
of the latter valve there is a parallel-sided pit, into which the cardinal 
of the right valve fits. 

I believe that these characters of the shell and embryo, which seem 
to be reasonably constant, will justify the separation of the Unios of 
South America, Australia, New Zealand and Tasmania into a subgenus, 
for which may be used the name Diplofhrn, applied by Spix to Uuio 
eUipticus and TJ. rotundns of Brazil.' There can be but little doubt 
that these belong to a different and perhaps older phylum than the 
species of Europe, Asia, Africa and North America.' 

The writer has proposed for the American species ' a subdivision into 
groups, which should contain species evidently allied by conchological, 
anatomical and embryological characters. Each group he proposed to 
call after some widely distributed, abundant and characteristic species 
belonging to it. Thus an assemblage of solid, oval forms with radiating 
stripes, common in the Mississippi Valley, is fairly typified by the well- 
known XJnio lujamenUmis of Lamarck; another of large, rather light, 
inflated forms from the same region, is represented by U. ventricosus, 
Barnes; a third, consisting of compressed, rhomboid species of the 
Atlantic drainage, by U. complanatus; and to speak of these difterent 
divisions as the group of Unto liganientinus, U. occidens, or U. compla- 
natus group, at once conveys to the mind of the merest novice Just what 
is meant. 

The arrangement is not at all a new one, having been used more or 
less by Lea, Lewis, Call, Marsh, and other conchologists. Eecently 
Fischer and Crosse* in monographing the Mexican and Central Ameri- 
can Anodontas and Unios, group them in the same way, but apply spe- 
cial names to the sections. It seems to me that such names merely 
tend to cumber the literature, and uselessly add to the labor of the 
conchologist in committing them to memory. 

In arranging the Naiades of the National Museum, I have become 
convinced that this system of grouping, as I have outlined it, is practi- 

iTest, Fluv. Bras., p. 33, 1827. 

^Lea believed that a natural classificatioa would be fouudetl on the development 
of the embryos in the internal or external branchiae. 
sProc. U. S. Nat. Mus., XV, 1892, p. 405, and Amer. Nat., XXVII, No. 31G, p. 353. 
*Miss. Sci. aux Mex. dans I'Am. Cent., 7th part, II, pp. 517, 555, 1894. 


cal, and may be applied to every genus, and that we may thus refer to 
certain species as belonging to the group of Unio littoraHs, the grouj) 
of Anodotita cygnea, the group of Spatha rubens, and the like. 

In 1817 Schumacher' subdivided Unio, and established the genus Mar- 
garitana for the U. [Mya) margaritifer'ns of Linuieus, ou account of the 
fact that it lacked the lateral teeth of the other species. Since that 
time a number of North American forms have been added to this genus, 
which has been quite generally acce])ted as such by modern authors, 
among whom is Tryon;^ and as a subgenus b}' Lea ■ and Fischer.* 

After a good deal of study of the animal and shell, I am forced to the 
belief that the different Margaritauas are merely a number of generally 
not at all closely related species of Unios, in which the lateral teeth — 
l)erliaps from various causes to be mentioned hereafter — have become 
either more or less blurred or depauperated. Some of these, by the 
characters of the shell and soft parts, evidently group with species of 
Unios in which the teeth are nearly or quite perfect. In such species 
as Margarltana rugosa, Barnes, ^1/. eonfragosa, Say, M. complanata, 
Barnes, and 31. calceola, Lea, there are almost always more or less 
perfectly develojjcd laterals which look as though they were diseased, 
and have a blurred appearance, the normally single or double lamelhe 
being divided into several irregularly developed, elongated ridges. 
Nearly all the species occasionally have as perfect teeth as any CJnio. 
The National Museum possesses a series of young shells of j1/. margari- 
tifera (No. 00878) from the State of ^Vashingtou, in which most of the 
specimens have fairly good laterals, and another specimen (No. 86280, 
U. S. N. M.) in the Lea collection from Massachusetts has cardinals 
and laterals as perfect as those of any Unio. The same is true of 
many specimens of this species from Europe and northern Asia. The 
group which this species typifies is a remarkable one, not only because 
it shows great variation in the development of the hinge teeth, but for 
its wide and somewhat peculiar geographical distribution. I place in 
it the following species, beginning with those which have the laterals 
least developed and proceeding to forms in which they are perfect: 


All Europe; all northern Asia, including Japan; northwestern North 
America south to latitude 40^ north; Upper Missouri River; Canada 
and eastern United States south to latitude 40° north, in streams 
draining into the Atlantic. Cardinals sometimes stump-like ami 
imperfect; laterals generally wanting. 

'Essai d'un nouveau syst. des habit, des vers testacds, p. 137, 1817. 
^Structural and Systematic CoucLology, p. 240. 
^ Synopsis of the Uniouida', p. 67 et seq. 
■' Manuel de Conchy liologie, p. 1001. 



Central part of the Mississippi Valley. The teeth are very variable. 
Cardinals usually quite imperfect, or even rudimentary, though some- 
times well developed. Laterals present or absent, and showing every 
possible degree of developuient. On account of this great variation 
the species has been placed about as often in TJnio as MargarUana. 


Northern Alabama and possibly adjoining States. Shell somewhat 
resembling U. monodontiis, but shorter, wider, and with rather better 
developed teeth. 


Louisiana. Very closely resembles Unio margaritiferus, but is occa- 
sionally slightly plicate on the posterior slope. The hinge is very much 
like that of the latter species, but in all the specimens I have seen the 
somewhat feeble laterals are always present. 


Southeastern Asia. A somewhat smaller species than U. margarit- 
ifenis, but closely resembling it. The teeth are generally quite well 


Southern Europe. A large, very heavy species, often becoming 
arcuate when old, with very strong, well-developed cardinals and 

Conchologically and anatomically, so far as is known, the above 
species form a very natural group. All the shells are elongated, 
rounded before and behind; arcuate when old, without angles or 
sculpture, except iu the case of U. hemheli; with uniform, rayless, thick, 
dark epidermis; a curved hinge line, and a hinge iilate which is nar- 
rowed and rounded just back of the cardinals. 

The fact of the presence or absence of lateral or cardinal teetli in 
certain of the Xaiades can not be taken as a proof of generic distinc- 
tion. In Java, the Philippines, and perhaps certain other islands of 
the East Indian Archipelago, there is found a group of jSTaiades haviug 
moderate sized, thin shells, of a peculiar lurid jiurplish or reddish tex- 
ture, in which the prismatic layer forms a rather wide border.' 

These species, all of which have greatly compressed teeth, exhibit the 
most remarkable variation in the degree of their development. Some 
(»f them have perfect cardinals and laterals, others to the naked eye 
are destitute of either, but with a glass show traces of one or both, and 

'The group is typified by Unio hengalenais, Lea, but it is doubtful whether auy of 
the species are found on the continent. According to Hanley and Theobald (Concli. 
ludica, p. 62), U. hengalennis does not come from India, but from the Philippines. 


tbese edentulous forms have been generally called Anodontas. But it 
often happens that in a lot of individuals of a single s[)ecies taken from 
one locality, there will be found e\"ery variation from perfect teeth to 
the merest vestiges. For this reason, and on account of the fact that 
most of the shells of the group have beautiful, delicate, chevron-shaped 
beak sculpture, which often extends well on to the body of the shell, of 
a form quite characteristic of many Oriental Unios, I have no doubt, 
althougli we know nothing of the soft parts of the members of this 
group, that they must be placed with Unio. Some of the Margaritauas 
evidently belong with well-known groups of Unios. In the group of U. 
manjaritiferus, 1 have given examples. Margaritana rugosa^ Barnes, 
sometimes approaches so closely in external appearance to UniopressuSy 
Lea, that one is labeled with the name of the other by competent stu- 
dents. It has the same compressed, elongate-rhomboid form, and both 
are rayed alike; the only essential difference in appearance being that 
the former is usually somewhat corrugated on the posterior slope, while 
the latter is without sculpture. Immediately under the beak in the 
right valve in either species, the hinge plate is almost or entirely cut 
away. Just before this is a single cardinal, usually somewhat com- 
pressed, and on the i^osterior part of the hinge plate is a more or less 
perfectly developed lateral. It is usually considerably blurred, even in 
the Unio. 

In the left valve there is a triangular, compressed tooth directly 
opposite the missing portion of the hinge plate in the left valve, which 
is generally curved backward, and tits into the gap almost perfectly. 
Just before this is a slightly developed, compressed cardinal, and 
behind it in the Unio two not very perfect, elongated laterals. In the 
MaTgaritana the laterals of the left valve are generally blurred ; some- 
times in old shells they are shown as a sort of rounded ridge, but 
frequently they run more or less diagonally across the hinge plate and 
point downward posteriorly, as they do in other species of the genus. 

In a specimen of Unio pressns before me, from White River, Indiana, 
the same direction is taken by the laterals of the left valve ; the lower 
one running out and ending at the ventral edge of the plate, attaining 
only a little more than half the length of the other. In rare instances 
the laterals of the Margaritana are nearly perfect, and those of the Unio 
quite blurred. The sculpture of the beaks in both species is nuich 
alike, that of the Unio being finer. In both, it has a tendency to fall in 
two loops from points on either side of the beaks. The soft parts of 
these species are singularly alike. 
Proc. N. M. 95 20 




Unto 2>^'esstts, Lea. 

Branchiae large, rounded below, free 
nearly the whole length of the abdom- 
inal sac. 

Palpi small, subangular, united half- 
way down the posterior edges. 

Mantle thin, slightly thickened on the 

Branchial opening large, blackish on 
the edge, and with numerous papilhe. 

Anal opening rather small, blackish, 
and without papillif . 

Superanal opening rather large, united 
for some distance below, blackish on the 

Color of the mass, dirty white. 

Embryonic shell subtriangular, light 
brown: with hooks. 

Margariiana rugosa, Barnes. 

Branchi;* very large, rounded below, 
the inner ones much the larger, free the 
whole length of the abdominal sac. 

Palpi rather small, subangular, united 
nearly halfway down the posterior edges. 

Mantle rather thin, much thicker on 
the margins, blackish on posterior, basal 

Branchial opening rather large, with 
small brown papilhe. 

Anal oi)ening rather large, without 

Superanal opening very large, with a 
dark brown line within, united below. 

Color of the mass, salmon. 
Embryonic shell triangular, brown; 
with hooks. 

Ill Margaritana complanata, Barnes, which has a beak sculpture 
quite like that of U)iio pressus, but coarser, a similar arrangement of 
teeth is seen, though the shell is heavier, more rounded, and the hinge 
plate is broader. In many specimens the hinge of the right valve is 
completely cut away at the beaks, and the cavity is filled by a corre- 
sponding tooth in the left valve. Unio charlottensis, Lea, from North 
Carolina, an undoubted member of this group, has a form approach- 
ing that of Margaritana complanata, but it is rather more elongated. 

Margaritana holstonia sometimes exhibits laterals, and in general 
form, size and texture so closely resembles some of the si)ecies of the 
group of Unio nashi-'illensis, that even Dr. Lea occasionally labeled them 
wrongly. 71/. confragosa, Say, resembles no other Margaritana at all, 
but approaches more nearly in form to the Unios of the Lachrymosus 
group, and the animal is remarkably close to those of that assemblage. 
Unio hiesianus, Hende, of China, has the same kind of blurred laterals 
as the American Margaritanas, but it appears from conchological char- 
acters to be a member of the group of Unios typified bj^ U. sinensis, 
liCa. I have dwelt at length on this part of the subject because the 
partial or total want of lateral teeth in the species of Margaritana is a 
very curious feature. I can only believe that they are all true Unios 
whose teeth have been modified or injured by conditions of water, food, 
bottom, or some other element of environment. In some of them, where 
the laterals have merely become obsolete, such as those of the Margarit- 
i/era group, I think the explanation is easy. M. monodonta and Jiildreth- 
iana are found in running water under stones, buried slightly in the mud, 
and U. hembeli lives in the nearly stagnant bayous of Louisiana, so that 
a strong, toothed hinge is not required to hold the valves in place. The 
heavy-shelled species that live in running water have blurred laterals 
which appear as if diseased, and it seems not improbable that they may 


have been subjected to injurious intiuences in the matter of food, dele- 
terious water, or the like, until these characters have become more or 
less fixed. In every group of Unios to which these Margaritauas seem 
to belong, there are species in which the lateral teeth are more or less 
imperfect, which seems to show that they have been somewhat suscep- 
tible to these injurious influences. 

In view of the facts I have presented, and many others that might be 
brought forward, I am forced to the conclusion that the so-called genus 
Mar{/ari tana consists of a number of species of Unios with depauperate 
cardinal or lateral teeth, or botli, and that they will have to be placed 
in the genus U)iio. 

In southeastern Asia and some of the islands of the East Indian 
Archipelago there is a peculiar group of Xaiades with greatly compressed, 
somewhat elongated shells, having slightly concentric sculpture, the 
species of which are almost or quite destitute of teeth, and have won- 
derfully brilliant, silvery, soft- tinted nacre. This group consists of 
probably but two or three species, though they have received a large 
number of names, and is fairly typified by a form which Deshayes and 
Julien called Anodonta sempervii^ens. jS^early all the specimens of the 
different species show, when examined with a glass, long, delicate, 
rudimentary laterals, and often vestiges of cardinals in the shape of a 
smooth, compressed elevation. One of these Lea named MonocondyUva 
compressa. They do not in any way ap^iroach any Anodonta I know of, 
though most of the so-called species have been placed in that genus. 
Deshayes and Julien' state that the animal is pure, milky white, but 
that they "cannot give a detailed description of it, though it resembles 
in its characters generally that of the species (of Anodonta) common 
in streams and ponds." They appear to be most nearly related to 
Unio semialatu.s, Deshayes, and others of the Mar(/inalis group. 

Rochebrune in 1882 ■^ gave the generic name Harmandia to Unio som- 
horiensis, liochebrune. It is merely a peculiar Unio, having the surface 
covered with somewhat radiating, sometimes slightly zigzag ribs, those of 
theposterior running nearly horizontal, the remainder moreor less radiant 
from the umbonal region. Near the center of the disk, two or three of 
these irregular ribs before, and as many behind, curve toward each other 
and join, somewhat after the manner of several South American species. 
Sculpture api^roaching this, but not so strongly developed, is often found 
in U. cceruleus and other Indian Unios. The laterals are double in each 
valve, and a small, thin lamella curves upward from the ui)per lateral 
near its posterior end. A vestige of this third, upper, curving tooth is 
found in U. fluctiger, Lea, said to come from Guiana, but undoubtedly 
an East Indian species, and the same character is found in U. eris2)atiis 
of Gould. 

1 Mollusques Nouveaux du Cambodge. Nouv. Arch, du Museum, Bull. IX, pp. 122, 
^BuU. Soc. Philoni. (7), VI, pp. 45,46, pi. i, 1882. 



Grandidieria, Bourgiiignat, erected by that author into a genus, and 
placed by him in the family Corbiculida',^ is merely a section of small, 
rather solid, intlated Central African Unios, often having compressed, 
reflected, dentate cardinal teeth, much like those of Unio parvus and 
its allies of the United States. In 1888 Bourguignat claimed to know 
twenty-five species of this genus in Lake Tanganyika, and believed 
that if its waters were to be fully explored the number would be 
increased to one hundred. No further comment is needed on the work 
of the great master of the new school of French conchologists. 

Pharaonia, Bourguignat,- is another of this author's African genera, 
which includes a few thin- shelled Unios, with compressed, elongated 
cardinals and laterals. 

R(M€Us, Jousseaume,^ is still another so called genus, consisting of a 
few small, thin-sbelled, concentrically-striated tropical African Unios. 

Microdontia, Tapperone Canefri,^ was established for Unio anodonti- 
formls, Tajiperone Canefri, from the Fly River, New Guinea, and is 
probably only a section of Unio. The very brief Latin description is 
wholly inadequate for its proper determination. 

The characters of the shell and soft parts of the genus T^nio may be 
summed up as follows: 

Shell variable in f<n-m, usually equivalve and inequilateral, rounded, 
elongated, angular or symphynote; with tubercular, zigzag, or cou: 
centric sculpture; beaks variously sculptured or smooth, and occasion- 
ally showing vestiges of a glochidium; epidermis thick, hinge line 
incurved in front of the beaks; hinge having normally one cardinal and 
one lateral tooth in the right valve, and two cardinals and two laterals 
in the left, or they may be almost whollj^ lacking or greatly varied in 
arrangement: pallial line entire; interior nacreous. Animal di(ecious; 
mantle open ; branchial opening oblong, fringed with numerous j)apill<e ; 
anal opening with or without papilhe, usually separated from the 
sujieranal opening; labial palpi generally wider than long, with free 
points, more or less united posteriorly; branchi;e large, the embryos 
being borne in the outer or inner pair, or rarely in all four of them. 

Genus BURTONIA, Bourguignat. •' 

I am inclined to believe that the species of this genus, of whose 
anatomy nothing whatever is known, are merely peculiar, compressed, 
somewhat symphynote Unios. In such species as I have been able to 
examine, there are vestiges of cardinal and lateral teeth; the anterior 
cicatrices are united, and the nacre is of a peculiarly rich, usually red- 
dish tint. 

' Bull. Soc. Malac. France, II, pp. 1-12, 1885. 
- Bull. Soc. Zool. France, XI, pp. 471-502, pi. xii-xiv, 1894. 
3 Bull. Soc. Zool. France, XI, pp. 481, 482, pi. xii, Hg. 4, 1894. 
^ Ann. Mus. Genova, XIV, p. 229, pi. xi, tigs. 3-5, 1883. 
5 Moll. Fluv. Nyanza, pp. 20-23, 1883. 


From the region of the beaks iu the interior, tiiere springs a series 
of slight, radiating, irregiihir ridges, and between the outer ends of 
these are three curious dorsal cicatrices. These are like the posterior 
cicatrices of an ordinary r)iio, being rounded or semicircular, and not 
impressed. The posterior muscle scars are very indistinct. 

The beaks are sculptured with somewhat scattered nodules, which 
are seen very plainly in B. tanganyicensis^ Smith, but not so clearly in 
B. elonc/ata, Bourguignat. Two specimens of the latter in the National 
Museum collection (No. 127190), seem to show the remains of a glo- 
chidium quite distinctly: and this character, the beak sculpture, and 
the rudimentary cardinal and lateral teeth, induce me to place the 
group in the Unionida? instead of the Mutelidte, to which it has been 
assigned. The shells frequently have the posterior end turned to the 
left or right like those of Tellina. 

Genus ANODONTA, (Bruguiere em.) Lamarck.^ 

In 1792 Bruguiere^ applied the name Anodontites to certain edentu- 
lous mollusks, properly describing the genus, mentioning Mytilus cyg- 
ncHS and 31. anaUnus of Linniens, as belonging to it, and describing a 
new species, A. crispata of Guiana, which is now believed to have no 
generic relation to either of the other species. In 1797 he figured, with- 
out text, a large number of species.^ This generic name was adopted 
by Cuvier, Poiret, Deshayes and others. 

In 1799 Lamarck changed the name to Anodonta,* describing the 
genus, and citing A. cygnea, Linnteus, as the type. In 1805 Eoissy^ 
explained that the genus was due to Bruguiere, but that Lamarck 
changed the termination, because in the nomenclature as then regu- 
lated, the termination ites indicated that the genus included only extinct 
species. Dr. Ball has worked out the above jiuzzling synonymy with 
a great deal of care, and believes that under the rules of nomenclature 
a., they then existed Lamarck Avas justified in making the change in 
termination — that Anodonta is synonymous with Anodontites, and that 
the former should be retained. 

The Anodontites crispata of Bruguiere, from northern South America, 
is fairly typical of a large grouj) of the genus Glaharis of Gray, which 
is now placed by v. Iheriug and others in the family Mutelida?. 

The genus Anodonta, as now restricted, consists of Naiades with gen- 
erally thin, inflated shells, for the most paDrt without sharp angles, and 
free from sculpture except on the region of the beaks. The hinge line 
is a regular curve and is not indented iu front of the beaks as is that 
of JJnio, and this seems to be about the best distinguishing character 

1 Prodrome Class. Coci., p. 87, 1799. 
2Journ. Hist. Nat., I, p. 131, 1792. 
sEncycl. Meth., pis. 201-205, 1797. 
■• Prodrome 'Class. Coq., p. 87, 1799. 
6 Hist. Nat. Moll., VI, p. 312, 1805. 


between the two genera. The binge is either destitute of teetli or 
exhibits thein only in a rudimentary condition, and the nacre is less 
brilliant, as a rule, than it is in the TJnios. Anodonta implicata, Say, 
and A. fenotilli, Heude, are greatly thickened usually in the anterior 
region, often becoming as solid as some of the heavier TJnios. A. angu- 
lata, Lea, is also quite a solid sliell, and is generally strongly inflated 
and sharply angled on the posterior slope. According to Hemphill.' it 
was found in hard, clayey gravel, in the Snake River, burrowing so that 
only the solid, angled posterior end came to a level with the surface. 
This is no doubt a modification of the shell in order to enable it to 
resist the shock of the currents, as specimens of the same species taken 
from still AA^aters are thinner, more comi)ressed, and almost entirely 
destitute of the posterior angle. This species has usually rudimentary 
teeth, and in the young both cardinals and laterals are often perfect. 
Tlie shell is incurved in front of the beaks and it may be a true Unio. 

The animal of Anodonta is essentially the same as that of Unio, and 
there can be but little doubt that the two genera are very closely 
related. Whether Anodonta or Unio is the older it is impossible in the 
present state of our knowledge to tell, as it is quite probable that some 
of the more ancient forms referred to the former genus are not Auodon- 
tas at all. There can be, I think, little doubt that the thick shells and 
hinge teeth of the Unios were developed in order to enable them to live 
in currents, as they are generally inhabitants of streams; while the 
thin, edentulous shell of Anodonta is caused by its living in still water; 
the genus belonging, for the most part, to ponds, lakes, and canals. 

The distribution of the true Anodontas is confined to the northern 
hemisphere — for the most part north of the Tropic of Cancer, the 
so-called species of South America being Glabaris, and those of trop- 
ical Africa belonging to Sjyatha and Mutela, all genera of the family 
Mutelidie. The Anodontas are found throughout Xorth America as far 
south as southern Mexico ; in northeastern Asia; in Japan and China, and 
in the great region north and west of the Himalayas; also throughout 
all Europe and northern Africa to the Desert of Sahara, excepting in 
the Nile, which is peopled with Spathas and Mutelas. The embryo is a 
glochidium, and probably attaches itself to fishes as does that of Unio. 
It is very difticult to draw the line between the genera Unio and Ano- 
donta. In the United States there occurs a small group of species, some 
of which have been placed with Margaritana, such as M. elliotti, Lea, M. 
tombigheensis, Lea, and M. elliptiea, Lea; and others with Anodonta, 
such as A. edentnla, Say. These species are, with some others, closely 
related by characters of the shell and soft parts, and all undoubtedly 
belong to a single group of one genus. In many cases in this group, 
even in A. edentula, there are fairly developed cardinals and even rudi- 
mentary laterals, and this, Avith the general character of tlie shells, 
leads me to place the species in Unio. Anodonta ferussaciana, Lea, and 

i Zoe, I, No. II, p. 326. 


a few forms grouping- with it, appear to be nearly allied and to stand on 
the borderland between the two genera. In these species the hinge line 
is generally incurved at or near the beaks, and (piite a distinct vestige 
of a cardinal is often found, and occasionally rudimentary laterals. 

LEPIDODESMA, new genus. 

In China there are found a couple of species of remarkable fresh- 
water bivalves of large size, thin structure, and greatly inflated form, 
with slightly nacreous interiors and triangular outlines. These mollusks 
were placed by Heude in the genus initio, and by him were named U. 
lauf/uilati and U. aligerus, the latter of which he makes a variety of the 
former, but which seems to me (|uite distinct. The shell has a strong-, 
elevated, sharp ridge running from the beaks to the posterior ventral 
l)ortion, and another more faintly developed behind this, which ends on 
the edge of the dorsal slope, thus making it strongly biangulate behind. 
The young shell, until it is half grown, is sculptured into exceedingly 
strong, concentric ridges, which follow the growth lines, and which, 
in the later growth, become more crowded and less elevated, and are 
covered with a thick lamellar ei)idermis. 

Tlie ligament is enormous; wide, elevated, and rather short, dark 
brown and shining, and composed of concentric scales, which lap over 
each other in a posterior direction, the whole looking like the back of a 
short, stout myriapod. The hinge line in a general way makes a rounded 
sweep, conforming to the high arch of the beaks, but directly under 
them it is incurved. 

In the left valve are two elevations which probably stand for cardinals, 
the anterior being elongated, running inwardly in a diagonal manner 
across the narrow hinge plate, and ending abruptly at the anterior 
muscle scar. Behind this is a vestige of another, much shorter and 
fainter, but running- parallel with the flrst, this being on the incurved 
part of the hinge plate, and just forward of the beaks. 

Beneath the ligament are two strong lamellar laterals, the inner 
much the higher, and with its upper portion strongly curved out- 
ward. Just beneath the posterior part of the ligament this tooth is 
suddenly truncated, but the base extends some distance farther on. 
Kising from the dorsal slope of this large tooth, and growing partly 
out of it, is a smaller, lamellar tooth, truncated abruptly behind, and 
having its upper edge curved outward. 

In the right valve there is a single large lateral, truncated behind, 
curving out at its upper edge, and fitting between the two laterals of 
the left valve. Anteriorly its hinge plate slopes inward, and bears at 
its inner edge a low, somewhat elongated cardinal, running nearly par- 
allel with the outer edge of the shell. From the beaks to a considerable 
distance in front of them is a kind of scaly, folded growth, of modified 
epidermis perhaps, which extends from the outside of the shell half- 
way across the hinge plate, which, in life, no doubt, keeps the dorsal 


l^art of tlie valves a little way apart, and this probably prevents tlie 
teeth from coming in contact. A single dorsal scar can be made out on 
the inner part of each hinge plate in front of the beaks; the posterior 
muscle scars are united, as are the anterior ones, and the palleal line 
is distinct. Nothing is known of the soft parts of this mollusk, but it 
probably belongs to the Unionid;e, as the teeth, nacre, and muscle scars 
agree with those of that family. IJnio languilati, Heude, may be con- 
sidered the type of the genus. 

Genus CRISTARIA, Schumacher. 

In ISl-t Leach ^ bestowed the generic name Dipsas on Anodonta plicata 
(Humphrey), Solander. This name had been used by Laurin 17C8, and 
for that reason could not stand. Barhula, frequently applied to this 
and allied species, is an anonymous catalogue name, attributed to 
Humphrey. Cristaria, bestowed by Schumacher in 1817, ^ will have to 
be applied to the group. It consists of a few species of large, thin, 
usually more or less symphynote Kaiades, inhabiting Chinese and Jap- 
anese Avaters. Usually there is, especially in younger shells, a fair 
development of lateral teeth, which, however, are often entirely wanting 
in old specimens, and occasionally there are rudimentary lamellar cardi-. 
nals. Some of the species have a row of peculiar, small corrugations or 
plications running from the beaks to the outer edge of the dorsal slope. 

I know nothing of the anatomy of this genus,^ but from a careful 
comparison of the shells of several of the species with those of various 
Chinese Unios, I think it probable that they are depaui)erate forms, 
"which have descended from the group typified by U. cumingi., Lea. 
This species often shows plainly a row of plications on the dorsal slope, 
as do G.pUcatus and C. spatiosa. In the Unios of the Cumingi group tlie 
cardinals are often more or less blurred, or nearly wanting in such 
sj)ecies as TJ. delaporti, Crosse and Fischer, U. myersianiis, Lea, and V. 
delphinns^ Lea. Their teeth are sometimes broken up into small denticles 
or nodules, after the manner of those of certain Hyrias. The sui)pres- 
sion of the teeth in the Cristarias is probably caused by the fact that 
they are inhabitants of muddy places and still water, and they do not 
therefore need teeth, as do the Unios which iuliabit streams. ]Maiiy of 
these are abundant in the rice fields of China and Japan. As the group 
seems to be a tolerably natural one, it perhaps may stand as a genus. 
Unio swinhoi, A<lams, of which a shell in the National Museum collection 
(Xo. 850G9) is said to have come from Formosa, is a thin, somewhat 
inflated shell, with greatly compressed, feeble cardinals and laterals, 
and the specimen examined seems very near to Cristaria discoidea, Lea, 

iZool. MiscelL, I, p. 119, 1814. 

^Essai d'un nouv. syst., p. 107, 1817. 

^Tlie auatiOuiy of the species Cristaria plicata lias been woikert up, I believe, tinder 
the title of Dipsas plicata, Lea, l>y Islikewara in his "Introduction to the Anatomy 
of Animals," published in .Fapanese at Tokio. The paper is not accessible to me. 



which, wlien young, has usually well-developed caidiuals. I believe 
both should be placed iu the geuus Unio. Graspedodonta (Kuster, MS.) 
diftersfrom .4?«>rfo/?/a by a peculiar thin lamella at the liinge of the 
left valve, and is founded on Anodonta smanKjdina, Anton. ' 

Th& locality given is uncertain, but Clessiu thinks it may be America. 
The figure represents what is probably an immature shell, of a species 
unknown to me, and is, I think, a young Cristaria with a rather high 
dorsal ridge, which may be C. herculea, Middendorf. 

Genus ARCONAIA, Conrad. - 

In the rivers of China and southeastern Asia certain peculiarities of 
environment seem to exist, which, in some cases, wonderfully modify 
the teeth of bivalves, and in others produce curious distortion. Men- 
tion has been made in this paper of the remarkable vertical striation 
of the teeth of some of the Chinese Unios, a character which is not 
confined to this region, and may be a mechanical development to 
strengthen the shell. A large number of these Unios are strangely 
distorted, of which an account will be given later under the heading 
"Oriental Eegion," in the discussion of geographical distribution. 

In the Arconaias the twisting is both axial and lateral, and I have 
no means of knowing whether or not this contortion is always in the 
one direction. However, in certain species of Unios in the groups 
typified by U. pisciculus, Heude, and U. triformis, Heude, the shells 
may be turned sharply at the posterior end either to the right or the left. 
It is doubtful whether Arconaia is generically distinct from Unio, but 
as the anterior part of the shell is always developed into a little wing, 
and the cardinals difier somewhat from those of any Unio I know of, 
it is perhaps best to let it stand as a genus. According to Deshayes,^ 
A. contorta has the mantle lobes separable as in Unio. 

Genus PSEUDODON, Gould.' 
The species which are now generally included under this generic 
name were placed by Lea and other authors in Monocondylcca—-dn 
unrelated South American genus— on account of the similarity of the 
hinge characters. In most of them a single rounded cardinal tooth or 
tubercle is found in each valve, and there are no laterals present. 
Lequminaia, Conrad, consisting of a few species of compressed iS^aiades 
from southern Europe and western Asia, with vestiges of cardinals, 
which genus was included by Dr. Lea in Monocoiidylcea, is now generally 
regarded as a valid genus, so that all the species I should place in 
Psendodon are confined to southern and eastern Asia, and a few of the 
islands of the Malay Archipelago. _ 

The group, even when separated from Monocomhjkm and Legiiminam, 

MClessiu, in Mart. Chem. Conch. Cab. (Anodonta), p. 93, 1876. 

2Amer. Jonrn. Conchology, I, p. 23i, 1865. 

3 Jouru. de Conch., XXII, p. 85. 

^Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist., p. 161, 1844. 


is not a natural one, and is made up of what are probably depauperate 
Unios of different groups. Desbayes and Julien' state that the animal 
of Monocondylwa {Pseudodon) tuniida, Morelet, is identical in character 
with that of Unto and Anodonta. This is corroborated by Fischer,^ who 
probably based his statement on that made by Deshayes and Julien. 

There seems to be a peculiar tendency on the part of many of the 
Naiades of southern and southeastern Asia to develop aborted or 
imperfect teeth. This is shown in Cristaria; in the groups of Unios 
typified by U. hengalensis and U. senipei'vivens, and in Unio biasianus, 
in which, as has been heretofore mentioned, the laterals are blurred, 
much as in some of the North American Margaritanas. Many of these 
Pseudodons seem by the form of the shell and its general apijearance to 
be closely allied to certain groups of Unios; thus P. planulata^ Lea, 
which has defective laterals and cardinals, is very near in form, texture 
and nacre to Unio marginaUs, Lamarck. However, since so little is 
known of the anatomy of these Oriental forms, it is perhaps best for the 
present to let the genus stand. 

Genus LEGUMINAIA, Conrad.^ 

In 1865 Conrad applied the above generic name to the Monocondyla'a 
mardinensis of Lea. In the following year Vest* gave the name Micro- 
condylcea to AlasmodonUi honelli of Ferussac. From a study of the shells 
I believe the two species, together with a few others in southwestern 
Asia that seem to be nearly related, should be placed in one genus, and 
in that case the name Microcondyhva, which has generally been applied 
to Ferussac's species, must be placed in the synonymy. The shells, for 
the most part, are elongated and compressed, smooth, with slightly cor- 
rugated beaks, and have somewhat the appearance of Spathas. The 
hinge is without laterals, and in place of the cardinals there is in each 
valve a single, low, comj)ressed tubercle or hook. According to Drouet,^ 
the branchial lamelhe of L. honelli are joined on the back; the internal 
are not adherent to the abdominal sac; the external are united to the 
mantle throughout their whole length ; and Clessin states^ that the man- 
tle is open the whole length, and in this respect the animal is like that 
of Unio. Nothing definite is known of the soft parts of the Asiatic 
forms. Pseudanodonta, Bourguignat, is no doubt a synonym. 

Genus TETRAPLODON, Spix.^ 

The above name was applied by Spix to Unio pectitiatus, Wagner, 
which is believed by Lea to be the eqnivalent of Castalia truncatus 
of authors. The name Castalia commonly ai)plied to this genus can 

> Nouv. Arch. Mus. d'Hist. Nat. Paris, X (1874), p. 118. 

2 Man. de Couchyl., p. 1001. 

sAmer. Journ. Conch., I, p. 233, 1865. 

4Verh. n. Mitth. d. Sieben. Ver. f. Natur., 1866, p. 201. 

5 Bull. Soc. Philomathique, 7th Serie, VII, p. 1. 

6 Mai. Bliitt., XXII, p. 129. 

^Testacea Fluviatilia Braziliana, 1827, j). 32, pi. xxv, figs. 3, 4. 



not stand, as it was preoccupied in Vermes by Savigny in 1817. The 
name Frisodou of Schumacber, which is sometimes given to this genus, 
will have to be used, I think, for the symphynote forms belonging to 
the group commonly called Hyria. The systematic position and rela- 
tionships of this group have been discussed in this paper under the head 
of o-eneral classification, and the genus undoubtedly should be placed 
witb the Unionida\ According to Orbigny,^ the animals examnied by 
him had the mantle free the whole length, except in the anal region, 
where it was developed into two short distinct tubes, of which the bran- 
chial was the larger and furnished with cirri. The branchiic were large 
and slightly unequal, and the rounded palpi were very large. 

The Adams Brothers state that the outer gill is united to the mantle 
as far as its extremity, which does not agree with the observations of 
V Ihering. According to this observer, Tetraplodon quadrilatera has 
a'rouude^Ii triangular glochidium without hooks, the embryos being 
developed in the inner gills. 

Genus CASTALINA, v. Ihering.- 

This genus, of which certain characters have already been discussed, 
was founded by its author for a few species of South American Naiades 
which have a somewhat triangular outline and appear to stand about 
midway between Unio and Tetraplodon. The fact, as v. Ihering 
declares that shells of certain species of the group may contain animals 
with an open mantle which are perfect Uiiios, and that others have soft 
parts with closed siphons, and are therefore Tetraplodons, shows that 
there is a very close relation between Vnio and Tetraplodon, and that 
this is a transition group, which, from the characters of the animal alone, 
would not be worthy of generic rank; but the shells are sutficiently 
distinct from both the above genera to be separated without great 


Their cardinals are much like those of Umo, only more numerous, 
and the laterals often have traces of vertical or oblique striation, while 
the posterior ridge is less strong than it is in Castalia, and the shells 
are more compressed. 

Genus PRISODON, Schumacher.^* 

The genus Prisodon included under Section A, P. ohUqtius, Schu- 
macher, which is a species that has since been placed in Lamarck's 
genus Hyria; and under Section B, P. truncatus, Schumacher, a mem- 
ber of another genus, which is now more commonly put in Lamarck's 
Castalia. The excellent figures and descriptions of these species leave 
no doubt that the above conclusion is correct, while the generic descrip- 
tion fairly covers the first sp ecies, and it seems to me, notwithstanding 

Voy. Am. M^r., p. 597. 
^Zool. Anzeiger, 1891, p. 478. 
3E88ai Nouv. Systenie des Habit, vers Testac^^s, 1817, p. 138. pi. xi, tig. -. 


the fact that authors generally have based this genus on F. iruncatus, 
it must be established on P. ohUquns, the first-described species.^ 

The corrugated species of this genus have somewhat radiately sculp- 
tured beaks, while the smooth forms seem to be destitute of beak 

Genus SOLENAIA, Conrad.= 

In southeastern Asia and possibly Australia there is a group of 
remarkable fresh-water bivahes, having a greatly elongated shell and 
foot, and bearing some resemblance to Mycetopiis of South America. 
Lea placed these forms with this genus,^ but in 18G9 Conrad called 
attention to the fact that the shells had a long rudimentary lateral, 
and gave them a generic name, as above. Fischer, in a carefully written 
paper,* places the oriental forms in Mycetopus. The foot of the latter 
genus is enormously developed, cylindrical, and enlarged at its 
extremity like a mushroom. This remarkable configuration of the 
shell and foot are to enable the animal to burrow in the sand or mud, 
where it lives in a vertical position. Fischer communicated with 
Heude in China, who had described a large number of species, and at 
his request the latter gathered all the information possible concerning 
the s])ecies of that country. They, too, have a greatly elongated foot, 
enlarged into a button at its extremity, and burrow in the mud in 
shallow water. Fischer was no doubt deceived by the fact that similar 
environment had i^roduced similar modifications in two unrelated 
groups. Unio dehiscens, Say, of the United States, has an elongated 
shell and a greatly lengthened club-shaped foot, and it also burrows; 
and I have mentioned the case oi Anodonta angulata^ Lea, which buries 
itself in the bottoms of rivers and closely resembles one of Heude's 
species. Unio anodontoides, Lea, a well-known form of the Mississippi 
Valley, was found by Mr. John B. Henderson, jr., in burrows from nine 
to twelve inches deep, in soft mud in the Maramec Eiver, Missouri, with 
the foot greatly distended. Yet none of these are Myceiopus., or at all 
closely related to it. 

The South American species difier considerably in form from those 
of Asia, being generally more rounded i)<>steriorly, their shells smooth 
and of a delicate texture, and having interiorly a wonderfulh' soft, 
pearly nacre, while the oriental forms are rather rough, often concen- 
trically sculptured, and covered with a heavy epidermis; the nacre, 

'Lea applied Schumacher's name Priso^ow to the P. truncatus of that author (Syn- 
opsis of the UnionidiP, p. 27, 1870), stating that this name {I'risodon) could not be 
used for his first species (P. obliquiis) because Klein, in 1753, had given the name 
Triquetra to these symphynote Naiades. As Klein was not a binomial author, Tri- 
quetra can not stand, and the generic name Prisodon will have to be given to /'. obli- 
qitus and the species of that group. Schumacher's Paxyodon, described on page 139 
of the Essai, is also a Prisodon. 

2Amer. Journ, Conch., IV, pt. 4, p. 249, 1869. 

'Synopsis of the Unionida', p. 90. 

"* Journ. de Conch., XXXVIII, p. 93, 1890. (Observations on the genera Mycetopus 
And SoJenaia. Second note.) 


though slightly pearly, i8 dull, and their beaks are plicately sculptured 
so far as I have been able to observe, while those of Mycetopus are 
smooth. All of these Old World forms have a vestige of a lateral 
usually in each valve, while the South American species are either abso- 
lutely edentulous or present slight traces of taxodout teeth. These are 
sometimes so faint and so concealed uuder the external layers of nacre 
that they can only be seen with a strong glass and a good light, but I 
have observed them in several specimens. Besides this the two groups 
are separated by half the diameter of the globe, and I know of none 
found fossil at any intermediate points. 

There is a shell described by Higgins as Mycetopus falcatus,^ which 
he states came from tlie Upper Amazon, but which 1 am inclined to 
believe is oriental. It has the dull color of the recognized species of 
SoJenaia, and the anterior basal portion of the shell is drawn down into a 
curious projecting lobe. M. falcatns might be almost taken for a dimin- 
nutive form of Solenaia soleniformis, Lea, from South; astern Asia. 

Some of the species of Solenaia closely resemble Anodonta angidata 
of California, and it would not surprise me if the young of the former 
might sometimes be found with rudimentary cardinal teeth, or that this 
so-called Anodonta, which seems to be an aberrant form with a strongly 
developed foot, should prove to be a Solenaia. 

Sowerby credits to Australia one species of the genus under considera- 
tion. This is tXia Mycetopus rugatus of Sowerby, described in the Cou- 
chologia Iconica.^ It is irregularly, concentrically wrinkled, and the 
anterior basal portion is somewhat produced, like that of Lea's 71/. 
emarginatus, while the posterior part is wide and obliquely truncated, 
after the manner of Lea's si)e(des, to which it is no doubt closely related. 

If these two genera are separated, Solenaia, which is oriental, being- 
placed in the Unionida', and Mycetopus, a strictly occidental group, in 
the IMutelidie, as I believe they must be, they do not support the theory 
of a connecting antarctic continent, or render it necessary to account 
for their distribution. Ihering has separated the genera as I do, but 
places them both in the Mutelida*.^ 

The following genera have been referred to the Unionid.T, but their 
rank and position are extremely doubtful, or they belong elsewhere, 

AustraUella, Tennison Woods,^ has concentrically sculptured valves, 
but is not nacreous and therefore not a Naiad. 

Jolya, Bourguignat,^ has been placed near Mutela by its author, but 
is probably a marine or brackish water form. 

Byssanodonta, d'Orbigny,"^ of the Parana Eiver, has been often put 
in the Unionidse near Anodonta, but it belongs in the Mytilidae. 

1 Proc. Zool. Soc, London, 1869, p. 179. 

2 Volume XVI, Mycetopus, No. 7, 1868. 

3 Archiv fiir Natnrg., 1893, p. 52. 

♦Trans. Roy. Soc. Vict., XVII, 1881, 1882, p. 82. 
* Lettres Malacologiqnes, pp. 42-44, 1877. 
6 Voy. Aui. M^r., p. 621, 1846. 


Gahillotia, Servain/ is typified by G. pseitdopsis, Locard, of Lake 
Autioch, Syria. I do not know its position. 

Zairia, Eocliebrune,' proposed for Z. (Uscrepans^ Eochebruue, etc., 
from the Congo. 

Coltotopteriim, Bourgiiignat, ' proposed for C.privclarum, Bourguignat, 
is i)robably a form of Anodonta cygnea. The publications containing the 
last tliree genera are not accessible to me. 

From the foregoing descriptions of genera, I am able to deduce a diag- 
nosis of the family Unionidai, which I think will contain all the valid 
genera heretofore described, and which will have to be, in our present 
state of knowledge of the anatomy, founded largely on shell characters. 
These, I think, when understood, are sufBciently distinct and constant 
for use in separating the two families Unionidai and Mutelida^. The 
force of this statement is added to when it is considered that the 
arrangement I propose, which is founded so largely on shell characters, 
fully agrees with what we know of the facts of geographical distribu- 
tion, of the paleontology of the Naiades, and the classification of v. 
Ihering, based on the characters of the embryos. 

Family UNIONID.E. 

Shell usually equivalve and inequilateral, smooth or variously sculp- 
tured, angular or rounded, symphynote or non-symi)hynote, covered with 
a thick epidermis, which may be green, brown, yellowish, black, rayed, 
or variously painted; healcs usucdly sculpUtred with, conceutric ridges, 
corrugations, chevron-shaped or radial patterns, or ])ustules, often show- 
ing remains of the nuclear shell; ligament opisthodetic, well-developed, 
external except when the shell is symphynote, Iiiterior nacreous; with 
or without hinge teeth, hut showing vestiges of them in every genus; when 
present ahrays schizodont and arranged as cardinals, laterals (pseudocar- 
dinals and pseudolaterals), or both; adductor scars generally distinct, 
the anterior commonly impressed ; pallial line simple and generally well 
marked; prismatic border usually narroic and not conspicuous. 

Animal: Labial palpi almost alicays wider than long, having the iipper 
2)arts of the posterior margins united; anal opening usually separated from 
the superanal. Mantle either free or closed posteriorly to form a bran- 
chial opening. Embryo a glochidium, the soft parts being inclosed in a 
pouch-shaped bivalve shell, either with or without hooks, and borne in 
the inner or outer, or in all four leaves of thebranchife, which are modifi;ed 
to form a marsupium.^ 

iBull. Soc. Mai. France, VII, p. 296, 1890. 
"Bull. Soc. Mai. France, III, pp. 1-14, pi. i, 1886. 
8 Bourguignat, Lettres Malaculogiques, pp. 45-48, 1882. 

*In the above description I Lave italicized tbe most important characters, and those 
which contrast most strongly with the same in the Mutelidie. 


The following is a list of genera which I place in this family : 

Unio, Ketzius. 

Anodonta, (Brugui^re em.) Lamarck. 

Frisodon, Schumacher. 

Tetraplodon, Spix. 

Castalina, v. Iheriug. 

Burtonia, Bourguignat. 

Arconaia, Courad. 
Cristaria, Schuiuacher. 
Lepidodesma, Simpsou. 
Fseudodon, Gould. 
Leguminaia, Conrad. 
Solenaia, Conrad. 

Family MUTELID.E. 
Genus MUTELA, Scopoli.' 

As yet, we know very little of the anatomy of this or several other 
groups of African Naiades, and upon shell characters alone it seems 
difticnlt to decide whether this should be united with Spatha or kept 
separate. Typically the shells are quite distinct; those of Mutela 
being thin, elongated, and often furnished with quite well-developed 
taxodont teeth; while those of Spatha are solid, oval or oblong in out- 
line, and have only a low, compressed tubercle or short ridge on the 
hinge line. But there are species which are so completely intermediate 
that it is very difficult to say to which group they belong. Most of them 
have unusually soft, brilliant nacre, generally inclining to bluish in the 
characteristic Mutelas, and to coppery in the Spathas. According to 
Clessiu,^ the mantle lobe of Mutela is united as far as the middle of the 
ventral margin; the animal has two stout siphons, and the shell gapes 
in front. Fischer states^ that the palpi are long, curved and rounded 
at their extremities, and that the external branchijie are united to the 
mantle throughout. Adams Brothers'* say that in Mutela the inner gill 
is entirely united to the foot, while in Spatha it is free. If this distinc- 
tion could be proved to be good throughout, it would be a sufficient 
character on which to base the two genera, but in Unto it is well known 
that the union of the inner gill with, or its separation from the foot, or 
the connection of the outer gill with the mantle, is very variable. 

Mutela dubia, Gmelin, shows two or more slightly compressed eleva- 
tions on the hinge line, especially in the left valve, and sometimes 
smaller denticles, while in ^[. exotica, Lamarck, the Avhole hinge line 
is often strongly crenulated. 

The name Mutelhia, which was proposed by Bourguignat'"' as a genus 
to include Anodonta senegalensis^ Lea, and Mutela roHtrata, liang, is 
synonymous with Mutela and Spatha. 

'Intr. Hist. Nat., p. 397, 1777. 

^Kuster, Couch. Cabinet, IX, 1. Abth., p. 191. 

3 Man. de Couch., p. 1004. 

^The Genera of Recent Mollusca, II, pp. 505-507. 

^Esp. nouv. et gen. nouv. des grands Lacs Africains, p. 488, 1885. 



Ill 1886 Eochebrune '^ established the generic name Chelidoneura for 
Mutela arietina, Eochebrune. The name having been used previously for 
a moUusk of the family Philinidie, Ancey changed it to that given above. 
I have not seen C. arietina, but a fine specimen of C. hirmido, v. Martens 
(which Eochebrune included in his genus), is in the National Museum 
collection, and is certainly a peculiar shell. It has the anterior dor- 
sal part developed into a sharp point like a PHsodon or Arconai<(, and a 
curious, elevated wing-like carina running from the beaks to about the 
middle of the posterior end, which most decidedly gapes, with a sort 
of diamond-shaped opening. Just in front of the posterior end each 
ridge is developed into a tubular spine, which, in the specimen I have 
seen, is nearly half an inch in height. One of these, in the shell 
examined, is closed by shelly matter; the other opens into the interior. 
The whole is covered with a thin, smooth epidermis, and in texture 
and color strongly recalls Mutela. 

Genus SPATHA, Lea.'' 

This genus has been discussed under the head of Mutela. While 
most of the shells have a rich coppery nacre and are smooth externally, 
one species, which may perhaps be placed here, Spatha vignoniana, 
Bernardi, is of a greenish lurid texture throughout, and has the sur- 
face sculptured into a sort of reticulated and zigzag pattern, the only 
instance I know in which a Mutelid is truly sculptured. There is a low 
groove running down along the dorsal slope in this species, and the 
posterior end is somewhat angulated, I believe that the African Xaiads, 
which were referred by the older authors to Anodonta, belong in this 
group or in Mutela, and that no true members of the former genus are 
found south of the Sahara. While most authors agree that Spatha has 
the mantle developed into siphons, yet in ;S'. {Anodonta) chaiziana, 
Eang, the branchial opening is not closed.* 

According to Clessin,^ the lamiuie of the gills are united in perpen- 
dicular rows. 

The shell of S. alata., Lea, shows slight nodules in certain specimens 
embedded under the external nacre along the hinge line, which are no 
doubt vestiges of taxodont teeth. 

Monceti((, Bourguignat,*' is quite likely a groiip of compressed 
Spathas, which may possibly be worthy of subgeneric rank. Its author 
states that the beaks are smooth; that there is a tubercular eminence 
on the hinge line of the right valve in the cardinal region, without a cor- 

' Conchologist's Exchange, II, p. 22, 1887. 

- S. B. Nat. Fr., 1886, pp. 3-5, pi. i, figs. 1-4. 

3 Trans. Phil. Soc, VI (n. s.), 1858, p. 141, footnote. Type, S. rubena, Lea. 

•• See Lea's Synopsis of the Unioniihi", p. 79, 1870. 

s Kuster, Conch. Cab., part 234, p. 184. 

^Esp. uouv. et gen. uonv. dee Lacs Africains, pp. 34-36, 1885. 


responding- one in the left, and a smooth hiteral lanielhi as in Margari- 
tuna; that it has two ligaments, both internal, and three groups of mus- 
cular impressions. The figures represent what seem to be diseased or 
stunted specimens, and I can not say where the group should be placed, 
never having seen shells of it. It may not be a Mutelid, or even a 

Genus PLEIODON, Conrad.' 

This genus, consisting of a few African species, has been much con- 
founded in time past. Courad gave it the above name in 1834, and it 
seems to me to be perfectly distinct from all others. In 1871 Gill placed 
the species with the genus Tridina (which is synonymous with Miitela) 
in a separate family,- which he called Iridinida?, while Fischer ^ makes 
Pk'iodon a mere section of the genus Mntela. The shells are solid, ovate 
in outline and inflated, with smooth, shining, greenish epidermis, and 
the teeth, which are irregularly taxodont, are strong, usually somewhat 
oblique anteriorly, and more or less perfectly V-shaped posteriorly, 
their bases pointing forward. In the middle of the hinge they are 
often broken and blurred, sometimes crossing the hinge plate in zigzag 
lines. The teeth in young shells are often quite oblique. 

Pelseneer,^ in an able paper on the anatomy of Pleiodon, states that the 
labial palpi are semilunar, with along, straight attachment; that the 
gills divide the pallial chamber into two quite distinct spaces, so that 
there are three openings into the mantle cavity — pedal, branchial, and 
anal. It has a closed branchial .siphon, and the mantle border is united 
for some distance Ibrward. 

Cameronia of Bourguignat^ is based on characters which, according 
to the above writer, vary much in different individuals, and I doubt 
whether it is a valid genus. The shells are solid, inflated, with a heavy 
hinge plate, in which the teeth are somewhat taxodont, as in Pleiodon. 
Bourguignat claims distinction on account of its having elongated 
anterior teeth, a character which is not shown in many of the specimens 
he ligures. In the shells I have seen, the hinge seems to be diseased, 
the teeth are blurred, and the plate is somewhat split up anteriorly, but 
crenulated, and I should hesitate before calling these ridges lamellar 
teeth. I should not give the group, at most, more than subgeneric rank 

Genus BHAZZJEA, Bourguignat.*^ 

Inflated, thin, shining, toothless shells, with smooth beaks, having a 
purplish interior, and numerous (4 or more) deep dorsal cicatrices. 
There is a strong, triangular escutcheon at the end of the ligament, and 

1 Journ. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., VII, 1834, p. 178. 

-Arrangement of the Families of Mollnsks, Smith. Misc. Coll., 227, p. 20. 

•' Miumel de Couch., p. 1004. 

^Bull. Mns. Belg., IV, pp. 116-128. 

■'■'Moll. Nyauza Out., p. 19, 1883. 

6Esp. iiouv. et gen. nouv. des Lacs Africains, pp. 32-34, 1885. 

Troc. N. M. !>.-) 21 


the left valve is dorsally winged, while tlie right is not. I have not 
seen any of these singular shells, but from the lignres and descriptions 
I should think the genus was a valid one, and that it belonged with 
the Mutelidie. It was proposed for B. anceyi, by Bourguignat. 

Chamhardia of Bourguignat, a new name for the Egyptian Iridinas,^ 
probably contains nothing which can not be satisfactorily placed in 
other genera. The publication in which the genus is proposed is not 
accessible to me. All the foregoing genera of Mutelidie are from 
Africa south of the Sahara desert, with the exception of the Mle, which 
is peopled with these forms to the Mediterranean. Some of the species 
extend south into the Cape region. 

Genus GLABARIS, Gray.^ 

This generic name has been adopted by the Adams Brothers, von 
Ihering, and others, for South American Naiades with edentulous hinges, 
which had until 1847 been placed in Anodonta. So far as I know, no 
true Anodontas are found south of Mexico, all the Central and South 
American forms I have seen being undoubtedly members of the genus 
Glaharls. The shells of this group, though resembling those of Ano- 
donta in the fact that they are without teeth, are really (juite distinct, 
and when once the differences are understood, there need be no diffi- 
culty in distinguishing them. 

The shells of Glabaris are usually of more solid structure than those 
of Anodonta, and some of them are covered with the j)eculiar clothlike 
epidermis which is found on a number of the Monocondyljeas. The 
nacre is of a peculiarly soft, often brilliant and iridescent texture, in 
strong contrast to the lusterless interiors of most of the Anodontas. In 
a few of the species typified by G. tenehricosa^ it is a sort of lurid greenish 
hue, but in these its tints are soft and rich. Frequently slightly ele- 
vated rays reach out from the cavity of the beaks, especially in those 
with the brightest nacre. There is in nearly all cases a well-defined and 
tolerably broad border of the prismatic layer shown around the inside 
of the shell, which is generally darker in tint than the nacre, and often 
semi-transparent. In the G. lato-mnryinata group this is especially dark 
ajid broad, being often as much as a quarter of an inch in width. It is 
caused by the fact that the mantle does not deposit nacre to the border 
of the shell. Traces of taxodont teeth have been noticed in some of the 
South American species by v. Ihering and the writer, and these are 
sometimes j)resent in G. granadensis of Nicaragua. 

According to d'Orbigny,^ Iridina {Glabaris) trapesialis, Lamarck, and 
other allied species, are characterized by having distinct siphons, while 
in G. membranaeea, Orbiguy, which probably is the same as G. lato- 
marginata, Lea, the borders of the mantle are free at the siphonal 

1 Bourguignat, in Servain, Bull. Soc. Mai. France, VII, pp. 304-315, 1890. 
'^Proc. Zool. Soc, London, 1847, p. 197. 
3Voy. Amer. Mcrid., pp. 596, 617. 



region. The embryo, as v. Iheriug has shown, is a lasidium. By the 
characters of the shell most of the Glahnris are closely rehitod, and v. 
Ihering has placed these two species in tlie same gronp. Here, tlien, 
in another genus, is an example of the great variation of siphonal 
development in closely related forms, which helps to prove that the 
character is not constant. Dr. Lea found that in G. (ri/mani, Lea, and G. 
l((to-marginata. Lea, the branchiiv were united their whole lengtli to the 
ab<lominal sac, and the palpi of both were rounded, and he stated that 
in this latter respect they differed from all N^orth American Anodontas 
he had examined. Tlie superaual opening was not united below. And 
in Glabaris streheli, Lea, of Mexico, which is closely allied to the South 
American forms, he found the same kind of rounded i^alpi which were 
united only above. The genus is distributed from central Mexico all 
through Central and South America to Patagonia, but has not been 
found west of the Andes, though a number of Unios are met with in 
that region. 

Genus LEILA, Gray.' 

Conchologically Leila is very close to Glabaris. The color, form and 
texture of the shells are the same as in species of the Trapezialis group 
of Glabaris. and, like most of those forms, they gape more or less in 
the anterior ventral region. According to von Ihering Leila has siphons,^ 
and the pallial line in most specimens is quite deeply and broadly 
indented in the siphonal region. But the latter character is often found 
in a less degree in the shells of Glabaris trapezialis and its allies, espec- 
ially G. sinuata and G. anserina. Both Jjeila esula and L. blainvilleana 
occasionally show vestiges of taxodont teeth near the beaks. The 
range of the genus is much the same as that of Glabaris, but I do not 
know of its having been found in North America. 

Genus MONOCOND YL^^A, d'Orbigny.'' 

This group was first described as a subgenus of Unio, and was 
afterwards given generic rank in the author's great work on the mol- 
lusks of South America. 

Sjiix's name, Aplodon,* was preoccupied by Eafinesque, in Heliacea 
in 1819, and therefore it must be relegated to the synonymy. 

The shells of this group are generally solid, with a rather rough, 
brownish or greenish, cloth-like epidermis. The right valve has a large 
tooth opposite the beak, and a smaller one some distance forward of it. 
The large tooth of the left valve fits the space between, and there are 
occasionally small scattered denticles on the hinge plate. According 
to d'Orbigny,^ Moiiocondyhca gitarayana, d'Orbigny, has long, rounded 

'Syu. Brit. Mus., 1840, p. 142. 

2Zool. Anzeiger, Nos. 380, 381, p. 2, 1891. See also Fischer, Man. de Conch., p. 1005. 

Hiuer. Mag. Zool. CI., V, No. 62, p. 37, 1835. 

"Test. Fluv. Braz., pi. xxv, figs. 1, 2, 1827. 

^Voy. Amer. Mer., pi. Lxviii, fig. 7. 


labial x)alpi, which are attached in a curved line above, and which are 
not united posteriorly. Otherwise the animal does not seem to differ 
greatly from that of TJnio. 

Genus FOSSULA, Lea.' 

In 1870, Lea separated Monocondylcea fossieulifera, d'Orbigny, from 
the genus in which it had been formerly placed, and gave it the above 
generic name. The shell is solid, and externally quite closely resembles 
that of Glabaris lato-marginatH, Lea, but tlie hinge is peculiar. In that 
of the left valve there are two distinct humps, with a depression between, 
which latter is opposite the beak. In the right there is a large, blunt 
elevation which fits into this depression of the left valve; then behind 
this is a pit, and still behind it a smaller hump. Frequently a smaller 
set of denticles are seen above one or more of the pits, which project 
into a sort of ligament in the up])er part of the hinge. This latter 
character is shown more i)laiuly in a species recently named F. hulzani 
by V. Ihering. The animal is said by this author to scarcely differ 
from that of Glabaris ^^ 

Genus IHERINGELLA, Pilsbry.' 

In 1859, Lea applied the name Flag iodon* to Monocondylcea isocardi- 
oides, Lea, but as that name liad been i)reoccupied by Dumeril in rep- 
tilia(1835), Pilsbry proi)osed the mime I he ring elJ a for it, in honor of the 
eminent biologist von Ihering, who has done such excellent work among 
the iSTaiades. The type, P. isocardioides, Lea, resembles in form an 
Isocardw. The hinge appears as if injured, like that of uMargaritana. 
In the right valve are two irregular teeth under the beak, and a broken, 
saddle-shaped tooth in the left valve fits in between them. In each 
valve there are pseudolaterals which start under the beak and slope 
downward across the plate, and the whole surface of the hinge is cov- 
ered — teeth and all — with irregular wrinkles and pustules. Concho- 
logically it seems most closely related to Monocondijliva. The nacre has 
a peculiarly soft, greenish hue. The animal is unknown. 

Genus MYCETOPODA, d'Orbigny.-' 

Orbigny first applied the above name to M. Soleniformis, Orbigny, 
and M. Siliquosus, Orbigny, characterizing the genus in a proper man- 
ner, and afterwards, in the "Voyage Amerique Meridionale," changed 
the name without explanation to Mgcetopus^ by which it is generally 
known. The former name wdl, 1 am sorry to say, have to supersede 
the latter. 

' Synopsis of the UnionidiB, p. 72, 1870. 
^Archiv fiir Naturgeschichte, I, pt. 1, p. 65, 1893. 
sKautilus, VII, No. 3, p. 30, 1893. 
"Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., VIII, p. 79. 
Hiuer. Mag. Zool. CI., V, No. 62, p. 41, 1835. 


I bave discussed the genus somewliat at length under the head of 
Solenaia in this paper, and nothing more need be said regarding the 

The palpi, as in other genera of the Mutelidre, are longer than wide. 
The mantle is open all around, there being no distinct branchial si[)hon. 
The anal siphon is only indicated by an oval aperture witli a low border, 
and it is separated from the branchial opening by a sort of bridge. The 
branchia" are very large, and the Adams Brothers state that the outer 
ones are entirely grown together.' 

The foot is an enormous and greatly modified organ, very long and 
cylindrical, and near the lower part contracted like the neck of a bot- 
tle. From this the base swells out into a large l)utton, which d'Orbigny, 
in the magnificent figure in his great work on South American niol- 
lusks, has represented as covered with low, rounded protuberances. 
The wall of the burrow corresponds to the shape of the animal, being 
narrowed in near the button and expanded above and below, and the 
foot could not be withdrawn unless its lower end was contracted. The 
unionoid characters of the animal have induced some authors to place 
it in the UnionidiTe: l)y others it has been considered the type of a sep- 
arate family, Mycetopodida?.^ But as it is known that other unrelated 
ISfaiades burrow in the same way, some of which have a strikingly similar 
foot, and that the shell has a wonderfully soft, silvery nacre, and that 
it never has a vestige of cardinal or lateral teeth, but sometimes faint 
traces of taxodont denticles, I think it may be safely placed in the 
Mutelidffi. The genus is found from southern Brazil northward to 
Central America. It may be here remarked that all the members of 
the Mutelid* as herein classified are confined to Africa and South 
America, with the exception of a few Glabans, which go up as far north 
as southern Mexico, and a single Central American Myeetopoda. 

From the foregoing characters of the difierent genera placed in the 
Mutelida^ we may deduce the following family description: 

Shell generally without sculpture or angularities, smooth or rarely 
slightly sulcate, covered with a tliick epidermis; beaks nearli/ or quite 
destitnte of scKl2)ti(re, and never e.vltibitinf/ the remains of an embryonic 
shell; nacre of a peculiarly soft, rich texture, silvery, coppery, lurid or 
greenish, f/enerally surrounded by a wide, distinct prismatic border; hinge 
with or without teeth, which, when present, are always irrcyularly taxo- 
dont, and showhifj vestiges of this Mnd of dentition in occasional specimens 
in all the genera; escutcheon large, triangular, and distinctly marked; 
muscular impressions variable; pallial line usually simple, but in some 
cases more or less inflected into a sinus posteriorly. 

Animal: Labial palpi large, oval or rounded below, and usually ?t'/7/t- 
out free points, scarcely united posteriorly ; outer gills attached lirnily on 
each side to the mantle and abdomen, so that the suprabranchial cham- 

'Geneia of Recent Mollusks, II, p. 504. 

^Gray bestowed this iiuiue iu the "Syuopsia of the British Museum" in IS40. 



ber ending in the anal siphon is completely separated from the mantle 
cavity; a7ial and superanal eavity ioiifed, continuing hacl'ward over the 
adductor muscle into a superanal chamber. Mantle open or closed into 
more or less perfect siphons, sometimes united for some distance forward. 
Embryo a lasidium, composed of three segments, the anterior head-like, 
the median bearing a single shell, the posterior tail-like. 

It will be seen from the above that the characters of the soft parts 
are qnite variable, and I have italicized those in both shell and animal 
which seem to most constantly differ from the same in the TJnionid;p. 
It is very probable that with a more thorough anatomical knowledge 
of the Naiades the descriptions will have to be a good deal modified.^ 

The following is a list of the genera I place in this family: 

Mtttela, Scopoli. 
Chelidonopsis, Ancey. 
Spofha, Lea. 
PJeiodoii, Conrad. 
Brazziva, Bourguignat. 

Glabaris, Gray. 
Iheringella, Pilsbry. 
Monocondylwa, d'Orbigny. 
Fossula, Lea. 
Mycetopoda, d'Orbigny. 

Although in time past the Naiades or pearly fresh -water mussels 
have often been placed in a single family, and though even v. Ihering, 
whose recent classification of the genera is, I believe, a natural one, 
has placed the two groups, Unionidie and Mutelidie, in one super- 
family, and notwithstanding the fact that there are a few genera whose 
position on account of our lack of knowledge is doubtful, yet I think 
it quite probable that the relationship between these two great groups 
is not a very close one. 

It is true that the animals themselves do not seem to altogether 
bear out this assertion. The character of the jn-esence or absence of 
siphons, on which the families have generally been founded is, as I think 
I have conclusively shown, utterly variable and worthless. There is 
usually some distinction in the form and the union or nonunion of the 
labial i)a]ps, but these characters are not perfectly constant, and even 
if they always held good, they would be of little importance. Ihering 
is authority for the statement that in all the South American and Afri- 
can Mutelidie (and all the genera belong in these two continents) the 
outer gill-leaves on each side are firmly attached both to the mantle 
and abdomen, thus completely separating the suprabranchial cavity 
from that of the mantle back to the anal opening.. This, however, 
according to that most excellent authority, occasionally occurs in the 
Unionidic of the northern hemisphere. 

'There will doubtless be found great variation in the matter of union of the mantle 
and gills in many other Pelecypods. Jackson observed in some specimens of Perna 
. epliippinm that the two pairs of gills were separated from one another throughout 
their length, whereas in other specimens the two median gills were connected by c<m- 
crescence at their dorsal border, thus uniting the two pairs as in Ostrea. The degree 
of union varied indifferent specimens, the gills being united for their whole extent, 
or only posteriorly. (Phylogeuy of the Pelecypoda. Mem. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist., 
IV, No. VIII, p. 326, 1890.) 


It is in tlie cliaracters of the embryo and the shell that we And the 
great vital distinctions between these families. In the Tiiionida^ the 
embryo, perhaps without exception, is a (jlochiclimn, whicli is probably 
characteristic of the nepionic stage of all the genera in the family. 
The embryo of the South American Mutelid;e has., wherever examined 
by V. Ihering, proved to be a lasidium, and, although perhaps the 
relation of the African mutelid groups may not be so close to those 
of South America as is that of the latter among themselves, yet I 
have no doubt that their embryos will prove to be something very 
much like a lasidium. This peculiar stage is, so far as I know, entirely 
unique among Pelecypods, and though by the character of taxodont 
teeth the mutelids show afdnities for yucula, Area, Pectunculus, and 
the like, yet by the evidence of their embryos they seem wholly unre- 
lated to any other lamellibranchs. 

The irregularly taxodont teeth which characterize the Mutelidai are 
totally different from the schizodont teeth, which are found more or 
less developed in every genus of the Unionidic. The peculiar cartilage 
l)its of Fossuhi resemble to some extent those in Perna, and suggest a 
possible distant relationship with this and allied genera. On the other 
hand, it would seem reasonable to suppose that the unionids had their 
closest afllnity witli other schizodont families. 


In mapping out the general distribution of the ]S^aiades, although they 
are all contiued to the fresh waters of the globe, it will be found that 
they fall into provinces something in the same way as do the other 
members of the animal kingdom. So nearly do these areas coincide in 
a number of cases with those of generally recognized regions of animal 
life, that in several instances I have applied the same names to them. 
To a considerable extent, as would be expected, these divisions of 
Naiad life are bounded by the sea, by deserts, and mountain chains 
which act as watersheds for different river systems. Yet none of these 
in all cases effectually restrict the distribution of the fresh- water mus- 
sels; and it is true that in several instances the borders of a xvTaiad 
region are not marked by any tangible natural barriers. 

The Palearetie Eegion. — This, the largest region of Xaiad life, includes 
in a general way the whole of Europe, Africa (excepting the Nile), north 
of the Desert of Sahara ; all of Asia north of the Stanovoi and Altai 
Mountains, including, probably, the greater part of Afghanistan and 
Beloochistan, Persia, Arabia, and Asia Minor; and all of North America 
that is drained into the Pacific. This vast region, covering an area of 
perhaps 10,000,000 square miles, is inhabited by a single and remark- 
ably homogeneous Naiad fauna. One si)ecies characteristic of this 
province, Unio margaritiferus, Linnaius, is found in all parts of Europe 
except the region along the Mediterranean; also throughout Siberia; 
in northern Japan, wliich stands on the border between this and the 
Oriental region, and in that i);irt of this i)rovince in North America 


lying north of about 40°; occupjang in all an area in the palearctic 
region of something like 9,000,000 square miles. The Amoor River, 
which takes its rise in Siberia and Mongolia south of the Stanovoi 
range, has a mixed ISTaiad fauna whose characters partake of the 
Pahearctic and Oriental provinces. Vnlo pictorum, a species common 
to all Europe and Siberia, is found at Khabarovka, in the Amoor 
Talley, as well as Anodonta magnijica, Lea, A. cellensis, Scliroeter, and 
A. pJicata, Solander, which is synonymous with Crisfaria discoideus of 
Lea, the latter three being common to Cbina.^ 

According to Middendorf,' Anodonta hercule((, Middendorf, a Japan- 
ese species, which is a Cristaria; Unio monf/olicus, Middendorf (=t':«/o 
marfiaritiferus, Linnfeus'O^ sbud Anodonta cellensis, Schroeter, are found 
in the Amoor region. His Unio complaitatu.s, Solander, a common New 
•England species, which he credits to Siberia, is, according to his figures, 
without lateral teeth, and appears to be a stunted form of Unio mar- 

Schrenck ' gives the following list of species of the Amoor Valley:* 

* TJnio mongolicus, Middendorf. 

* U. {Marg.) dahttricus, Middendorf. 

* Anodonta anatina, Linnn'us. 
*A. cellensis, Schroeter. 

Unio grajifntus. Lea. 

*U. piciorum, Linnieus. 

*Unio (Marg.) margaritifcrus, Liinnxixs. 

Anodonta pJicata, Solander. 

A. magnifica, Lea. 

His U7iio grayamis is certainly not that species, but a shorter, heavier 
shell, belonging, however, to an Oriental group; and the Ufiio mongo- 
licm is most likely a form of Unio margaritiferus with imperfect laterals. 

The southern limit of the Pahearctic Region in North America can 
not be accurately given, but it probably extends to near the Isthmus 
of Tehuantepec, as one of the common Oaliforniau Anodontas has been 
found in Oaxaca. 

In all this vast area there are perhaps not uiore than 50 valid species 
of Naiades, which belong to the genera Unio, Leguminaia, Anodonta., 
and the species of Cristaria alluded to, though the new school of 
conchologists have considerably multiplied the genera and have run the 
specific names up into the thousands. The species are, for the most 
part, small to medium in size, without conspicuous sculpture or angles, 
or, as a rule, any bright patterns of coloring. 

The group of Anodontas typified by the well-known A. cygnea, Liu- 
nfeus, is distributed over this entire region, all the forms found in the 
Pacific drainage of North America either belonging to it or being, 
I think, closely related. One species, A. yukonensis, Lea, from the 
Yukon River, Alaska, is absolutely identical with specimens of Ano- 

'On the authority of Moussou (Journ. de Conch., XXVII, p. 26). 
^Malacoz. Rossica, Sib. Keise, 1847-1851, p. 273. 
sReiseu und Forsch. im Amur-Lande, 1854-1856, p. 694. 

■•Those belongine, properly to the palearctic region I have characterized by an * ; the 
others are Oriental species. 


doiita hcr'nu liana, MicUlendort", collected by J)r. Dall at Petropaulovski, 
Kaiiichatka. This I have verified by comparing- the types with Dr. 
Dairs shells. 

Inio ravistissus, Kobelt, of Afg'hauistan, appears to be a member of 
one of the great European groups. Two Uuios have been credited to 
Oregon, U. famelicus of Gould, and U. oregonensis of Lea. The types of 
both of these species are in the jSTational Mnseum collection, and I can 
say without hesitation that the former is a young shell of U. multi- 
striatKfi, Lea, of Brazil, while the latter is only an old, rather large 
and solid T\ roirelli, Lea, of Central America. Unio marfjaritiferiis, 
Linnauis, is the only species of the genus known at present in the 
Pacific drainage of i^Torth America. 

Although there is a slight mingling of the forms of this and the 
Oriental regions in the Amoor Valley and northern Jai)au, I only know 
of one group, represented by a single species, belonging to the Pahe- 
arctic i)rovince which is extralimital, this being Unio margaritiferus, 
Linnaeus, which is found in the Upper Missouri of the Mississippi area, 
and in eastern Canada and New England of the Atlantic drainage. 
Of its distribution, more will hereafter be said. On the other hand, 
I do not know of a single Naiad belonging to any other province, which 
is found within this great region. 

The Ethiopian Region. — All the continent of Africa lying south of the 
Desert of Sahara, including the Nile to its mouth, is peopled by a 
common assemblage of Naiad life. The only genera of the TTnionid<e rep- 
resented in this region are Unio, which is distributed over the whole 
territory, and Biirtonia (if it be a valid genus), with a few species con- 
lined, so far as is known, to the region of the Great Lakes. All the 
Uuios are small to medium in size, and are not particularly striking in 
any way. A large proportion of them are more or less covered with 
slight zigzag or reticulated delicate sculpture, and in this particular, as 
well as in form and texture, they recall the LTnios of India. This is 
especially true of the forms known from the Cape region. A few 
species which 1 have not seen, have been reported on rather doubtful 
evidence from Madagascar. 

Within this area are found five genera of the Mutelidie: Mutela, 
^patha, and Pleiodon, having a wide distribution, and Brazzmi and Cke- 
lidonopsis, which are probably more restricted. Little is known as yet 
of the Naiades of this great territory, but long ago it was remarked by 
Morelet that the fauna, including the land and fresh-water mollusks of 
this entire region, was remarkably homogeneous. Several of the groups 
of Unio and of the Mutelidaj appear to be distributed over the greater 
part of the province. So far as I know, no species or group of the 
Naiades belonging within it is found outside of the region, nor is there 
an immigrant from any other area within its borders. Tlie ocean and 
the Desert of Sahara appear to be absolute barriers to the ingress or 
egress of Naiad life. 

The Oriental Region. — All that part of Asia lying south of the great 


Thibetan plateau, including, probably, the Indus on the west and the 
Hoang-Ho on the northeast, is inhabited by a peculiar Unioue fauna. 
With this region must be included Japan, Ivorea, Manchooria, Formosa, 
the Philippines, and probably all the islands of the Malay Archipelago, 
which are peopled with Naiad life, to and including the Solomon group. 
The genus Unio is everywhere abundant throughout this area, and 
Pseudodon is common to nearly all of it. A magnificent set of Ano- 
dontas is developed in northern China, and in this region Cristaria, 
Lepidodesma and Arconaia are found. Solenaia inhabits the greater 
part of the area. 

Dr. Lea was led to believe that two or three of the Unios of the 
southern part of this region were found in Australia, but later he was 
convinced that this was an error, and that no species of the two fam- 
ilies is common to the Oriental and Australia]) regions. The Xaiad 
fauna of this region is magnificent and diversified, and almost rivals 
that of the Mississippi Valley in vigor, size, solidity and variety of forms. 
Both Dr. C. A. White and von Ihering believe that the Unios and 
Anodontas of this area are closely related to those of the central part 
of North America. Not only does there seem to be a general relatiou- 
shij) among a large number of the Naiads of this province with those 
of the Mississippi basin, but several Oriental groups are apparently so 
close to those of our own region that it is well-nigh impossible to sei)a- 
rate them. Thus, the Asiatic Anodontas typified by A. icoodiana. Lea, 
il found in the United States, would be placed by most students with 
A. plana; the Chinese Unios of the group of U. housei, Lea, and myers- 
ianus, Lea, are evidently quite near the Alatus assemblage j Unio 
SKperhus, Lea, is very much like our f7. capax, Green, and a number of 
the tuberculate forms of China could almost be placed in the American 
groups of U. lachrymosus and U. pustulosus. 

Certain peculiarities of shell growth are remarkable among the Naiades 
of this entire region. One of these is the loss or partial degeneration 
of the hinge teeth, and another is the remarkable development of ver- 
tical tooth striation, to both of which attention has already been called 
in this paper. The third is the singular contortion of many of the spe- 
cies, of which there are three varieties. The first and simplest is a mere 
bending of the posterior part of the shell, either to the left or right, 
something like that of a Tellma^ which is seen in two or three groups of 
elongated Chinese species. Some of these forms are bent into a strong 
curve. The second is a twisting of the shell on its axis, which occurs 
in the Arconaias and some of the Unios.' These two forms of distortion 
may occur in the same species. The third and most strange form of 
irregular growth is seen in a number of very solid, oval and somewhat 

^ Arconaia provancheriana, Pilsbrr, which is twisted on its axis like a Parallelo- 
pipedon, is no doubt a distorted form of Vnio complanatus, Solander, from Canada, 
and does not come from China, as has been surmised. (See Naturaliste Canadien, 
XIX, p. 171, 1889.) 


13ustnlous species, in which one valve appears as if it had beeu puslied 
downward when in a plastic state, and is always less inflated than the 
opposite one. 

These peculiarities are not characteristic of entire groups, as they 
may be met with in one species and absent in closely related forms. 

The Australian Region. — Australia, Tasmania and IsTew Zealand are 
peopled with a very distinct set of ]SIaiades, consisting, with the excep- 
tion of the single Solenaia which has been referred to the former 
island, of Unios only. It may be possible that when Kew Guinea is 
thoroughly explored, some of the peculiar species of Fnios found in 
Australia may be discovered, as it is believed that these two islands 
were connected during Tertiary time. Only a moderate number of 
species are found in this region, as Australia has few streams, and all, 
or nearly all, of them either go dry or are reduced to mere disconnected 
pools in time of drought. In general, the shells of this region are oval in 
outline, smooth, of a dull greenish olive or brownish tint, and without 
other patterns of color marking. Some of the forms have a slight 
development of concentric ridges, and only two species are known 
which have any other sculpture: U. cucmnoides, Lea, which is some- 
what tuberculous, and U. napeanensis, Conrad, which has rather sharp, 
pointed knobs or corrugations, extending out for some distance from 
the beaks. Unio dorsuosus, Gould, the type of which is in the Museum 
collection (Xo. .5925), is, I have no doubt, a young U. napeanensis^ and 
is said to have come from the Fiji Islands.^ 

At the beaks of this shell the sculpture is imperfectly radial, much 
resembling that of the South American species. The very few perfect 
beaks of Unios of this region which I have seen, have a somewhat zig- 
zag or curved radial sculpture, indicating, as do the form and color of 
the shells and the similarity of the soft parts, a close relationship with 
the South American species. The so-called Alasmodonta sfuarfi, from 
Australia, is merely a Unio with compressed, feebly developed teeth. 
No si)ecies of this region is known to be extralimital, and the Solenaia, 
if really from Australia, is the only member of a foreign group repre- 
sented in this region. 

The Mississippi Region. — All the waters that are carried to the Gulf 
of Mexico through the Mississippi River are filled with a common 
assemblage of Xaiades, consisting of Unios and Anodontas. In fact, 
this fauna occupies almost exclusively all the streams emptying into 
the Gulf, from the Rio Grande on the west to the Chattahoophee River 
on the east, and beyond this either the species of this region or those 
belonging to its groups are scattered from Central America to North 
Carolina. To the northward, other species or members of groups 
belonging here have jiassed into New England and extended down to 

1 Gould says (U. S. Expl. Exp., XII, p. 431): "This shell was inartetl Fiji Islands, 
probably by some accident, as I doubt not that it canie from eastern Asia." It is no 
doubt an Australian, and not an Asiatic or Polynesian species. 


soutberu Virginia and even into Georgia. The Red River of the ]S^orth, 
the Mackenzie, the (Ireat Lakes, most of the lower peninsula of Michi- 
gan, and the southernmost portion of Canada are, for the most part, 
l^eopled with Mississippi Valley species. 

Ko equal area on earth has such a diversity of Xaiad life or such 
magnificent shells. Here are found the largest species in the world; 
here are forms with knobs, pustules, angles, lobes, and concentric sculi>- 
ture. The nacre of many of them is wonderfully rich in tints of silver, 
pink, purple, salmon or red, and it is equaled in beauty by the elegant 
patterns of external painting, in stripes and mottlings and delicate hair 
lines. Perhaps twenty or more species of this region are extralimital, 
and about half as many from other areas occur within its borders. 

The Atlantic Region. — East of the Appalachian chain, and occupying 
all the rivers and streams from Florida to Labrador that drain into 
the Atlantic, there is a set of Unionids, consisting of Unios and Ano- 
dontas, generally moderate in size, thin in structure, and for the most 
part without strong angles, sculpture, or brilliant coloring. Toward 
the southern part of this region the forms are immensely variable and 
puzzling, and I do not know of iiwj other area in the M^orld in which 
it is so diflicult to satisfactorily separate species and groups. Although 
both in the southern and northern part of this province the forms of the 
Mississippi Valley have entered freely, until they have met and over- 
lapped, yet there are perhaps not more than one or two species which 
belong in this region or members of any of its groups that appear in the 
waters of the Mississippi drainage proper. AnodontaJ'r<i</ilis, Lamarck, 
a form characteristic of the Atlantic in-ovince, is found in several pla(;es 
in the Mississippi ai-ea, notably in Minnesota; and Into r/tdiatiis, 
Lamarck, is doubtfully reported from the St. Croix River, Wisconsin. 

The specimens of Anodonta footiana, Lea (another northern form), 
said to come from the Illinops River, are no donht Anodonta orata, Lea, 
There are scarcely a dozeu Mississippi drainage species found within 
this region. 

The Neotropieal Region. — The entire continent of South America 
forms a single region of ii^aiad life, containing four genera of Unionidaj 
(Unio, Frisodon., Tetraplodon and Gastalina) and six of Mutelidaj 
{Glaharis, Leila, 3Ionocondylcea, Fossula, Iheringella and Mycetopoda). 

The Unios are generally oval or rounded, moderate in size, usually 
slightly sulcate, and covered with a uniform brownish or greenish brown 
epidermis. All have radial beak sculpture, and very few have any other 
than what I have mentioned. 

The genus Unio is represented throughout the entire area, and 
strangely enough the great Andean chain does not form a barrier 
between groups. The assemblage typified by the well known oval, 
compressed Unio ellipticus, Spix, seems to be scattered over this whole 
area, and species belonging to this group in Peru and Chile on the 
Pacific Slope of the continent can scarcely be said to diifer from forms 



OH the other side. I do not know tbat any other group of Knios is rep- 
resented on the western sh)pe, and so far as 1 am aware, none of the 
other genera have as yet been met with in the rather hiuited drainage 
of that region. 

The great group of Glabaris typified by (t. tntpe.zialis, Lamarck, a 
very natural and closely related assemblage, is well represented, no 
doubt, throughout all the eastern and soutlieastern drainage of South 
America, from well down in Argentina to Central America and even 
southern Mexico. Indeed, the typical species is in the Museum collec- 
tion from the streams of Argentina to Lake Maynos in the interior of 
Peru, the San Francisco River, Brazil, and the Rio Xegro on the north. 
The group is well represented in Central America and southern ^lexico 
by G. hridgesi. Lea, and allied forms. A single species, G. Jeotandi, 
Guppy, is found in Trinidad, ^o species and only three or four groups 
of this region are extralimital.' 

The Central American Region. — All Central America, including, jjer- 
haps, the most of the Isthmus of Panama, and all of Mexico excejit the 
strip west of the Cordillera, together with Yucatan and the Island of 
Cuba, form a single Naiad province which is jDeopled with a, large number 
of Uiiios, a fair representation of Anodontas, a single Mycetopoda^ and 
a few Glabaris. The fauna consists really of three elements, which no 
doubt represent as many migrations. 

First. — A large number of ITnios, constituting the greater part of the 
fauna, which by their solid, sometimes angular and inflated forms and 
often pustnlous or somewhat jilicate sculpture, indicate evident rela- 
tionship to groups in the Mississippi Valley. The groups showing these 
resemblances are placed opposite each other in the following table: 

Relationship of Central American and Mississippi Valley Unios. 

Central American 
region groups. 

Mississippi Valley 

Central American Mississippi Valley 
region groups. groups. 

TJ. erassidens. 
U. erassidens. 
U. Inteolus. 
U. alatus. 

Unio scutulatus U. alatus. 

Unio popei U. monodontus. 

Uuio usumasintiB { U. trigonus. 

Unio usumasinta; ! U. laclirymosus. 

Unio mexicanus 

The group of Central American Unios, typified by U. aratus, does not 
seem to have a parallel in any assemblage of Mississippi Valley forms, 
but is undoubtedly related in a general way. The Unios of this region 

'Attention may be called to the curious fact that a number of the South American 
species of Unios are imitated by certain Glabaris which very strongly resemble them 
externally. Thus the orbicular Unios typified by U. iiocturnns have their parallel in 
Glabaris in a section typified by G. lato-marginafa, and the elliptical Unios of the 
Casablanca group are balanced by G. pitelchana, etc. Unto delodoutus and its allies 
are ofi'set by G. wymani and others, and the elongated solid U. parallelopipedon and a 
few others have their counterpart in G. ensiformis, which sometimes so closely resem- 
bles the members of this group that anyone would at once place it with tlieiu unless 
the hinge was examined. There is no relation whatever between the genera. Their 
resemblances are probably adaptive. 


below the IstliDius of Teliuantepec, as well as those of Cuba, are remark- 
able for their sulcate sculpture. This character is noticeable even in 
species which are pustulous or otherwise sculptured, and is seen in 
groups, the members of which in Mexico are smooth or nearly so. 

Second. — A considerable number of Unios and Anodontas, some of 
which extend down into Central America, which are either absolutely 
identical with well-known forms in the Mississippi Valley or belong with 
the assemblages of that region. The following groups of the latter 
province are represented. The group of Unio pUcatiis is represented 
by Unio eif/litsi, Lea, which is found south to Vera Cruz, and is merelj^a 
synonym of U. nndtiplicatiis, luea, a common form in the central United 
States, There are one or two other species of this group which range 
south into Central America. Quite a number of species of the group of 
Unio aJatus, such as ZTnio teco7natensis, Lea, U. umbrosium, Lea, U. pur- 
pnratns^ Lamarck, and the like, are found in Mexico, and one species 
something like Unio tenuissinius ( U. (lelphinulus, Morelet), is found in 
Honduras. The group of Unio gibbosus is represented by Unio discus, 
Lea, a compressed, ponderous species in Central America ; that of Unio 
luteolus by a nearly typical si)ecies ?'. hydianus, Lea, and that of Unio 
anodontoides by the form of the same name, all of which species extend 
across the Eio Grande Eiver. Unio cou<'hianus,Tjea., of the Lachrymosns 
group, is a Mexican species, and it is probable that representatives of 
other northern groups will be found in this region, Anodonta henryana, 
Lea, of Mexico, is scarcely distinct from A. imbecillis. Say, of the Mis- 
sissippi Valley ; and the group of Anodontas, of which A. grandis, Say, 
may be considered the type, has several representatives in the northern 
part of the province. 

Third. — The few Glabaris and the Mycetopoda heretofore mentioned, 
which are found in the southern part of this area. Only about a 
half dozen species of this region are found in the United States, and 
perhai^s as many belonging to that country extend into Mexico, 
though these numbers will probably be increased with more thorough 


Unio and Anodonta have been believed l)y some authors to extend 
well back into the Paleozoic, and, while this may quite probably be 
true, yet I do not think the evidence is sufficient to demonstrate it. 

Two or three species of Unios were collected by Professor Cope in the 
valley of Gallinas Creek, Xew Mexico, from strata which he regarded 
as of Triassic age.^ 

These shells were so broken as to be hardly recognizable, though 
they are no doubt Unios. One of them, however, was described by 
Meek under the name of Unio cristonensis,^ but it may be as well to state 

' Ann. Kept. Expl. and Sur. west of the one-linndredth meridian, 1875, p. 81. 
2 Ann. Rept. Expl. and Sur. west of the one- hundredth meridian, 1875, p. 83. 


that there is some little doubt as to whether the strata in which they 
were found is Triassic or Jurassic. 

Something like a year ago a half dozen species of fossil Unios were 
sent to the writer by Mr. E. T. Dumble, of the Geological Survey of 
Texas, which came from what are believed to be fresh-water Triassic 
beds in that State. Numerous valves of one of the species show per- 
fect cardinal and lateral teeth, which do not seem to difler from those 
of many recent species.' These six forms, though not particularly 
striking in outline or appearance, belong to at least as many different 
groups, and do not show any more relation to each other than a half 
dozen specimens would if taken at random from different parts of the 
world. One of them is somewhat triangular in outline and compressed, 
with cardinal teeth much like those of the South American forms; 
another has slight, radiating striie on the posterior part, and a third 
species, which resembles some of the forms of U. pictorum of Europe, 
has strongly developed^ radial beak sculpture ! The fact of this diversity 
would go to show that the genus had been, in all probability, a long 
time established at the time these were living. A few species have 
been found in the Jurassic beds of the western United States, some 
of which seem to be prophetic of groups which are living to-day in the 
Mississippi Valley, and the forms which are known to be Cretaceous 
from that region bear out this prophecy. But when we come to the 
lacustrine or estuary strata of the Laramie group in this same terri- 
tory, we find a most astonishing resemblance to forms now occupying 
the central United States. These beds are believed by some to be 
Upper Cretaceous; by others they are referred to the Lower Eocene, 
and Dr. White, whose labors in this field are so well known, believes 
that the waters in which they were deposited were slightly brackish ; 
and in fact the Unios and other fresh-water shells of that region are 
often found associated with Cyrena, Ostrea and Anomiaj genera which 
now live in estuaries. 

In the Laramie beds, species are found evidently belonging to such 
groups as that of Unio pUcatus, U. perplexus, U. yibbosus, U. clavus^ 
U.meta7iever, JJ.securis, U. alatus, and Anodonta grand is, and there are 
forms from these strata which could hardly be separated from living- 
species if the latter were fossilized. Dr. White has called attention to 
the fact^ that the anterior jjortion of many of the elongated species of 
these beds is greatly shortened, and this character is observable in a 
number ot species in China. Whether the Naiades originated in North 
America or the Old World is not now known. At any rate, I do not 
think any careful student can examine a good series of species from the 

'These species were sent to the writer to be named aud described, and a paper was 
prepared with de.scriptioos aud tigures, to be jxibiislied iu the report of the Geolog- 
ical Survey of Texas. On account of the lack of appropriations for continuing the 
work, the paper was not published by the Survey. The National Museum has under- 
taken its publicatiou, aud it will shortly appear iu the present volume of I'rocecd- 
ings (pp. 379-383). 

-Third Auu. Kept. U. 8. (Jeol. Surv., p. 431. 


Oriental region, without being convinced that the TJnione fauna of 
that area is somewhat closely related to that of the Laramie beds and 
the Mississippi Valley, and the conclusion seems reasonable that a 
migration took place, perhaps during or shortly after the Laramie 
epoch, over an old, now submerged, landway, either from Asia to 
North America or vice versa. It is, I believe, more probable that this 
fauna developed in the western continent than the eastern, for, as we 
have seen, a few prophetic types of it appeared in the Xorth American 
Jurassic, while the earliest recorded existence in the Old World of 
species wliich seem intimately related to it is in the later Cretaceous or 
earlier Tertiary, While some eight or ten groups of Unios and Ano- 
dontas now living in the Oriental region bear such a strong resem- 
blance to simihir assemblages in the United States that at first sight 
they seem to be the same, I believe every one of them to be distinct, 
and it seems probable, when it is taken into consideration how slowly 
the Naiades change, and the fact that the forms of the Laramie groups 
have scarcely altered specifically in our own country, that if any such 
migration and separation took place, it occurred a long time ago. 

It is quite likely that about this time members of some of the Lara- 
mie groups found their way into Mexico, Central America and Cuba. 
It is very probable that this area was separated from South America 
at that time, and for a considerable period since, as no interchange of 
Naiades is known to have taken place between the continents until per- 
haps during the Pliocene, or at least since the last union of land areas 
took place. No North American form is found in South America, and 
the few Glaharis and the Mycetopoda that have entered the Central 
American province from the south, have scarcely changed specifically. 
This Laramie Unio fauna in Mexico and Central America has every 
appearance of having been in some way isolated from the rest of 
North America, as if it had developed under insular conditions. 
Almost all of the older groups of the Central American region have 
their analogues in the Mississippi Valley to-day, yet very few species 
of these Mexican groups come north of the Rio Grande Kiver; and 
while there is a slight mingling of forms of the two provinces, yet the 
groups can be separated, and the southern Naiad fauna has a distinct- 
ive appearance, notably in the much softer, more silvery, nacre, and an 
indefinable difference in the epidermis. I should say that these older 
Central American fauna groups bore about the same relation to those 
of the Mississippi Valley as do many of those of the oriental region. 
Judging from the apparent evidence of the Naiades, one would suppose 
that after the migration of these old forms into Mexico and Central 
America, they were isolated from the rest of North America long 
enough to take on certain peculiarities, and that after this the two 
areas were connected again, and that since the connection a few species 
of Unios and Anodontas of the present Mississippi Valley groups had 
migrated southward. I am aware that what is known of the geology 


of this region does not seem to support the idea of any separation of 
Mexico from the rest of North America during Tertiary time, but I 
simply give what aj^pears to be the evidence of the Naiades.' 

It is possible that at some time during the occupation of this region 
by the older Naiad tauna there may have been a strait through the 
present Isthmus of Tehuantepec, which separated Central America 
from Mexico. The strongly sulcate sculpture of most of the Unios of 
this lower region may have developed under insular conditions, or it is 
possible that it is wholly due to climate. 

The Naiad fauna of the Atlantic area, while consisting generally of 
moderate-sized Unios and Anodontas, without, as a rule, any striking 
characters, was, I believe, developed from that of the Mississippi Valley, 
but it has long been separated by the Appalachian chain. Unio {Ano- 
<Io)ita) undulatus, Say, of the Northeastern States, is only a mere variety 
at best of the U, {Anodonta) edentulus, Say, of the Mississippi drainage. 
lido {Margaritana) marginatus, Say, found in the former region, though 
smaller and more delicate, is identical with the western species. Unia 
radiatus of New England belongs to the western Lufeolus group, and 
in some cases approaches so close to the type that the two cannot be 
satisfactorily separated. Unio ochraceus, Say, and U. cariostiSj Say, 
belong to the Mississippi group of U. ventricosus, while the groups of Unio 
{Margaritana) calceolus and Unio pressus are about equally developed 
in the two regions. The migration of these forms has no doubt been 
made around to the northward of the Appalachian chain, as the species 
belonging to these groups in the Atlantic drainage are abundant in 
New England, but gradually vanish as we go southward. South of 
the dividing range, the relationship is still more apparent. The great 
Mississippi Valley groups of Unio tetralasmus, U. snbrofitratus, U. 
crassidens, U. parvus, and U. ventricosus are all well represented in the 
Atlantic drainage of Georgia, Florida, and in some cases as far north 
as North Carolina, though there seems to be a slight separation of 
the two areas between the Ocmulgee Eiver, which drains into the 

'I quote friun a letter received from Mr. H. A. Pilsbry, regarding the evidence of 
the land and fresh-water snails in this connection: "Now as to Mexico, we have 
there in the south a 'tincture' of South American types, evidently of recent origin. 
The Solariopsis and Ldbyrinthus very likely came north in or since the Pliocene eleva- 
tion of the isthmus. The Melanians of Mexico are distinctly South American. 
Besides, Mexico has in the Eucalodium, Holospira, Glandina, etc., element a distinct 
fauna, suggesting insular conditions both from the West Indies and North America, but 
nearer the former. At all events, it looks as if the fauna of northern Texas and 
New Mexico is a recent mingling of the two faunas, the Polygyras moving south, 
and Holospira, Bidimulus, etc., moving north. How much this appearance is due to 
mere isotherms, I am not prepared to say; but still, without having any tabula- 
tion of the faunas before me, it looks as if to a peculiar nucleus of genera which 
evolved their differential features on Mexican soil had been added lately au ele- 
ment from South America, another from the West Indies, a third from the United 
States, these introduced factors being still far stronger toward their respective 
points of ingress." 

Proc. N. M. 95 22 


Atlantic, and the Flint River, which empties into the Gulf. The 
great group of Unio buckleyi, which is so characteristic of Florida, 
the coast region of (Jeorgia, and South Carolina, is so closely related to 
that of Unto crassidens on the one hand and Unio complanatiis on the 
otber, that the systematic i^ositiou of many of their species is wholly 
uncertain. Again, the group of Unio Jisheri anus, also characteristic of 
the Atlantic region, almost insensibly merges into that of U.lmcMeyi, 
through such forms as U. ahenens, Lea, U. oscari, B. H. Wright, and 
U.hazelhurstianits, liea; and the small group typified by U. doivniei, 
Lea, inhabiting Georgia and Florida, shows about equal relationship to 
those of U. crassiilens, U. hncldeyi, and U. comphmaius. 

In 18GS Lea described a number of fossil Kaiades^ from a marl bed uear 
Camden, New Jersey. He believed this bed to belong to the Greensand 
of the Cretaceous, and noticing the strong resemblance of the forms to 
many now living in the United States, gave them names indicating 
this resemblance. The age of these beds is uncertain, but is probably 
more recent than what Lea supposed. The fossils are all casts of a 
somewhat ferruginous marl, and are quite imperfect, but among them 
are forms strikingly like Unio anodoiitoides, U. rectus, U. complanatiis, 
and Anodonta corpulenta, and I think it not unlikely that they are in 
most cases the remains of living species, and that the beds are not 
older than the Pliocene. At any rate, they seem to show a much more 
intimate mingling of Atlantic and Mississippi forms at the time they 
lived than is now known to exist anywhere in either of the two regions. 

As 1 have sh iwn before, many of the species of the Mississippi Val- 
ley extend into Canada; they occupy almost exclusively the southern 
peninsula of Michigan, the Great Lakes, the Eed River of the North, 
and the drainage system of the Mackenzie. This migration, which is 
entirely distinct from the earlier mingling of eastern and western 
species, is due, no doubt, entirely to the influence of the Glacial epoch. 
It is now generally admitted that during this time a vast cap of ice 
covered a greater or less extent of the Arctic and North Temperate 
regions of North America, and that at the close of the Ice age the 
southern edge of this cap gradually melted back for some distance 
from its extreme limit. North of the Height of Land in British North 
Ameiica great lakes were formed, which could only drain into the 
Mississippi Valley, since the wall of ice on the north and east formed a 
barrier in that direction. Several of these ancient drainage beds have 
been discovered; one near Chicago, another at the western end of Lake 
Superior, by which the water flowed down the St. Croix River; a third 
down the Minnesota River by way of the Red River of the North, and 
still another along the Maumee across to the Wabash.^ It is probable 
there was an overflow down the Missouri River, as Unio margaritiferus 
is found in the upper waters of this stream — the only point where it is 
known to occur in the Mississippi basin. 

' Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., XX, pp. 162-164, 1868. 
- See Popular Science Monthly, XLVI, No. 2, p. 217. 


j^umerous species of Naiades no doubt i)uslied up from tlie ]\Iissis- 
sii)pi basiu into tbese lakes, and Avhen tbe ice cap finally melted tbey 
occupied much of tlie area of tbe Mackenzie and St. LaAvrence systems. 
Utiio margaritiferus, wbicb is circumboreal, is not knowu to exist in 
tbe central Britisb American region, but is found in eastern Canada 
and New England. It is quite probable, as lias been suggested by 
Wetberby,' that this species may have extended across tbis wbole area 
iu pre-Glacial times; tbat tbe onward movement of tbe ice cap exter- 
minated it in tbis central area, and tbat it was driven soutbward to tbe 
east of tbe Appalacliian cbain, wbere it still survives, Tbis ice cap 
may liave also driven ont and destroyed nuicb of tbe Atlantic drainage 
fauna, wbicb was afterwards replaced by tbe more vigorous Missis- 
sipi>i Valley forms.'- Tbe Atlantic drainage group of Anodontas 
typified by A. ffuriatilis seems to be closely related to tbe Cyf/nea 
group, and may have been separated from tbe latter by tbe ice 

In the Old World, Iniio and Anodonta are believed by Ludwig ' to 
date back to tbe Carboniferous. The forms which be refers to these 
genera are from Ithenish Westphalia, and are small, oval, oblong shells, 
one of which has sulcations on the beaks. From the figures of the 
binges, I greatly doubt whether tbe species referred to Fnio belong to 
that genus. The few Unionidiie known from the Old World Jurassic 
and Cretaceous strata do not seem to show decided relationships with 
any other Naiad fauim. Spathu {jalloprorineialis, Matberon, which was 
described by its author as a Unto, is believed by Sandberger to belong 
to tbe former genus. ^ 

In the fignres of tbis species given by tbe author, the shell bears 
some resembUmce to a Spatha,hut is very different from any species I 
know of belonging to tbat genus, in the cbaracter of the beak sculpture. 
In Spatha, the nmboes are smootli or nearly so, as are the shells of tbe 
Mutelida^ in general. This species has strongly concentricall.y sculptured 
beaks, the ridges ending in a very sharp angle posteriorly. It may 
possibly be a Leguminaia. 

Several fossil Unios are known from Siberia and India, from what 
are believed to be Tertiary strata. These resemble the solid fornjs of 
China and the Mississipi^i Valley, and Unio bituhercuUdus, v. Marteus, 
from tbe former country, is very mucb like Unio perplexus., Lea, from 
the Ohio Eiver.^ 

In examining tbe fossil Tertiary Naiades of eastern Euroi)e, one can 
not help noticing the wonderful resemblance of certain forms to well- 
known groups in the Mississipxu Valley. Eegarding these species and 

' Joaru. Cin. Soc. Nat. Hist., July, 1881, p. 7. 

^See paper by the writer in Proc. U. S. Nat. Mns., XVI, pp. 991-995. 
^Palaeontogr., VIII. Die Najiideu der Rheiniscli-Westplialisclioii Steinkoblcn- 

^ Land uud 8iisswasser Conch, der Vorwelt, p. 9">. 

' See Abdr. d. Zeitsch. deut. geol. Gesellschatt, 1S74, p. 74S. 


their relationship to North American forms, I can not do better than 
to quote from Dr. C. A. White :^ 

It lias already been shown that the living Uuionidae of all Europe depart compara- 
tively little from the primary, typical, oval form, and smooth or plain surface. These 
are the characteristics, so far as I am aware, of all the fossil species, save one, that 
are found in the strata of Avestern Europe, including those from the Wealden and 
Cretaceous rocks. The exception referred to is Vn\o toulousanii, Matheron, from the 
Lignite strata of the department of the mouths of the Rhone, which, while differing 
but little in form from the other fossil and living Unionida- of western Europe, is 
marked by small plications upon its postero-dorsal surface. In Slavonia, Croatia, 
Dalmatia, and other parts of southeastern Europe, however, the fossil Tertiary spe- 
cies of Unio are much more numerous than the living species of the family are in the 
whole continent. Furthermore a large proportion of the types of these fossil species 
of southeastern Europe are as distinctively " North American " in character as those 
are which now live in the Mississippi Eiver and its tributaries. 

From these facts the inference seems to be a natural one that the living UnionidaB 
of all Europe are descended from those which are represented by the Mesozoic and 
Cenozoic fossil species of the western part of that continent ; while the line of descent 
of the fossil sjiecies of southeastern Europe has evidently been cut off by disastrous 
changes of the physical conditions necessary for its perpetuity. The fact that these 
last-mentioned fossil species are identical in type with those of North America jire- 
sumably indicates, though it does not necessarily prove, a community of origin ; in 
which case they must have reached their present separated regions by some ancient 
continental connection now destroyed. 

Among the Pliocene Unios from Slavonia there are many which almost 
absolutely agree with species living in the United States, belonging to 
the groups of ^^^ clavus, TJ. trigonus, U. perplewus, U. pustulosus,and other 
well-known Mississippi Valley assemblages; and U. sibinensis, Tenecke, 
is almost exactly like U. houstonensis, Lea, of Texas; U. neitmat/ri^ 
Tenecke, is the counterpart of U. modicus. Lea, of Alabama ; U. stolitzl-ai, 
Neumayr, is a nearlj' perfect reproduction of U. cesopuSj Green, from the 
Ohio River, and U. novsl-alensis, Tenecke, is like a slightly roughened 
U. pyramidatus. Lea, from the same stream. Other species from the 
Pliocene beds of Slavonia almost as closely resemble IJ. leai, Gray, and. 
17. oshecM, Lea, of China. 

It seems not unreasonable, no matter where these striking types of 
Unios and Anodoutas may have originated, whether in North America 
or the Old World, that they afterwards spread so that they occupied 
the greater part of Asia, Europe, except its western part, and possibly 
Africa, whose Unione fauna is, by the cliaracters of the shells, apparently 
closely related to the Tertiary fauna of Europe, and that of India at tlie 
present time. It may be that the extreme cold of the glaciers exter- 
minated or drove these forms to the region south of tlie Himalayas in 
Asia, and that the simple and probably more hardy species of western 
Europe spread rapidly to the eastward and southward after the Glacial 
epoch until they peopled the vast Palearctic region. But it seems 
probable that the European and northern Asiatic Anodontas, whose 
descendants now inhabit North America west of the Rocky Mountains, 
crossed over during the late Tertiary, as some of the forms how found 

'Bull. U. S. Geol. Surv., Ill, Art. 23, p. 621, 1877. 


in the latter region have inhabited it long- enongh to change specifically 
from their oriental ancestors. 

J. G. Cooper believes that he found a form of Anodonta nuttaliana^ 
Lea, one of the Cygnea gnmi), in the Pliocene beds of Kettleman Lake, 
California,' and in other localities, but these formations may be of more 
recent date. 

It is probable that Vnio [Marddritana) morf/aritiferns, Linnivus, is the 
type of a groui) which for a long time has been distributed around the 
boreal regions, as it seems to be very closely related to a number of 
widely scattered forms. 

The theory of a comparatively recent land connection between north- 
ern Asia and North America is further confirmed by the fact that some 
fifteen species of laud snails, and about five or six more fresh-water 
forms, are common to the entire boreal regions of the globe ; and Dr. 
Asa Gray has shown- that there are very many species of plants belong- 
ing to China and Japan which are identical with those found in eastern 
Is^orth America, and for others there are exceedingly close representa- 
tive species in the Xew World. 

The Uuione faunas of the Australian and Neotropical regions may be 
considered together, as they are evidently closely related. The theory 
of an antarctic land connection between these regions is not at all a 
new one, and recently Mr. Charles Hedley, in a paper on "The faunal 
regions of Australia,'" brings forward some strong arguments in favor 
of such a connection, as he believes it necessary in order to explain 
certain relationships between the life of the two regions. The Mutelid 
fauna of South America is also, no doubt, related more closely to that 
of Africa than to anything else at present existing, and von Ihering' 
suggests a probable land connection between South America and Africa 
across the Atlantic during the Mesozoic, to account for its ]>resent dis- 

It does not seem to me that it is necessary to bring in any such 
immense and violent changes of land and sea to account for the presence 
either of the Mutelida^ in Africa and South America or the nearly related 
L^nios in the Australian and Neotropical regions. It must be remem- 
bered that changes take place in the fresh-water mussels very slowly; 
that si)ecies are living to-day that scarcely differ from those found at 
the close of the Cretaceous or the beginning of the Tertiary periods; 
and that the relation between the Mutelidai of Africa and South Amer- 
ica is not a very close one, so that it is not necessary in either case to 
prove any recent mingling of these faunas, either by a land way or 
other means. I believe it is far more probable that the Ilnios of South 
America and the Australian region are the remnants of earlier types 
that may have had a wide distribution throughout the northern hemi- 

'Proc. Cal. Acad. 8ci., 2*1 ser., IV, part 1, p. 168. 

-Address before Am. Assu. Adv. Sci., August, 1872, p. 10. 

^Read at the Adelaide meeting of the Australasian Assn. Adv. !Sci,, »September, 18!t3. 

-•Zool. Auzeiger, Nos. 380 and 381, p. 14, 1801. 1892. 


sphere. The presence of a species in what are probably Triassic strata 
in Texas, with stronglj^ radial beak sculpture, a character nowconftued 
to the I'niouids of the two areas in question, is evidence in this direc- 
tion . The forms with variously sculptured beaks which bear the embryos 
in the outer gills may be a more recent, vigorous stock, and it is pos- 
sible that they have taken possession of the lakes aud streams of the 
northern hemisphere and driven these older types to the southward. 

The same thing may be true with the Mutelidie, whose northernmost 
limit in the Old World is the lower Nile, aud in the New, southern Mex- 
ico. And if the Cretaceous fossil now known as Spatlia (/alloprorin- 
cialis, Matheron, from the mouths of the Rhone, is reallj' a member of 
that geims, it would give color to this tlieory, which necessitates no vio- 
lent changes of land and sea to account for present Naiad distribution. 

To briefly sum up: The old arrangement of the families Mutelidie 
and TJnionidai based uj)on the x>resence of siphons in the former and 
their absence in the latter can not stand, as this character may be 
developed or wanting in a single genus or even species. Ihering's 
redefinition of the families, in which the former is founded on the fact 
that the embryo is a three-parted lasidium, and that of the latter a 
glocliifJium, with the animal inclosed in a bivalve shell, agrees essen- 
tially with the characters of the hinge and shell generally. Those 
forms which would seem to belong to the Mutelida3 have irregularly 
taxodont teeth or vestiges of them, while the Uuiouidte have schizodont 
teeth, which are arranged as cardinals or laterals, or both, though they 
may be merely rudimentary or even sometimes absent. The Naiades 
seem to be capable of being grouped into assemblages of related forms 
which have a more immediate common ancestry, and on the basis of 
this grouping we find them distributed into eight provinces, four of 
which are in the Old World aud essentially agree with tlie regions of 
animal life of Wallace and Sclater. 

These may be tabulated as follows: 


„ , . J Northern and western Asia, 

raiearctic < ^^^^^ Africa to the Desert. 

[Pacilic drainage of North America. 

Ethiopian Africa sonth of the Sahara. 

^ . . , { Asia south of the Himalayas. 

^^^®"^'^^ } East Indies to the Solomon Islands. 

'' 'Australia, 

Australian \ Tasmania. 

( New Zealand. 
Neotropical South America. 

( Central America. 
Centra] American-? Mexico east of the Cordillera. 

( Cuha. 

r Entire Mississippi Valley and the Gulf drainage from west Florida 

I to the Eio Grande. 

Mississippian { Mackenzie River system. 

Red River of the North. 

[ Great Lakes. 
. ,, .. { Lower St. Lawrence and rivers of eastern Canada. 

-'^^^^""•^ \ Atlantic drainage of the United States. 

'For map of Naiad Regions see Plate IX. 



TheUnios undoubtedly date back well into the Jurassic; probably 
into the Triassic. The post-Cretaceous Unio fauna of the Northwestern 
States is evidently closely related to the fauna of the Mississippi Val- 
ley, and this seems to be related to that of Mexico, to tlie oriental 
fauna, and more distantly to that of tropical Africa, as well as to the 
Tertiary forms of eastern Europe and Siberia. The Unios of Australia 
and South America are apparently closely related to those of the 
Australian region. There seems to be, too, a general relationship 
between the Mutelidic of Africa and South America. These IMutelids 
and the Unios which bear the embryos in the inner gills have perhaps 
formerly occupied extensive areas in the northern hemisphere, and 
may have been supplanted by more modern forms. 




















Map showing the Distribution fp 


60 80 100 120 140 160 

20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 

Pearly Fresh-water Mussels 


By Frederick W. True, 

Curator of the Department of Mainmala. 

About four years ago the National Museum received from Chameli- 
cou, Honduras, with other mammals, an armadillo of the genus Xenurm. 
This is the first instance, so far as I am aware, in which any representa- 
tive of this genus has been found in Central America. The species is 
presumably the X. hispidus of Burmeister, but to this I will refer again 

The specimen (No. 19464, U.S.N.M.) is a female, and was obtained at 
Chamelicon, Honduras, January 8, 1891. Mr. Wittkligel, the collector, 
states that the native name of the species is "Tumbo." He gives the 
following dimensions: 

Total length, 1 foot 5 inches; tail, 6i inches; hind foot, 4 inches.^ 
The skin, from which the skull was extracted, has been mounted, and 
I have measured it, with the following result: Total length, along 
curves, 510 mm. ; head and body, 362 mm. ; head, 73.5 mm. ; tail, 150 mm. ; 
ear from crown, 27 mm.; hind foot and claw, 66.5 mm.; longest claw of 
fore foot (straight), 38.5 mm. 

As but few specimens of the smaller Xemtri have been examined, I will 
describe this individual (Plate X) somewhat in detail. The head is short 
and blunt, and the extremity of the snout entirely naked for a distance 
of 16 mm. The cephalic shield consists of about 38 comparatively large 
plates. There are two short rows of plates in front of the scapular 
shield, of which the first contains 6 plates and the second 8 plates. The 
scapular shield consists of 8 antero-posterior rows of plates, including 
an anterior, narrow, marginal row, and the posterior row which resem- 
bles a thoracic ring. These rings are 11 in number, each with from 28 
to 31 plates. The pelvic shield has 10 antero-posterior rows of i)lates. 

The plates of the scapular and pelvic shields are large and quadrate, 
with rounded edges; those of the thoracic rings are rectangular, witli 

'This is probably a measaremeut of the hiud Icff. The foot with claw measures 
2f inches. 

Proceedino;s of the Unitt-d States National Museum, Vol. XVlll— No. 1069. 





straight edges. The marginal i)Uites are smaller than the others and 
rounded. Between each pair of plates on the thoracic rings one hair 
only is exserted. 

The ears are margined with a row of small rounded scales, but other- 
wise are entirely naked. The feet and outer sides of the legs are 
covered with somewhat scattered, flat, orbicular scales. The tail has 
similar flat scales, about 1.5 mm. in diameter, embedded in the skin at 
regular intervals. From the posterior margin of each scale one hair is 
exserted. The terminal portion of the tail for about 40 mm. is entirely 
naked on the upper side. 

On the belly the hairs are in tufts, which are arranged in regular 
transverse rows. There are about twenty of these rows between the 
insertion of tlie fore and hind legs. 

The relative size and length of the claws is the same as in the large 
species, X. unicincius. 

The skull (Plate XI) indicates that the individual is rather young. The 
nasals are narrowest in the middle, and expanded at the anterior end 
and also behind. Their posterior terminations are oblique, the frontal 
extending forward in an angle between them. The frontal itself is 
greatly swollen and the interorbital constriction is i)ronounced. Tlie 
supraoccipital is flat. The posterior half of the jugal is much broader 
than in A^ unicinctus, and its lower margin turns up sharply to meet the 
squamosal, making nearly a right angle with the anterior half. The 
basioccipital is narrow between the tympanic bullae. The palate is 
short, its length behind the tooth row in the median line not more 
than that of the last two dental alveolae and half of the third, while 
in A', unicinctus it extends backward a distance greater than the length 
of the last four dental alveola?. 

The lower border of the mandible is not concave posteriorly. The 
coronoid process is small, but well formed and somewhat curved. The 
condyle is concave. 

Dental fornuila, f . 

Dimensions of the skull. 


Length from upper margin of fora 
men magnum to end of nasals . . 

Greatest zygomatic breadth 

Mastoid breadth 

Lengthof nasals in Tiiedian line 

Interorbital constriction 


Breadth of nasals at anterior extremitj 
Breadtli of nasals at posterior extremity 

Length of palate 

Length of tooth row 

Length from last tooth to end of ptery- 








I have little hesitancy in referring this Honduras specimen to the 
Dasypus [Xennrus] hispidus of Burmeister,' although his types came 
from Lagoa Santa, Brazil. It agrees thoroughly both in size and in 
details of structure, except that the nasal bones appear to be somewhat 

1 Syst. tJbersicht Thiere Brasil., 1. Theil, 1854, p. 287. 


different in shape. There is considerable variation in this latter feature 
in other armadillos. 

In 1873 Gray published figures of two skulls similar to that of the 
Honduras specimen.^ For one of these he established the species 
Xenunis latirostris, and for the other a new genus, Zipliila, with 
Z. liigubris as a new species. 

Judging from the figures alone (for the descriptions are to some 
extent self-contradictory), the skulls represent closely allied, if not the 
same, species. The figures are presumably of natural size, though it is 
not so stated. If such is the case, the skull of Z. lugubris is somewhat 
larger than the Honduras specimen, but practically identical in form 
The former difl'ers in that it has a somewhat thicker nuizzle and less 
elevated frontal sinus. In the skull of X. latirostris the muzzle is 
shorter and broader still, and the frontal sinus is also still less elevated. 

In view of the large amount of individual and age variation which 
the armadillos present, it is perhaps reasonable to suppose that the 
skulls of both X. latirostris and Ziphila lugubris, together with that of 
the Honduras specimen, are specifically identical with A', hispidus. 
It is not possible to demonstrate this, however, with the material now 
available, and the present paper is intended rather as a contribution 
toward the solution of that question. Its prime object is to record the 
presence of the genus Xenurus in Central America. 

1 Hand-list of Edentates, 1873, pp. 22, 23, pi. 7, tigs. 1-4. 






















cfl c; o 



Skull of XENURUS HISPIDUS, Burmeister 
(No. 3.538i. U. S. N. M.) 


By Mary J. Rathbun, 

Second jissistant Curator, Department of Marine Invertebrates. 

The genus CaUinectes was formed by Stimpsou in 1860 ^ for the 
reception of the species of Portniiiche haviug a narrow or ±- shaped abdo- 
men in the male, and the merus of the outer maxillipeds short, sharply 
prominent, and curved outward at its antero-external angle. In this 
genus he places "the common American Lupa diacanfha^^ (Latreille), 
and for want of sufficient material is unable to find constant differences 
between the northern and southern varieties of this species, or even to 
separate Pacific Coast specimens, regarding as doubtfully distinct 
L. beJlicosa, which he had recently described from Guaymas. 

In 1S63 Lieut. Albert Ordway ^ j)ublished comparative descriptions 
of nine different species of CaUinectes.^ Say's name hastatus was given 
to the common sjiecies of eastern North America, the name diacanthus 
was restricted to a Brazilian form described by Dana in 1852, and six 
new species were added. Mr. Ordwaj^ claimed that there were well- 
marked characters separating the species, the variations in the abdomi- 
nal appendages of the male being of primary importance. 

In 1869 Prof. S. I. Smith gave the name C. dmuv to Dana's C. diacan- 

th HS. 

A. Milne- Ed wards in his revision of the Portunidae^ did not recognize 
the validity of the genus CalUnecies, but later ^ he considered it as dis- 
tinct and placed in it Lupa (^irtca^^/ta (Latreille), the one species embrac- 
ing all the Callinectes of America and West Africa. The species 
described by Say, Stimpson, Smitli and Ordway, vvere recognized simply 
as varieties or races, the characters separating them being considered 
of trivial importance and not constant. To these varieties or races he 
added five others, three of which were made on slight characters. 

1 Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. N. Y., VII, p. 220. 
-Afterwards Brig. Gen. Albert Ordway of Toluuteers. 
3 Boston Jonrn. Xat. Hist., VII, pp. 568-579. 
4 Arch. Mns. Hist. Nat. Paris, X, Addenda, 1861. 
'Crustaces de la K^^gion Mexicaine, 222, 1879. 
Proceedings of the United States Xatioiial Museniii, Vol. XVIII— No. U)7(i. 



In 1879 Kingsley described a species, C. dubia, from the west coast 
of Nicaragua. lu 1893 Mr. James E. Benedict added CaUinectes tum- 
idn-s, var. gladiator, from tlie west coast of Africa. 

I liave reduced the number of the above species by two, the 
€. pleuriticus of Ordway and C. dubia of Kingsley being based on 
young specimens of C. arcuatus. I have changed the name CaUi- 
nectes hastatus to CaUinectes sapidus and have added a new subspecies, 
C. sapidus acntideus. 

De Geer ^ was perhaps the first naturalist to represent a CaUinectes. 
Under the name " Crabede Tocean,'' he described in very general terms 
a swimming crab which he supposed identical with Cancer pelagicus of 
Linnreus, but which Ordway considered synonymous with Gibbes' Lupa 
sayi. Figures 8, 9 and 11 correctly represent neither of these species, 
nor are they applicable to any species of CaUinectes, while, on the other 
hand, Figure 10 shows the narrow abdomen characteristic of that genus. 

Bosc- describes the habits of the common edible crab aud tbe 
methods of taking it ; but calls it ' by the name of another species, 
Fortunns Jiastatus, translating a description given by Fabricius instead 
of describing the specimens he has seen. 

Say was the first to give an unmistakable description of our northern 
CaUinectes, calling it Xw^m hastata, thereby confusing it with the Liii- 
na-an Cancer hastatus, a different species of Lupa, from the Mediterra- 
nean. That he undoubtedly meant to redescribe the known species is 
evidenced by the phrase, ^'In addition to the particulars already stated 
by naturalists of its manners." Say also redescribed Lupa pelagica 
(Linnaius), but the name of his form of that species was soon changed 
by Gibbes to Lupa sayi. It is evident that in like manner the specific 
name hastata should be retained solely for the Linnpean form. It does 
not alter the case that the European and American species are now 
placed in different genera. 

After Say, Latreille was the only writer to give a name to our species. 
In 1825^ he described Portunus diacantha, but unfortunately confused 
several species under this name. As the variety he mentions as having 
been sent from Philadelphia, in which "les quatre dents du front sont 
reunies et ne forment qu'un lobe largement echancre,'' is undoubtedly 
our common CaUinectes, his typical form must be a different si)ecies. 
The terms "flavescente, maculis rubris, elongatis" aud "un verdatre- 
obscur en devaut" are strongly suggestive oif the southern CaUinectes 
bocourti. In any case, the name diacanthus is not available for the 
common northern form. 

Besides the collection in the United States National Museum, I have 
been permitted, through the kindness of Dr. Walter Faxon and Prof. 

iM^moires pour servir a I'Histoire des Insectes, VII, 427, pi. xxvi, figs. 8-11, 1778. 

2 Hist. Nat. Crust., I, pp. 212-214, 1801-1802. 

3 Page 219. 

^Encyc. M6fh. Hist. Nat., Eutom., X, 190. 



S. I. Smith, to examine a number of specimens in the Museum of Com- 
parative Zoology of Harvard University and the Peabody Museum of 
Yale University. I am indebted to Prof. C. C. Nutting- for i)ermissiou 
to notice a specimen of G. dance from Cuba, collected by the Bahama 
expedition of the State University of Iowa in 1893, and owned by 
that institution. The approximate number of specimens of each spe ies 
examined is as follows : 

Specimens of Callinectes examined. 

Name of species. 

Number of 

Name of species. 

Number of 

C. sapidus 

C. ornatus 

C. danoe 

C. arcuatus 

C. la rvatus 

C. tumidus 




0. bocourti 



1 Total 


Only in working over a large amount of material is it possible to 
judge whether the characters separating nearly related forms are 
invariably coexistent, or whether they are modifications dependent on 
environment, or simply individual variations. In the present case I 
have been able to verify Ordway's classification, which was necessarily 
based on a limited number of individuals. 

The valne of the differentiation of the generative organs in deter- 
mining species, has for some time been recognized. It is well exempli- 
fied in Callinectes. In C. sapidus, our common edible species, and the 
only species north of Cape Hatteras, the appendages of the first abdom- 
inal segment in the male reach as far as the tip of the last segment. 
This is also the case in C. bocourti, of the tropical Atlantic, and C. toxotes 
from the Pacific. In C. arcuatus and C. bellicosus of the west coast, 
they reach or nearly reach the terminal segment, but not the extremity; 
while in C. ornatus, C. dance and C. tumidus, they stop at the middle of 
the penultimate segment, and in C. tumidus are curved at the tips. In 
G. larvatns the appendages are noticeably short, reaching slightly 
beyond the proximal end of the penultimate segment.' 

These variations in the length and form of the appendages are 
accompanied by other diflt'erences. such as the shape and sculpture of 
the carapace, the outline of the front and lateral teeth, the length of 
the lateral spine, the granulation of the chelipeds, and the form of the 
abdomen in both sexes. These differences are specific. In species 
where tlie appendages are similar in length and position, no confnsion 
need arise, owing to the other widely different characters possessed by 

'Broccbi (Aiiu. Sci. Nat., Zool., (6) II, 1875) claims to have examined a large luiin- 
ber of specimeus of "Neptitiius diacanthus" from widely diftereut localities, aud liiids 
only two distinct forms of appendages, long aud short, which are coincident with 
only one other character, the outline of the front. He suggests the formation of two 
species based on these characters. 


these species. C. hocourti, with its front of four rounded lobes and long 
narrow intramedial region, could not be confounded with C. sapidus; 
while the unusually wide intramedial region of C. ornatus will serve to 
distinguish it from any other species yet known. A little practice in 
observing the peculiarities of the carapace will enable one to determine 
with ease the species of young individuals down to at least one inch in 


A. Inner supraorbital fissure closed. 

B. Frontal teeth two sapidus (p. 352). 

B'. Frontal teeth four. 

C. Appendages of first abdominal segment of male much shorter than the 
D. Lateral spine more than twice the length of preceding tooth. 
E. Intramedial region broad, its anterior width about three times its 

length ornatus (p. 356). 

E'. Intramedial region narrow, its anterior width about twice its length. 
F. Appendages of first abdominal segment of male greatly exceeding 
the third segment. 
G. Appendages with tips straight. Second to sixth antero-lateral 

teeth equilateral daiue (p. 357). 

G'. Appendages with tips curved. Antero-lateral teeth with pos- 
terior margins longer than anterior arcuatus (p. 362). 

F'. Appendages exceeding the third segment but little, or not at all. 

Ia7-vatus (p. 358). 
D'. Lateral spine less than twice the length of i\receding tooth. 

tumidus (p. 359). 
C. Appendages reaching the extremity of abdomen, or nearly so. 

D. Antero-lateral region granulate. Lateral spine between two and three 

times length of preceding tooth toxoies (p. 363). 

D'. Anterw-lateral region smooth. Lateral spine less than twice preceding 

tooth hocourti (p. 360). 

A'. Inner supraorbital fissure open ieUicostis (p. 365). 

(Plates XII; XXIV, fig. 1; XXV, fig. 1; XXVI, fig. 1 ; XXVII, fig. 1.) 

Lupa hasiata, Say, .louru. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., I, pp. 65, 443, 1817 (not L. 

hasiata, Desmarest, 1823, nor Milne-Edwards, 1834). 
Lupa dicantha, De Kay, Xat. Hist. N. Y., Zool., Part VI, Crust., p. 10, pi. in, 

fig. 3, 1844. 
CaUinectea hastatus, Ordway, Boston Journ. Xat. Hist., VII, p. 568, 1863.— Smith, 

Rept. U. S. Commr. Fish and Fisheries, 1871-1872, p. 548 (1874). 
CaUinectes hastatus, A. Milne-Edwards, Crust. Reg. Mex., p. 224, 1879 (variety 

of CaUinectes diacanthus). 

Adult. — Carapace moderately convex. Granules of medium size, 
ciowded on the inner branchial and cardiac regions, scattered and 
faintly marked on the anterior half of the carapace. The length of the 


intranieciial region is about one-lialf its anterior widtli,^ The frontal or 
interantennal teeth are two, triangiihir, acute, with faint indications of 
two others on their oblique inner margins (Phite XXIV, fig. 1). The 
median subfrontal sj)ine is conical and strong. The inner supraorbital 
tooth is broad and bilobed, the lobes obtuse, the outermost very promi- 
nent. The adjoining fissure is ch)sed except at the anterior extremity, 
where there is a shallosv V-shaped opening. The lateral teeth are con- 
cave on both margins and acuminate. Lateral spine in males from three 
to about four times the length of the ])receding tooth.- Inner suborbital 
tooth acute. Penultimate seguient of abdomen of male (Plate XXY, 
tig. 1) much constricted in its proximal half, widening at both extremi- 
ties. Terminal segment obtuse, lateral margins convex proximally, 
slightly concave or straight distally. Api^endages of first segment^ 
(Plate XXYl, fig. 1) reaching nearly to or beyond the extremity of the 
abdomen, near together for their proximal half, with only a slight out 
ward curve; distal portions widely divergent except at tips. The 
abdomen of the adult female (Plate XXVII, fig. 1) is very broad, the 
margins of the last three segments separately convex; terminal segment 
longer than wide. Costa^of carpus and manus with depressed granules 
or often almost smooth to the eye. 

Medium- sized specimens. — Carapace narrower than in adults; gran- 
ules more <listinct, especially on the anterior half. Frontal teeth less 
acute. Antero-lateral teeth broader, their margins more or less convex. 
Lateral spine a little more than twice the length of preceding tooth. 
Inner suborbital tooth broader, obtuse. Cost* of car])us and manus 
more distinctly granulate. 

In very young males the abdominal appendages are nnich shorter, 
reaching only to the middle of the penultimate segment. 

Size. — Adult males vary in width from (5^ to 7| inches; adult females 
from 5 to 7 inches. 

'The transverse dimension of tlie intramedial region, or that division of tlie gastric 
region posterior to the second graunhite ridge, I have designated as its width. Ord- 
way does so under C ioxotes, but uses the opposite term under C. ortiattis. Thus the 
intramedial region of both lie describes as long and narrow, which is misleading, the 
two species being entirely different in this respect. 

'^Measurements are made from the tips of the spine and tooth to the inner end of 
the intervening sinus; thus the spine is measured on its anterior margin, the tooth 
on its posterior margiu. 

•'In both sexes of Callinectes the first abdominal segment is almost entirely concealed 
beneath the carapace; thus the abdomen in the male consists of five segments, the 
third, fourth and fifth normal segments being coalesced, the first and second being 
furnished with appendages. In the female there are seven segments, the second, 
third, fourth, and fifth with appendages. In Plates XXV and XXVIl the first two 
segments are not shown. 

Proc. X. M. l>r> L>3 



vol.. xvin. I 

Measurements of CaUinecfes sapidus. 

Catalogue number. 


Length. Width. 



Length of 




4946 . 


mm. iiini. i mm. 
79 185 ' 18 






5280 ' Female 

179715 Female 

04 176 
54 124 


Locality. — Callinectes sapidus is comnioii iu bays and at the mouths 
of rivers from Cape Cod to Texas, and is especially abundant in (Chesa- 
peake Bay. Beyond these limits it is of rare occurrence. It is found 
occasionally in Massachusetts Bay,^ and a single individual is recorded 
from the Millpond, an inlet of Salem Harbor.^ Three specimens in 
the National Museum are from brackish water at Sing Sing, New 
York, collected by Prof. S. F. Baird. The following localities from 
which specimens have been examined are also worthy of notice: 

Jamaica: U. S. Fish Commission (No. 7679, U. S. N. M.); Kingston Harbor 
(No. 17976, U. S. N. M.), Dr. R. P. Bigelow ; mouth of Rio Cobre. fresh water 
(No. 18244, U. S. N. M.), Dr. R. P. IM.i-elow. 

Bermiiflas: Bickmore (Mus. Comp. Zool.). 

Brazil: Rio Grande; Capt. Harrington, .lune, 1861 (Mus. Comp. Zool.). 

A fossil G.allineMes (Plate XXVIII) was picked up on Gaugatha 
Beach, Accomac County, Virginia, September, 1804, by Mr. James P. 
Lucas, of Baltimore. It may have come from the extensive Miocene 
beds along that coast. The outline of the carapace is not preserved. 
The ventral surface indicates that the species is very near, if not iden- 
tical with, C. sapidus, although the penultimate segment of the abdo- 
men is narrower than is commonly seen in that species, and the median 
groove of the sternum is deeper and longer. 

Southern specimens of C. sajtithis show a tendency to develop sharper 
teeth or spines. This deviation culminates in two lots of specimens 
from Brazil, which I designate as a subspecies. 


(Plates XIII; XXIV, lig 2.) 

In this subspecies the carapace is wider and all the prominences are 
more strongly marked than in the typical C. sapidus. The areolations 
are separated by deeper depressions, the granules are more raised, the 
gastric ridges are stronger and more sinuous. There is a transverse 
granulate ridge on the cardiac lobes. The frontal teeth are narrower 
and more acute, and there are two small intervening teeth (Plate 
XXIV, fig. 2). Subfroutal and suborbital spines acuminate. Lateral 
teeth broad at base, narrowing abruptly to long, acuminate tips ; margins 

' The length is measured from the nu'dian sinus of the front. 

"Smith, Rept. U. S. Commr. Fish and Fisheries, 1871-1872, p. 548 (1874). 

•'C. Cooke, Amer. Na"!., I, p. 52, 1867. 

1895. ntocEEDixas of the national museum. 3')5 

granulate. Last two teetli very long, adding to the effect of width, and 
making the anterolateral margin less arcuate. Lateral spine very 
long, much longer than in C. saphluH of equal size, more than three 
times the length of the preceding tooth. Abdomen as in the species. 
Costiie of cheliped very prominent and strongly granulate. The gran- 
ules of the inner margin of the merus extend upon the upper surface of 
the distal half. There are two carpal spines, one at the outer angle and 
a shorter one close to the propodal spine. 

Size. — Length to sinus, 49 mm. ; total length, 50.S; width, 121; length 
of lateral spine, 10; of preceding tooth, 5. 

Type locality. — Santa Cruz, Brazil: Thayer expedition (Mus. Comp. 
Zool.); 1 male. 

Two smaller males from Eio de Janeiro, Thayer expedition (Mus. 
Comp. Zool., and No. 19083, ILS.N.M.), resemble the type. The frontal 
and anterolateral teeth are less acuminate, but the areolations are as 
strong and the lateral spine equally long. 

In Nicaragua Mr. Charles W. Richmond collected a series of speci- 
mens which are intermediate between C.sapidus and typical C.sapidus 
acutidens. In the largest specimen, a male (Plate XIY) from Escondido 
Eiver, September 0, 1892 (No. 18G30, IT. S.N. M.), the proportion of the 
carapace is as in typical C. siqridtis. The areolation and granulation of 
the front are as in C. fnqmlus acutidens. The antero-lateral teeth are 
\ery acuminate, but not so slender as in G. sapidus acutidens, and the 
last two teeth are not so long. The lateral spine is less than three 
times the length of the preceding tooth, and slopes backward. The 
carpus has a spine close to that on the manus. The upper surface of 
the manus has not the conspicuous granulation of typical C. sa2)idiis 
((cutidens, although granules can be seen with the lens. A lot of four 
medium-sized specimens (1 male and 3 females, No. 18246, U. S.N. ^L) 
were obtained at Greytown. In these the areolation and granulation 
are as in No. 18630, the frontal and lateral teeth are less sharj), the 
spine is much shorter, as in the young of typical C. 6'0^;ic/«s', and is 
directed forward. In the Museum of Comparative Zoology there are 
three males of medium size, without locality, which resemble those from 

Size of male (No. 18630, U.S.N.M.). — Length to sinus, 53.5 mm.; total 
length, 56; width, 126; length of lateral spine, 14.3; of preceding 
tooth, 5. 

Were the differences between the Brazilian and the Central American 
forms to prove constant in a large series of specimens, it might be l)est 
to call the latter by a different name. 

Besides the subspecies, the only specimen of C. sapidus from Brazil 
that I have seen is a large and old male in the Museum of Comparative 
Zoology, labeled "Eio Grande, Brazil; Capt. Harrington, June, 1861." 
This specimen is very near the typical G. saj)idus, although the lateral 
spine is directed backward and tlie frontal teeth are somewhat concave 
on their outer side. 




(Plates XV; XXIV, lig. U: XXV, fig. 2; XXVI, fig. 2; XXVII, fig. 2.) 

CaUinectes ornatus, Ordway, Boston Journ. Nat. Hist., VII, p. 571, 1863. — Smith, 

Trans. Conn. Acad. Sci., II, p. 8, 1869. 
CalUnectes ornatns, A. Milne-Edwards, Crust. Reg. Mex., p. 225, 1879 (variety 

of Callinecies diacanthus) . 

Carapace more convex than in C.sapidus; depressions shallow; length 
of intramedial areanuichless than half its anterior width. Surface finely 
and more evenly granulated than in C. sapidus. Frontal teeth four; 
the two outer obtuse, margins slightly concave ; inner teeth small (Plate 
XXIV, fig. 3). Subfrontal tooth a prominent spine. Suborbital tooth a 
broad arcuate lobe. Lateral teeth shallow and broad; margins convex 
at base, concave in the terminal half; jjosterior margins longer than 
anterior ; tips acute in the first 5 or 6 teeth, acuminate in the remainder. 
Lateral spine about two and one-half times the preceding tooth, directed 
forward. Abdomen of male (Plate XXV, fig. 2) narrower than in C. 
sapidtis. Penultimate segment widest at the proximal end; margins 
slightly concave. The appendages (Plate XXVI, fig. 2) reach midway 
of the length of the penultimate segment; proximally they curve inward 
and touch or overlap each other; the distal portions are straight and 
divergent. At about one millimeter from the extremity, the appendage 
widens a little and then narrows rather abruptly to the very slender 
tip. The abdomen of the female (Plate XXVII, fig. 2) is very broad at 
the proximal end and tapers more rapidly to the terminal segment than 
in any other species. 

Size. — Adult males vary in width from 4ji to if inches; adult females, 
from 3^ to 4J inches. 

Measurements of CaUinectes ornatus. 

Catalogue number. 


Leugtli to sinus. 


Total length. 








The localities of specimens examined are as follows: 

South Carolina: East end Sullivan's Island oyster bed, Charleston ; .Toe White- 
side and C. C. Leslie (No. 3185, U. S. N. M.). 

Bermudas: G. B. Goode (No. 3175, U. S. N. M.); Dr. E. V. Hamlin (No. 4028, 
U. S. N. M.). 

Elorida: Big Pine Key, H. Hemphill (No. 14889, U. S. N. M.) ; Key West, various 
collectors; Marco, H. Hemphill (No. 18231, U. S. N. M.); Puuta Kassa, C. W. 
Ward (No. 5753, U. S. N. M.); Bird Key, schooner Crampus (No. 15246, 
U. S. N. M.). 

Bahamas: Andros Island and Andres Bank, in sponges (E. A. Stearns collection). 

Cozumel, shore in net; str. Albatross (No. 9557, U. S. N. M.). 

Jamaica, Dr. Smith (No. 2448, U. S. N. M.) ; str. Albatross (No. 18227, U. S. N. M.) 



St. Thomas, A. H. Riise (No. 2457, U. S. N. M.). 

Sabanilla, United States of Colombia; str. Albatross (Xo. 18228, U. S. N. M.). 
Ciirjpt;ao; str. Albatross (No. 7584, U. S. N. M.). 
Ciimaua, Venezuela; C'apt. Coutliony (Mus. Comp. Zool.). 

Brazil: Maranhao, F. E. Sawyer (No. 18232, U. S. N. M.); Victoria, Hartt and 
Copelaud, Thayer Expedition (Mus. Comp. Zool.). 

Ordway records this species also from the Tortugas and Haiti. 

Variations. — Brazihau specimens vary a little from typical specimens 
in the form of their anterolateral teeth; the posterior margins instead 
of being concave are straight or slightly convex; the teeth, in coiise- 
(juence, do not api)ear so shallow. In other resjiects these specimens 
are typical C. ornatus. 

(Plates XVI: XXIV, tig. 4; XXV, fig. 3; XXVI, fig. 3; XXVII, fig. 3.) 

Lupa dkaittlia, Dana, Crust. U. S. Expl. Exped., I, p. 272, 18.52, pi. xvi, fig. 7, 1855 

(not Lupea dicantha, Milne-Edwakds, 1834). 
CalUneotes diacanthus, Okdway, Boston Jouru. Nat. Hist., VII, p. 575, 1863. 
CalUnectes Dana, Smith, Trans. Conn. Acad. Sci., II, p. 7, 1869. 
Callinectes diacanthus, A. Milne-Edwauus, Crust. R6g. Mex., p. 226, 1879 

(variety oi' CalUnectes diacanihus). 

In general appearance resembles C. ornatus. The intramedial region 
is, howevei', mnch narrower. The front has two distinct median teeth, 
small and subacute; lateral teeth narrow, acute. The front resembles 
that of C. ornatus, but the median teeth are more prominent, the lateral 
teeth narrower (Plate XXIV, fig. 4). The teeth of the lateral margin are 
different from those of auy other species with which it is associated. 
Tbe second to the sixth inclusive do not trend forward as in C. ornatus, 
C. larvatus, and C. tumidus, — that is, the posterior margin of the teeth 
is not much longer or more convex than the anterior. The teeth are 
acute, the seventh and eightli especially so; the eighth tooth is directed 
forward. Lateral spine more than three times the length of the pre- 
ceding tooth. Suborbital tooth rather long and narrow. Penultimate 
segment of male abdomen (Plate XXV, lig. 3) very broad at proximal 
end. The appendages (Plate XXVI, fig. 3) reach to the middle or 
beyond the middle of the penultimate segment. They sometimes touch 
each other proximally, but more often are separated. In length they 
approach those of C. ornatus, but in C. dancv the appendages taper reg- 
ularly and do not widen near the tip. The abdomen of the female (Plate 
XXVII, tig. 3) is similar to thatot C. ornatus, but wider in its fifth and 
sixth segments. Costiie of chelipeds very closely set with fine granules 
interspersed with larger one.s. Very small specimens of this species 
can be separated from C. ornatus by the narrower intramedial region, 
and from C. larvatus, whicli they superficially resemble, by the outhne 
of the lateral teeth and the longer sinnes. 

Size. — The largest males are from 5 to 5^ inches wide. The females 
are much smaller; the largest is 3f inches; one with eggs is 3^ inches 


wide. The dimensions of Dana's type in the National Museum (No. 
2371) are: Length to sinus, 55.5; greatest length, 57.5; width, 131.5 
mm. Length of Cuban specimen, to sinus, 54.5; greatest length, 56.3; 
width, 127 mm. 

The localities of specimens examined are as follows: 

Bahia Honda, Cuba, May 8, 1893; Bahama Expedition of the State University 

of Iowa. 
.Tamaica: str. Jlhaiross (No. 18237, U. S. N. M.) ; Kingston Harbor, Dr. R. P. 

Bigelow (No. 17977, U. S. N. M.). 
Old Providence; str. Albatross (No. 18238, U. S. N. M.). 
Aspinwall; str. Albatross (18239, U. S. N. M.). Caught at night with a small 

hoop-net baited and set at a little distance from the steamer in four fathoms. 
Sabauilla, United States of Colombia; str. Albatross (No. 7559, U. S. N. M.). 
Brazil: Pernambuco, C. F. Hartt (Peabody Mus. Yale Univ.); Rio de Janeiro, 

U. S. Exploring Expedition, types of Dana's Lupa dicantha, 1 male (No. 2371, 

U. S. N. M.), 1 male (Mus. Comp. Zool.) ; Rio de .Janeiro, Thayer Expedition 

(Mus. Comp. Zool.), very abundant; Santos, Thayer Expedition (Mus. Comp. 


Eecorded by Smith from Bahia. 

(Plates XVII; XXIV, tig. 5; XXV, fig. 4; XXVI. tig. 4; XXVII, fig. 4.) 

? Xeptunus marginatus, A. Milne-Edward.s, Arch. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris, X, 318, 

pi. XXX, fig. 2, 1861. 
CalHiiectes larvatits, Ordway, Boston .Tourn. Nat. Hist., VII, p. 573, 1863.— Smith, 

Trans. Conn. Acad. Sci., II, p. 9, 1869. 
Callinectes larvains, A. Milne-Edwards, Crust. Reg. Mex., p. 225, 1879 (variety 

of Callinectes diacanthiis). 
Callinectes larvatits, var. africatnis?, Benedict, Proc U. S. Nat. Mus., XVI, 1893, 

p. 537. 

Areolations well marked; granules coarse; length of intramedial 
area a little less than one-half its anterior width. Front four-toothed 
(Plate XXIV, fig. 5); median teeth small, more prominent than in 
C. ornatiis; lateral teeth obtuse, broader and more arcuate than in C. 
ornatns. Suborbital tooth prominent, arcuate, curved upward. Antero- 
lateral margin little arched. The teeth are well separated by deep 
rounded sinuses; the second to the fitth, inclusive, liave convex posterior 
margins; the first three or four teeth are obtuse, the remainder sharp- 
pointed. Lateral spine between two and two and a half times the length 
of preceding tooth. Terminal portion of abdomen of male slender. 
Penultimate segment (Plate XXV, fig. 4) wider at proximal than at dis- 
tal end, margins slightly concave. Appendages very short, overreach- 
ing the third segment but little or not at all (Plate XXVI, tig. 4). The 
abdomen of the female (Plate XXVII, fig. 4) is much narrower than in 
any other species; terminal segment much longer than wide. Costse of 
manus prominent, with medium granules. 

Size. — The width of full-grown males varies from 4:^ to 4f inches. 
The largest female is about 4 inches wide. 



Measurements of Callinectes larvatus. 

Catalofiut* luiniber. 


Length to sinus. 

Entire lonfrth. 









The localities from which specimens have been examined are as follows: 

Florida: Long Key (No. 14890, U. S. N, M.); near Indian Kej- (No. 14032, 
U. S. N. M.) ; Big Pine Key (No. 14892, U. S. N. M.) ; Key West, various col- 
lectors; Tortugas (Nos. 2097, 2142, U. S. N. M.). 

Bahamas; New Providence, str. Albatross (No. 17948, U. S. N. M.). 

San Domingo; W. M. Gabb (No. 4172, U. S. N. M.j. 

Jamaica: Cozumel; Old Providence; Sabanilla, United States of Colombia; 
Curayaoj str. Albatross. 

St. Thomas; A. H. Eiise (No. 2446, U. S. N. M.). 

Brazil: Rio Grande do Norte, Thayer Expedition (Mus. Comp. Zool.) ; Rio Ver- 
melho, Bahia, R. Rathbun, Hartt Explorations, 1875-77 (carapace of young 

Porto (irande, St. Vincent, Cape Verde Islands; United States Eclipse Expedi- 
tion, 1889, one young female without clielipeds. 

Africa, United States Eclipse Expedition, 1889: Baya River, Elmina, Ashantee 
(No. 14878, U. S. N. M.) ; St. Paul de Loando (No. 14877, U. S. N. M,). 

Kecorded from Vera Cruz, Mexico, by A. Milne-Edwards. 

Ne2)tunus margiiiafu.'i, A. Milne-Edwards, as Professor Smith has 
pointed out, was probably based on an immature female of a Callinectes. 
It is from "Cote du Gabon," West Africa. 


(Plates XVIII; XXIV, fig. 6; XXV, fig. .5; XXVI, fig. ,5; XXVII, fig. 5.) 

Callinectes tumidiis, Ordway, Boston Journ. Nat. Hist., VII, p. 574, 1863. 
Callinectes fHwidHS, A. Milnk-Edwards, Crust. R^g. Mex., p. 226, 1879 (variety of 
Callinectes diacanth us). 

Carapace very convex; depressions deep; length of intramedial area 
no more than half its anterior width. Frontal teeth (Plate XXIY, fig. 6) 
four, triangular, tips rounded, the two median large and prominent, but 
not so far advanced as the lateral. Submedian tooth short, exceeding the 
front but little. Suborbital lobe rounded. Antero-lateral margin very 
arcuate. Lateral teeth broad, the first six very convex on their pos- 
terior margins and obtuse, the next two acute. Of the eight teeth, the 
fifth is the largest; the sixth and seventh are next in size. Lateral 
spine less than twice the length of the preceding tooth. Penultimate 
segment of male abdomen (Plate XXV, fig. 5) similar in shape to that of 
('. ornatus^ but much shorter. Aj^pendages (Plate XXVI, fig. 5) reach- 
ing to about the middle of the penultimate segment, the tips incurved. 
In the abdomen of the female (Plate XXVII, fig. 5) the ])enultimate seg- 
ment is sliorter than the fifth, and its margins are veiy arcuate. The 
spine at the distal end of the inerus and the carpal spine are almost 




obsolete, being replaced by bliiut promiiieuces. There is a blimt tooth 
oil the anterior niargiu of the carpus just below the iuner angle. Costie 
of mauus coarsely and sparingly tuberculate. In specimens larger than 
the one photographed (Plate XVIII), the lateral spine is proportionally 
shorter and the chelipeds much heavier. 

Size. — Adult males measure 4g and 4^ inches in width, with a length 
of 2i inches. An adult female is 4^e inches wide and 2 inches long. 

Measurements of Callinectes tumidus. 



to sinu-s. 









The localities where this species has been taken are as follows : 

Florida: Loug Key, H. Hemphill (No 14087, U. !S. N. M.) ; Key West (Mus. Cornp. 

Zool.) ; Tortugas, J. B. Holder (No. 2143, U. S. N. M.). 
Jamaica; str. Albatross (No. 18236, U. S. N.M.). 
Old Providence; str. Albatross (No. 7541, U. S.N. M.). 
Brazil, Thayer Expedition (Mus. Comp. ZooL): Rio Grande do Norte; Victoria 

and Cannavieras, Hartt and Copeland. 

Eecorded from Haiti by Ordway. 


CaUhievles titmidiis, var. gladiator, Benedict, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., XVI, 1893, 
p. 537. 

Distinguished from G. tumidus by its longer lateral spine and less con- 
vex carapace. The abdominal appendages are curved as in typical 
C. tumidus, and the front and lateral teeth correspond to that species. 

Type. — Small male from Beyah River, Elmiua, Ashantee, Africa, 
U. S. Eclipse Expedition, 1889 (No. 14879, U.S.N.M.). 

CALLINECTES (?) BOCOURTI, A. Milne-Edwards.' 

(Plates XIX; XXIV, lig. 7; XXV, tig. 6; XXVI, lig. 6; XXVII, fig. 6.) 

Callinectes bocourti, A. Milne-Edw.\rds, Crust. Reg. Mex., p. 226, 1879 (variety of 

Calli7iectes diacajithus). 
? Callinectes cai/ennensis, A. Milne-Edwakds, Crust. Reg. Mex., p. 226, 1879 

(variety of Callinectes diacantJnis). 
? < dllinecles africanus, A. Milne-Euwauds, Crust. Reg. Mex., p. 229, 1879 (variety 

of Callinectes diacanthns). 

iThe brief description given by A. Milne-Edwards corresponds to the specimens 
which I have referred to this species. An individual labeled " Callinectes bocourti, 
A. M. Edwards, Belize, Honduras," recently received from the museum at Paris, is an 
undoubted C. danw. I am loath, however, to make C. bocourti a synonym of C. dana' 
tmtil I am assured that the specimen was correctly labeled, in which, case the species 
here called C. bocourti must receive a new name. 




Very convex; nreolation.^ piomineiit; coarsely granulate except along 
tlie lateral margin, where the carapace is smooth. Intrameclial region 
very long, its length about equal to its posterior width. Front (Plate 
XXIV, fig. 7) with four large rounded teeth, the me<lian the smaller, 
and a little less advanced than the lateral, except in a few cases where 
they project as far as the lateral. Suborbital tooth short, triangular, 
narrow, obtuse. Anterolateral teeth very broad, acute, the last two or 
three spiuiform. Lateral spine short, usually less than twice the length 
of the preceding tooth. Penultimate segment of the abdomen in the 
male (Plate XXV, tig. 0) constricted in its proximal })ortion, widen- 
ing at both extremities. Terminal segment long. Appendages (Plate 
XXVI, fig. 0) reaching to the end of the abdomen, with a double curve 
as in C. sapidus', tips crossing. The sternum has a deep longitudinal 
groove in front of the abdomen. The abdomen of the female (Plate 
XXVIT, fig. T)) is very long, especially the penultimate segment; the 
terminal segment is much longer than wide. Costa> of chelipeds with 
depressed granules, often appearing almost smooth to the eye. The 
car])al and the anterior meral spine are usually noruial, though some- 
times in old specimens reduced to blunt projections. There is a broad 
blunt tooth on the anterior margin of the carpus just below the inner 

^Size. — The largest male is 5i inches wide; the largest female, 4§ 


Measurements of CaUinectes hocourti. 

Catalogue number. 


Length Entire 
to sinus, length. 





i mm. mm. 

Male t 56 i 57.5 

Male 69.5 72.5 





140 10 ' 7 

Cannavieras (M. C. Z.) 


57. 5 60 


12 a 


a Tip broken. 

Color. — Alcoholic specimens indicate that the color is rich and vari- 
egated. In a large male from Sabanilla, the carapace is greenish, darker 
in the anterior half, and especially on the gastric region. The posterior 
half is yellowish- green, the yellow being most apparent on the inner 
half of the branchial region. There are four oblong red spots follow- 
ing the outline of the frontal and antero-lateral margin, but at a 
little distance from the teeth. There are blotches of red on the cardiac 
and branchial regions. The transverse lines of granules crossing the 
carapace are also red. The chelipeds are a purplish brown. In a large 
male from Greytown the central and antero-lateral portions are brown, 
the yellow branchial spots are brighter than in the preceding, and there 
is a tinge of blue along the posterior margin. Smaller specimens are 
duller m color, but all show traces of red and yellow spots. 

The specimens examined are from the following localities: 

Greytown, Nicaragua; C. W. Richraoiid, March 27, 1892 (No. 18234, U. S.N.M.). 
Turbo, Isthmus of Panama (Atlantic side); Dr. Maack (Mus. Comp. Zool.). 


United States of Colombia: Sabanilla, str. Albatross (No. 18235, U. S. N. M.); 

Carthagena, Atrato Expedition, Dr. A. Schott (No. 2460, U. S. N. M.). 
Brazil: Para, Cannavieras and Itabapuana, Thayer Expedition (Mus. Comp. 

Zool.); Maranhao, Lieut. F. E. Sawyer, U. S. N. (No. 18233, U. S. N. M.). 

The type locality of G. bocourti is Riviere de Mullins, 20 miles south 
of Belize, Honduras j of C. cayennensis is Guiana. 

The small sterile female from Aspiiiwall <lescribed by Ordway ' doubt- 
less belonged to this species. The specimeu, however, is not extant. 
The only very young specimen I have examined is a female IJ inches 
wide, in which the lateral teeth are not widely separated as in adults, 
but their margins are in contact at base, the posterior edges of the 
teeth considerably longer than the anterior. The median frontal teeth 
are proportionally larger than in adults, smaller and more advanced 
than the lateral. 

A single smaller male specimen labeled '■'■Callinectes africanus (A. M. 
Edwards), Senegal" has lately been received from the museum at Paris. 
Without further evidence I am not able to say that this species differs 
from Call'mectes bocourti. The median teeth of the front are less 
advanced than the lateral ; the lateral spine is about twice the length 
of the adjacent tooth. Length of carapace 18.5; width 36 mm. The 
type locality of C. africanus is Cape Verde Islands. As the range of 
Callinectes larvatus includes these islands and the African coast, it is 
not im]>robable that others of our American species are also found there. 


(Plates XX; XXIII, fig. 1; XXIV, fig. 8; XXV, fig. 7; XXVI, fig. 7; XXVII, fig. 7.) 

Callinectes arcuatus, Ordway, Boston .Journ. Nat. Hist., VII, p. 578, 1863. 
CalUnectea pleuriticus, Ordway, Boston .Journ. Nat. Hist., VII, p. 578, 1863. 
Callinectes arcuatus, A. Milne-Edwards, Crust. Reg. Mex., p. 228, 1879 (variety 

of Callinectes diacanthus). 
Callinectes pleuriticus, A. Milne-Edwards, Crust. Reg. Mex., p. 228, 1879 (variety 

of Callinectes diacanthus.) 
Callinectes duhia, Kingsley, Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., XX, p. 156, 1879. 
Callinectes, sp., Smith, Third Ann. Kept. Peabody Acad. Sci., 1870, p. 91 (1871). 

Carapace very convex, finely granulate; granules very numerous in 
the median region. Length of intramedial region about one-half its 
anterior width; length greater than in C. dana\ Front with four stout, 
triangular, blunt teeth, the middle pair about one-third the size of the 
outer pair (Plate XXIV, fig. 8). Subfrontal spine exceeding the lateral 
frontal teeth but little. Suborbital tooth rounded. Anterolateral 
margin very arcuate; teeth large, well separated, those nearest the 
orbit subacute, becoming sharp and spinous toward the lateral spine, 
which is between two and three times the length of the adjoining tooth. 
Penultimate segment of male abdomen broad at base; margins sub- 
parallel for the greater part of their length (Plate XXV, fig. 7). 
Appendages (Plate XXVI, fig. 7) reaching or nearly reaching the last 

'Boston .Journ. Nat. Hist., VII, p. 575. 


segment of the abdomen, slightly curved at the ti]) in tlie adult. Abdo- 
men of female (Plate XXVII, fig. 7) with fifth segment much narrower 
distally than proximally, and shorter than sixth. Costa' of manus 
coarsely granulate. The three carpal spines mentioned by Ordway 
(he had but one specimen) are present in some of the smaller speci- 
mens, but are not equal, and in older specimens the anterior two are 
more or less rudimentary. 

Small specimens are less convex and more prominently areolated 
than the adult. The large frontal teeth are wider. A single medium- 
sized individual taken by the Ilassler ;it Panama (Mus. Comp. Zool.) 
has unusually long spines, between three and a half and four times the 
length of the next tooth. 

Size. — The largest male is about 4f inches wide. The largest female 

is 4| inches; one bearing eggs is 3| inches wide, and has the lateral 

spine strongly curved forward. Most of the vspecimens examined are 


Measurements of Callinectes arcuatus. 


Length to sinus. 





Specimens have been examined from the following localities: 

Lower California and Gulf of California, U. S. Fish Commission str. Albatross, 
1889: San Bartolonie Bay, Lower California (No. 15433, U. S, N. M.); Con- 
ception Bay, mouthof RioMulege(No. 15432, U. S. N. M.); Algodones Lagoon, 
Mexico (many small specimens, No. 15431, U. S. N. M.); Horseshoe Bend, 
Colorado River (No. 15434, U. 8. N. M.). 

Cape St. Lucas (type locality); .John Xantns (Mns. Comp. Zool.). 

Guaymas, Mexico; H. F. Emeric (No. 14854, U. S. N. M.). 

Acapnlco, Mexico; Hassler Expedition (Mus. Comp. Zool.). 

Gulf of Fonseca; J. A. McNiel (Mus. Comp. Zool.). Types of C. duhia, Kingsley. 

Panama (type locality of C. pleuriticiis) ; Received from Mus. Comp. Zool. (No. 
18511, U. S. N. M.). 

CaUmectes arcuatus and G. dancv are perhaps more closely related than 
any other two species of Callinectes. The front of C. arcuatus has the 
median pair of teeth sharper and more prominent, the lateral pair 
broader, and the submedian tooth shorter than in C. damv. The antero- 
lateral margin is moi-e arcuate, and its teeth directed forward instead 
of outward. Terminal segment of abdomen in male shorter than in 
C. dana', and appendages of first segment longer, and curved instead 
of straight at the tips. 

(Plates XXI; XXIV, fig. 9; XXV, fig. 9; XXVI, fig. 9; XXVII, fig. 8.) 

Callinectes toxotes, Ordway, Boston Journ. Nat. Hist., VII, p. 576, 1863. 
Callinectes toxotes, A. Milne-Edwards, Crust. Reg. Mex., p. 227, 1879 (variety of 

Callinectes diacanthus) . 
Callinectes rohiistus, A. Milne-Edwards, Crust. Reg. Mex., p. 227, 1879 (variety 

of Callinectes diacanthus). 


Carapace very large, coarselj^ grauulate; areolatioiis very i)romineut. 
Cardiac regiou distinctly divided into two lobes by a median furrow. 
Intramedial area narrow, its length greater than its posterior width. 
Front (Plate XXIV, fig. 9) slightly upturned, with four broad rounded 
lobes, the inner pair the smaller and less advanced, and more <leeply sep- 
arated from each other than from the lateral. Submedian tooth small; 
in the males about as much produced as the outer frontal teeth; in the 
single female at hand, it is less advanced than the front. Suborbital 
teeth obtuse. The anterolateral teeth are triangular, with a short 
closed fissure between their bases; margins denticulate. The second, 
third and fourth teeth are almost equilateral and acute; the fifth to the 
eighth inclusive are acuminate, with successively longer tips, which in 
the seventh and eighth curve forward. The lateral spine is from two 
and one-third to nearly three times the length of the preceding tooth. 
Sternum flat. The penultimate segment of the abdomen of the male 
(Plate XXV, tig. J>) is constricted in its proximal half, but not so much 
so as in C. sapidus and C. bocoiirti. The appendages (Plate XXVI, fig. 
9) reach almost to the extremitj^ of the terminal segment and are more 
strongly curved than in C. sai)idus or C. hoeoiirti. Abdomen of female 
(Plate XXVIl, fig. 8) similar to that of G. hocourti, but the penultimate 
segment is shorter. The spines on the anterior or inner margin of the 
merus are strdngly curved. Spines of the manus long-pointed. The 
costte are very coarsely tuberculate. 

Size. — This is the largest species known, attaining a width of 7^ or 8 
inches. The largest specimen examined is from Cape St. Lucas, and is 
in the Museum of Comparative Zoology. Length to sinus, 83 mm.; to 
tip of frontal teeth, 8G; width, 191; length of lateral spine, 21; of pre- 
ceding tooth, 7.3. This specimen is like old specimens of C. sapidus in 
having the lateral teeth narrower, sharper, and with more concave mar- 
gins than in younger specimens. The median frontal teeth are also 
more slender. The frontal teeth are so much worn that their real rela- 
tive lengths can not be seen; but in all other specimens the median are 
not so advanced as the lateral, the difference being greater in the 
smaller specimens. 

The only young specimens are three, a male and two females, which 
were without label in the Mexican exhibit at the AVorld's Columbian 
Exposition. They have the branchial regions very much swollen, and 
the posterior margins of the anterolateral teeth are longer than the 
anterior. They approach no other known speeies. 

The localities from which specimens have been examined are as 

Cape St. Lucas (type locality) : John Xautus, 2 large males, 1 ovigerous female 
(Mus. Comp. Zool.); oue dried fragmentary specimen (No. 2413, U. S. N. M.), 
having the carapace marked in 8timpsou's handwriting, " C. diacanthus, Cape 
St. Lucas, Xantus," and bearing no other hibel. 

Acapulco, Mexico (No. 18507, U. S. N. M. ). A large number were collected by the 
Hassler Exj)edition, and are in the Museum of Comparative Zoology. They 
are all adult, the smallest being 108 mm. wide. 


Mexico; Mexican Commission, World's Colnnibian P^xposition (No. 18(531. U.S. 

N. M.). 
(fnayaquil, Ecuador; I'rof. .lames Orton ; one male (Peabody Mus., "^'.'ile l^niv.). 

The C. robustns of Milne-Edwards, wliicli T thiidv was based on worn 
examples of C toxotes, is recorded from the I'aciflc coast of the United 
States of Colombia. 

(Plates XXII; XXIV, fio. 10; XXV, tig. 8: XXVI, fig. 8.) 

Lupa hellicosa (Si.oat MS.) SxiMrsoN, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. N. Y., VII, ip. 57, 

Calliiiecfes hcUicosiis, Ordway, Boston .Fonrn. Nat. Hist. VII, p. 577, 1863. 
Calliuectes hellicosiis, A., Crust. R6g. Mex., p. 227, 1879 (variety 

of CalUnectes diacaiithiin). 

Carapace moderately convex, granules fine and very closely set. 
Areolations less distinct than in C. areuatus. Length of intramedial 
region less than one-half its anterior width. Front (Plate XXIY, tig. 
10) with two slender sharp teeth, widely separated, and between them 
two very faintly marked median teeth. Submedian tooth sharp, longer 
than the lateral i)air. The inner supraorbital tissure is open, often 
throughout its length. Border of the orbit outside the tissure advanced 
beyond that portion inside the fissure. Suborbital tooth slender, well 
advanced and sharp. Anterolateral teetfli with sides more or less con- 
cave and sharp white tips. The lateral spine is very short; in adults 
less than twice the length of the preceding tooth, in half-grown speci- 
mens about twice the length, and in young specimens more than twice. 
The penultimate segment of the abdomen of the male (Plate XXV, fig. 
8) is broad at the base, and constricted in its proximal half. The 
appendages reach nearly to the extremity of the penultimate segment; 
they have a double curve (Plate XXVI, fig. 8), the curve being stronger 
in a vertical direction than in a horizontal. The merus of the chelipeds 
has four spines on its inner margin; a fifth spine, grading in size and 
position with these, is situated on the condyle of the ischium. The 
lidge on the outer and upper margin of the inanus is very prominent 
and marked with large tubercles, which in one nearly full-grown male 
are spiniform. The other costa? of the manus are less strongly marked, 
and are often almost smooth. 

Size. — The largest male is "),% inches wide, or 134 mm., with a length 
to tlie sinus of 64 mm. The frontal spines are broken. The largest 
females are immature or sterile, having a triangular abdomen. The 
dimensions are as follows: Length to sinus, male 4(1 mm., female 42; 
entire length, male 48 mm., female 43.5; width, male !>7 mm., female S(». 

Thelocalities from which specimens havebeen examined are asfollows: 

Lower California and Gulf of California, U. S. Fish Commission Str. Albatross, 
1889: San Bartolome Bay ; Magdalena Bay; La Paz Harbor; San Josef Island; 
Carmen Island; Concepcion Bay; Gnaymas; San Luis Gonzales Bay; St. 
George's Bay; Shoal Point, Colorado River. 

La Paz, Lower Califoraia; L. Belding (No. 4630, U. S. N. M.). 


Neniiy all the specimeus collected by the Albatross are young. 
Ordway gives as the locality for this species "Piuicate Bay, Gulf of 
California, Mus. S. I." The type is not extant. 


Callhiectesnitidiis, A. Milne-Edwards, Crust. Reg. Mex., p. 228, 1879 (variety of 

CaUinectes diacanthus). 
CaUhiectcs diacanthus, van CaUinectes nitidus, A. Milne-Edwards, Crust. Reo-. 

Mex., explanation of pi. XLi, 1879. 
CaUinectes diacanthus, A. Milxe-Edwards, Crust. Reg. Mex., pi. xli, 1879. 
In this CaUinectes the carapace is broad and the antero-lateral 
borders form a curve of a large circle; the teeth are large and strong. 
The front is little advanced; its median teeth are rudimentary, sepa- 
rated from each other by a well-marked notch, below which can be seen 
the projection of the epistome, which is very prominent. The carapace 
is ornamented with very fine granulations, and has a more shining 
appearance than ordinary. The abdomen of the male is narrow; in 
all the examples which I have examined the penultimate article has a 
membranous articulation at its base. The intromittent organs of the 
male are slender, straight, and extend to near the extremity of the 
penultimate article of the abdomen.. 

The carapace is violet; the under side a grayish-yellow, with the 
exception of the abdomen of the female, which is rose color, and has a 
black band on each article. The feet are tinged with blue and red. 
The plate was colored after a sketch made of the living animal by 
M. Bocourt. The Paris Museum possesses a large number of Gal- 
Unectes from Chile, which resemble completely those of Guatemala. 

Abundant at Tanesco, Guatemala, on the borders of the Esteros, hid- 
den in the sand, 


On Plate XXIII are shown three deformed claws of CaUinectes 
sapidus in the collection of the National Museum. They are difterent 
from those figured by Lucas- and by Faxou.^ 

In aright claw from the Potomac Eiver (fig. 4), received from J. F. H. 
Sisson, there is a duplication of the dactylus and the index linger, the 
inner pair being complementary to the outer and not a repetition of 
the right dactylus and index linger. The outer pair are simple and 
have each one row of teeth; the inner pair are forked near the tips; 
the dactylus has one row of teeth continued on both forks; the index 
linger is broader and has two rows of teeth converging to its base, 
each row terminating at the tip of a fork. 

In a left claw from Willoughby Point, Virginia (fig. 3), the index is 
divided into two branches, one above the other. The lower branch 
corresponds in length to the dactylus and has an upper row of teeth: 

' This species is known to the writer oulj- from Milne-Edwards' description. 
-Ann. Soc. Entoiu. France (2) II, pi. i, fig. 1. 
3 Bull. Mus. Conip. Zool., VIII, pi. ii, fig. 5. 


tbe upper branch is much shorter and curved inward at the extremity; 

it has a row of teeth on both the upi)er and h)wei" margins of its outer 

In a left claw from the same locality (fig. 2) the index is normal; 
the dactylus is abruptly bent downward at the middh', forming a 
sort of heel, and then turned obliquely forward, and carries but one 
row of teeth. 

In a lot of CalUiueies sapidus from Indianola, Texas, there is a 
remarkable series of malformations of the abdomen. One male, 54 mm. 
long, has the penultimate segment widening gradually toward the ante- 
penult, which for its distal two thirds has almost straight sides, instead 
of being concave as usual. Another male, 51.5 mm. wide, has broader 
segments than the last, and they are seven in number, as in the female. 
A very small male, 24 mm. wide, has the abdomen still wider propor- 
tionally, but the sutures between the third, fourth and fifth segments 
less distinct. Another individual, 55 mm. in width, has the abdominal 
ai»pendages of the male, but the shape of the abdomen is more nearly 
related to that of the female than any of the above. The first five 
segments are broad, as in the female, but the fifth and sixth narrow 
rapidly toward their union, making the sixth subcircular. The append 
ages of the first segment reach to the middle of the sixth, and are 
very divergent distally. Attached to orfe side of the third segment is 
a foreign growth, probably Feltoganter. 

Most of the young females in this lot have the usual triangular abdo- 
men with straight sides, and the fourth, fifth and sixth segments sol- 
dered together. One, however, no larger than the others, has an 
abdomen with convex sides and segments coalesced; the genital ori- 
fices are not present. A female of about the same size is in all resi)ects 
like adult forms. 

In the Museum of Coniparative Zoology there is a female Callinectes 
sapidus., about So mm. wide, with circular abdomen, bearing, besides 
the usual appendages, a pair on the first segment similar to those 
common to the male. 


In "The Fisheries and Fishery Industries of the United States,"^ Mr. 
Richard Rathbun gives an account of the habits, distributicm, and 
market value of Callinectes hantatKs (now C. sajjidus), reviewing all that 
has been written on the subject down to that date. 

In "Notes on the Crab Fishery of Crisfield, Maryland,"- Dr. Hugh M. 
Smith deals very fully with the industry at that place, incliuling the 
niodes of capture, methods of preparation for the market, etc. 

In recent reports and bulletins issued by the United States Fish 

' Section I, Natural History of Useful Aquatic Animals, pp. 775-778, 1884. 
^Bulletin U. S. Fish Commissiou, No. IX, p. 104, 1889. 


ComniissiQii^ can be found tabular statements sliowing the number ami 
value of edible crabs taken in each State. 

It is not yet known wliether any other species of Callinectes than 
stqndus is brought to market, but as both G. ornatus and G. larvatus 
are abundant in the Gulf States, they are undoubtedly taken for this 
purpose. It would be interesting to know to what extent these and 
other species take the place of G. sapldus, and how they differ in habits, 
color,- etc. 


Three correspondents of the National Museum — Hon. John 1). 
Mitchell, of Victoria, Texas; Judge Benjamin Harrison, of Pensacola, 
Florida; and Mr. Wlllard Nye, jr., of New Bedford, Massachusetts — 
have kindly permitted me to insert here the following notes based on 
personal observation of Gallinectes sapidus. The facts presented by 
Mr. Mitchell regarding the shedding are of especial interest, as our 
knowledge concerning the frequence of this occurrence is very meager. 

Xote.s hji Jolin I). MitclieU. — Born on an isolated i^oint on the Bay, 
and inheriting the naturalist's instincts from my mother, I made this 
crab {Gallinectes sapidiis) one of my earliest playthings, and it has 
been an interesting study since. When full grown, it measures about 
7 inches from point to point of the shell in tlie male, and 5 inches in 
the female. The claws, legs, and shell of the male are tinted with blue, 
those of the female with red; the apron of the male is narrow, that of 
the fenmle is broad. The mother crabs live in the Crulf and in the deep 
water passes and bayous adjacent to the (iulf. The eggs begin grow- 
ing in the si)ring under the apron, and hatch the latter part of May or 
June, the young clinging to the apron for several days. When first 
hatched, they are very little more than two eyes, and look like anything 
but a crab. I know little about the number of times the crab sheds 
from the time of leaving the mother's apron until it gets its crab shape, 
wliich is inside of three months. I have seen the little fellows so thick 
near the margin that the water would look murky and thick, and 
thousands could be scooped in the two hands placed together, and their 
cast-off shells would form a gray streak along the water's edge. They 
cullect in immense numbers along protected shores and nooks, shed- 
ding several times and getting their shape in September, when they 

'Statistical Review of the Coast Fisheries of the United States. <^ Rept. U. S. 
Commr. of Fish and Fisheries for 1888 (1892). Rejjort on the Fisheries of the New 
England States, by J. W. Collins and Hugh M. Smith. < Bull. U. S. Fish Commis- 
sion, X, 1890 (1892). Report on the Fisheries of the Sonth Atlantic States, by Hugh 
M. Smith. <Bull. U. S. Fish Commission. XI. 1891 a892). A Statistical Report 

on the Fisheries of the Gulf States, by J. W. Collins and Hugh M. Smith. <^ Bull. 
U. S. Fish Commission, XI, 1891 (1892). Report on the Coast Fisheries of Texas, by 
Charles H. Stevenson. <^Rept. U. S. Commr. of Fish and Fisheries for 1889-1891 

-H. AV. Conn, in Johns Hopkins University Circulars, November, 1883, describes the 
color variation in the claws of the sexes of C. sapUhis {= hastatus). 


start on their great migration across the bays for the north shores, 
where they enter the creeks and estuaries and go upon the shoals, 
where they remain until grown, burying themselves in the mud and 
sand in winter. 

They shed twice each summer for three summers, when they reach 
their full size and shed no more. The young crabs grow one-third 
larger after each shedding in the second and third summer. Tlie 
newly shed crab is a great delicacy. The shedding is done mostly at 
night, the smaller ones coming very near the shore for that purpose. 
I have observed the process many times with the aid of a lantern, and 
have gatliered many a mess of them, frequently waiting for some fellow 
to finish shedding. About ten minutes is occupied in the process, 
though I have never held a watch on one. 

During the third summer the females are impregnated oy old males, 
after which the red markings of the former appear, the apron becomes 
dark, and its form changes from triangular to broadly ovate. After 
impregnation and shedding for the last time, the fenmles start for the 
Gulf and meet the males no more, one meeting being sufticient for life. 
They lay their first eggs in their fourth summer. The males remain 
among the growing crabs, and are the ones taken for the table. 

The average life of the male crab is as follows: Take him in his third 
summer, his shell is 5 inches, and he has some green and blue tints, and 
occupies the place among crabs that a 16-year-old boy does among men. 
lie selects a safe place for his last shedding (he sheds twice during the 
summer), generally about September, near an old log, stone, or some- 
thing of the kind. Failing to find anything, he will dig a place in the 
sand, 12 or more inches in diameter. After shedding and going through 
his calisthenic performance to get himself into shape, his shell is 7 
inches wide, and the woman's form on his back becomes prominent, 
though it is always discernible on the young ones. It takes him the 
balance of the season to get back his strength and harden his flesh. 
The colors, green, brown, blue and wiiite, are clear and bright, and the 
crab is very pretty. He comes back to the shallows in the spring of 
his fourth year, a little sobered in color, but in his best condition. He 
has two objects in life, eating and propagation. He eats anything he 
can get in the way of dead fish or flesh. He will eat the young of his 
own species, if he can catch them. I have seen him make a rush among 
fiddlers feeding near the water, catch one, and take it back to the water 
to devour it. 

In courting he is ludicrous to the onlooker. The breeding females 
are those in their third summer. Meeting or ai^proaching one of these, 
he will elevate himself on the tips of his legs, getting as high from the 
ground as possible, extend his claws to their widest extent, supporting 
himself with his paddles, and in this position he will strut slowly and 
pompously in front of her. Should another male appear, a battle 
ensues. The sexual act lasts from 3 to 6 hours. The female will accept 
Proc. N. M. U.-) 24 


the male any time dnriug lier third summer, and as she sheds twice 
during this time, it frequently happens that he finds her while in a soft 
condition, taking possession just the same. Woe betide the luckless 
young male he finds too soft to run ! There will be one soft crab less 
and one old male will have a good dinner. There is no sentiment about 
C. sapklus. 

How long the male lives I do not know for certain, but I think about 
four. years from his last shedding, which would make his entire life 
seven years. When hebecomes superannuated, he seeks quiet nooks and 
safe shallows and prepares for death. In the fall (October and Novem- 
ber) I have found numbers of these old fellows scarcely able to move 
and too feeble to bite; their flesh is all gone or is soft and watery, and 
evaporates when dead or the minnows soon clean it out. A day or so 
after death, if the waves do not wash them to pieces, the shells are as 
clean and empty as any cast-off shell. I think this is the kind of shell 
which, occasionally found, gives rise to the idea that the crab sheds 
after maturity. It sheds to grow and for no other purpose, and when 
through growing it is through shedding. 

I have seen full-grown females with a triangular apron, perhaps about 
three each summer, and have always known them as neuters. Many 
sj^ecimens are defoi^med in the fingers. This I attribute to the accident 
of losing them, followed by some sort of pressure on the new fingers 
before they have become hard — as, for instance, in a sudden fright they 
might exert them over shells or other hard substances and permanently 
bend them. I remember one adult male whose claws were crossed at 
the points, and another in which the points worked past each other like 
a pair of shears. The fingers and claws that are renewed after losing 
the original ones are never so large or so effective as the original ones. 
This recuperative power lasts in full force only during the growing- 
years and diminishes with age. A middle-aged crab will reproduce a 
claw only half the size of the original, and an old crab will reproduce 
none, or only a small nub that is useless. 

There is no one, I think, engaged in the crab fishery on this coast. 
Occasionally the negroes of Port Lavaca will send a few dozen boiled 
to the interior towns and retail them at 10 cents each. Mr. F. V. Gentry, 
of Port Lavaca, has shipped a few lots of adult crabs, but there is no 
one making a specialty of catching them. I believe he paid 25 cents 
per dozen. 

I have seen CaUinectes stqyidits, or what I took to be them, in the 
Guadalupe Kiver at Victoria; in the Navidad Piver, Jackson County, 
20 miles above Texana; and I caught three, which were C. sapidus, in a 
spring branch which flows into the Garcitas Creek, Victoria County. 
They were 40 miles from salt water, air line. They were diftereut in 
color from those in salt water, being of a reddish brown ; otherwise I 
saw no difference in them. 

On November 14, 1894, while seeking stone crabs in the mouth of 



Chocolate Bay, near Port Lavaca, I found in deserted stone-crab holes 
four soft crabs, GalUnectes sapidus, — one female in her second year, one 
male in his second year, one male in his third year, and one male in his 
fourth year, or full grown. I also found four aged crabs, too feeble to 
run or nip. They had sought a quiet nook, protected by rushes and 
salt grass, and were patiently awaiting dissolution. I attribute the 
late shedding to our late fall. We had had no frost, and wading was 
very pleasant. 

The third week of September, 1895, I spent cruising in Matagorda 
and adjacent bays, and had another chance to observe the habits of 
these crabs. There is a cove, terminating in a small bayou, on the 
north side of Sand Point, Calhoun County; this point separates Mata- 
gorda and Port Lavaca bays. The weather was easterly and the cove 
protected. Around it we stretched a seine and caught about 200 adult 
male crabs, 22 of which had in their possession a female; 19 of these 
females were verging on maturity; 2 were shed for the last time (that 
is, full grown), but still soft, one of them being held upside down, and 
one female was full grown, her new shell about three days old. Twenty- 
oue of these couples were interlocked in the same manner — that is, the 
male had his front leg on either side passed from the rear around the 
puddle and legs of the female, bringing her well in front of him, and 
held so tightly that many of them were lifted from the water and put 
into the boat without loosing their hold. None released his companion 
until roughly handled. One was holding on to the sides of the seine 
with the rear feet and to his companion with his front feet, and was eat- 
ing a small fish which was still alive. He held on to both fish and crab 
until placed in the skift". In all the crabs observed — not far from 1,000 — 
the only full-grown females were the three above described, of which 
two were yet soft and the third had shed very recently. 

Notes by Benjamin Harrison. — On both the east and west coasts of 
Florida, CalUnectes sapidus is quite common; nor is it confined to salt 
water. On the St. Johns River, it is found more than 100 miles from 
the sea. I have seen many specimens in Lake George, 125 miles from 
Jacksonville. On the west shore of Lake George a salt spring runs 
through a deep creek into the lake. Here the common crab swarms. 
Where the creek empties into the lake there is a wide expanse of shal- 
low water with clean white sand. Here the crabs come out at night in 
great numbers to feed, and I have frequently seen them seize small fish 
and collect about the refuse from our camp. Evidently they have no 
distaste for the fresh water of the lake. 

Both on the east and west coasts they like quiet, shallow waters, and 
prefer sandy bottoms. They bury themselves in the sand to escape 
observation, and will do this as soon as they find speed ineffective when 
l)ursued. During the spring months they are much more " in evidence," 
l)ecause then they seek the waters near the shore warmed by the sun. 
While maring they are much less voracious than at other times. After 


mating they are daring and predatory, soon regaining the strength and 
flesh they have lost. 

Now each crab has a favorite retreat, from which he does not wander 
far. When chased, he returns to it. He has a reguhir beat, and he 
patrols it at short intervals day and night, except when gorged with 
food. If he hnds a small bit, he will eat it immediately. If more than he 
wants at the moment, he will try to drag it to his sheltered nook under 
a log or rock. If he can not carry it, he will eat to repletion and then try 
to bury it, and will remain in the neighborhood. If food is discovered 
within the territory of one, others will cross the boundary, and I have 
seen lively fights. But as soon as the visitor gorges himself, he seems 
disinclined to active exertion and only "covers what he stands on," 
while another drives oft" the crowd and eats. I have often dropped in 
a dead fish and watched this performance. From what I have seen, I 
judge that the sense of smell is well developed in CalUnectes scqndus. 
I have covered the fish, but it was soon found, and other crabs came 
from a distance. Undoubtedly they have keen sight, but they seem to 
depend more on their sense of smell. In the spring, when the male and 
female are together, there seems to be much community of feeling 
between the two. They hunt in couples ; they do not strnggle with 
each other for food, but share it, and I have many times seen the two 
combine to drive oft" a stranger. Later, however, they treat each other 
as strangers, and after April I have seen the two ''x)artners" fight. 

They retire to deeper water in winter. We see them return to their 
summer haunts every warm day. They do not seek the deepest water, 
but find shelter where the water is about 4 or 5 feet deep. They do not 
roam about at night-time till the water is quite warm. During Decem- 
ber, January, February and March they must eat very little, yet they 
come out strong and active. Therefore, I think they "half- hibernate" 
(if I may use the expression) as the bears do in this State. 

In 1890 I saw fully 500 sea bass in Lake George, through which the 
!St. Johns River runs, which had died from the attack of a fungus- 
looking parasite. I found two crabs with the same disease. Both died. 

1 saw many other crabs in the same waters apparently entirely free 
from any sickuess. 

I have seen the common leech on joints of the crab,^ but never satis- 
fied myself it was anything but a i)assenger. So of a red worm about 

2 inches long. I was not sure in either case that the crab was attacked. 
N^otes hij Willard Nye, jr. — The largest and oldest of our common 

blue-claw crabs I have generally found in some small pool in a marsh 
where the tide refreshed the water at each rise. Here, selecting a 
place under some rock or sunken drift log, the crab takes life in a 
most easy way, as with each tide the small fish swarm into the pool 

'The Myzobdella lugnbris Is a small leech, which lives on the "edible crab" {Cal- 
Iwectes liasfatus), adhering to the soft niem'braue between the joints and at the base 
of the legs. (Verrill, Vineyard Sound Report, p. 458.) 


to see what they can pick up, and many of them are taken in by 
crabby. Taking advantage of such spots in the sand or mud and 
keeping out of sight, and then roiling up the water, they attract these 
small tish and secure a good meal. After a crab has reached his 
extreme growth, 1 do not think he sheds his shell, as I have often found 
them with a long growth of moss on their backs. As October cb-aws 
to a close, the blue-claw moves oft" into deep water, and at this season 
may frequently be seen paddling near the surface as he works down- 
stream with the tide. They are found all winter in the channels near 
the mouths of our rivers, where the water is salty. In some places I 
have seen the ice covered with them, where they had been caught by 
people spearing eels. At this season they are very torpid. A number 
of years ago the September storms closed up the entrance of Quick 
Sands Pond, Rhode Island. Early in November there came a sharp 
cold spell, and on going down to where the washed-in beach made a 
dam to the creek, I think I saw more blue-claw crabs in five minutes 
than I have ever seen since in the whole of my life. The bottom was 
blue and green with them. For, you see, as the water became cold they 
moved down pond and tried to get back to the ocean the way they 
came in in the spring, and here in the shallow water you would see 
hundreds snapping then- claws out to catch the young menhaden 
which, like themselves, had become imprisoned by the closing creek. 
These crabs were nuich more ugly than any I have seen, and if in 
catching them with a scoop net you broke the shell of one and he 
tried to get away, he was at once seized on by those nearest and eaten 
up without the slightest remorse. These crabs were so thick that 
with a single scoop of a small net I hauled out eleven. A few days 
after I was at the pond, the weather became much colder and the crabs 
started out over the beach to the ocean, a distance of about 400 feet. 
Some bass fishermen then caught over six barrels while the crabs were 
on their way across. This is the only instance which I ever knew of 
the blue-claw crab leaving the water and walking across lots on his 
own hook. 


Plate XII. 

CaUinectes sajndus, Rathbun, = C'. hastatiis (Say). Male. Much reduced. 

Plate XIII. 

CaUinectes sa2)idus aciitideus, Kathbuu, new subspecies. Male. Reduced about one- 

Plate XIV. 

CaUinectes sa2}idus, varying toward acutidens. Male. Reduced about one-fifth. 


Plate XV. 
CalUnectes ornatus, Ordway. Male. Reduced about one-fifth. 

Plate XVI. 

CaUinectes dana', Smith. Male. (Ty^e oi Liqni dicantha, Dana.) Reduced about 

Plate XVII. 
CaUinectes larvattis, Ordway. Male. Reduced about oue-fifth. 

Plate XVIII. 
CaUinectes tuviidus, Ordway. Male. Reduced about one-fifth. 

Plate XIX. 
CaUinectes hocourti{?), A. Milne-Edwards. Male. Considerably reduced. 

Plate XX. 
CaUinectes arcuatHs, Ordway. Male. Reduced about one-fourth. 

Plate XXI. 
CaUinectes toxotes, Ordway. Female. Reduced about one-third. 

Plate XXII. 
CaUinectes heUicosns (Stimpson). Male. Reduced about one-fifth. 

Plate XXIII. 

Fig. 1. CaUinectes arcuatus, Ordway. Young male. (Perhaps type of C. pleuriUcns, 
Ordway.) Reduced about one-fourth. 
2-4. Deformed claws of CaUinectes sapidits. Reduced about one-third. 

Plate XXIV. 
Frontal outlines of CaUinectes. Slightly enlarged. 

Fig. 1. CaUinectes sapidits. 

2. CaUinectes sopidus acuiidens. 

3. CaUinectes ornafiis. 

4. CaUinectes da n(r. 

5. CaUinectes larvatus. 

Fig. 6. CaUinectes tnmidns. 

7. CaUinectes hocourti. 

8. CaUinectes arcuatus. 

9. CaUinectes toxotes. 
10. CaJUnectes heUicosus. 

Plate XXV. 
Abdominal outlines of CaUinectes. :\Iale. Slightly enlarged. 

Fig. 1. CaUinectes sapidus. 

2. CaUinectes ornatus. 

3. CaUinectes dana'. 

4. CaUinectes larvatus. 

5. CaUinectes tumidus. 

Fig. 6. CaJUnectes hocourti. 

7. CaUinectes arcuatus. 

8. CaUinectes heUicosus. 

9. CaUinectes toxotes. 




Platk XXVI. 
Abdomiual appendages of CalUnedes. Male. Slightly enlarged. 

Fig. 1. CalUiiectes scqiidus. 

2. Callinecies oniatus. 

3. CaUinectes dainv. 

4. CaUinectes larratiis. 

5. CaUinectes tumidus. 

Fig. 6. CaUinectes hocourti. 

7. CaUinectes arcuatus. 

8. CaUinectes beUicosus. 

9. CaUinectes toxotes. 

Plate XXVII. 

Abdominal outlines of CaUinectes. Female 

1 Fiji- 

Slightly reduced. 

Fig. 1. CaUinectes sapidus. 

2. CaUinectes ornatiis. 

3. CaUinectes dana'. 

4. CaUinectes larratas. 

5. CaUinectes tumidus. 

6. CaUinectes iocourti. 

7. CaUinectes arcuatus. 

8. CaUinectes toxotes. 

Plate XXVIII. 

Fossil CaUinectes. Natural size. 



O ^ 







O § 









O 3 



^ £ 



O £ 





For explanation of plate see page 374 



Frontal Outlines of Callinectes 

For explanation of plate see page 374 



Abdominal Outlines of Callinectes, Male 

For explanation of plate see page 374 



Abdominal Appendages of Callinectes, male 

For explanation of plate see page 375 



Abdominal Outlines of Callinectes, Female 

For explanation of plate see page 375 



DESCEIPTI0:N"!S of two new species of FRESH-WATER 

By Mary J. Rathbun, 

Second Assistant Curator. Department of Marine Invertebrates. 

The Museo IsTacional de Costa Rica has recently sent, through Mr. J. 
Fid, Tristan, a number of crabs and shrimps to the United States 
Ilfatioual Museum for identification. Among them were found two 
new species of Pscudothelphusa. 

(Plates XXIX; XXX, iigs. 7-10.) 

Closely allied to P. richmotidi, Rathbun.^ Carapace wider than in 
P. richmondi, branchial region more swollen, cervical suture sinuous. 
The surface is covered with flattened granules, some of which on the 
anterior half of the carapace are large and dark- 
colored, looking like scales, but almost smooth to the 
touch. The frontal lobes seen from above are sepa- 
rated by a broad and deej) notch; margin uneven, 
more advanced in its inner portion, passing gradually 
into the orbital margin; the curve is much less abrupt 
than in P. rk-hmondi. In Plate XXIX a portion of 
tlie maxilliped shows beneath the front. The front 
seen from before is much wider and less deep than in 
l\ richmondi and the outer margins more oblique 
(Plate XXX, figs. and 7). The external angle of 
the orbit is nearly as advanced as the front, while in 
/'. richmondi it is much less so. The spines or spinules 
of the lateral margin are proportionally smaller than 
ill P. richmondi. The eyes also are much smaller than 
in P. richmondi and do not fill one-half the depth of the orbit. The 
first abdominal appendage of the male is similar in character to that of 
P. richmondi. It has three teeth at the extremity on the upper side. 
(See npper left-hand portion of fig. 9.) The longitudinal plate on the 

Fig. 1. 


Natural size. 


' Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., XVI, 1893, p. 654, pi. lxxv, figs. 6-10. 
Proceedings of the United States National Museum, Vol. XVIII— Xo. 1071. 




Fig. 2. 


About three-eighths naturnl size. 

inner side of the lower portion, shown in Figure 10, is mncli longer than 
the corresponding part in P. rkhmondi. The merns of the outer maxil- 
lipeds is longer and narrower in this species.^ 

Chelipeds unequal, large and strong. The raerus has a row of very 
stout conical teeth on its inner margin, as a rule becoming smaller 
proximally and continued on the ischium ; the lower edge has a row of 

small tubercles ; • the outer 
nmrgin has a wide band of 
prominent squamose tuber- 
cles, which, toward the car 
pus, become lines. 
The palmar portion of the 
manus is longer than in 
P. richmondi, the margins 
of its surface less convex. 
The outer surface of carpus, 
propodus and dactylus is covered with a network of dark brown, and 
numerous granules of still darker color. The teeth of the fingers have 
a dark band across their bases ana a lighter line around their cutting- 
edges. Ambulatory legs thick, meri with edges rough or slightly spinu- 
lous. Inner lower margin of meri of first pair with prominent tubercles. 
This margin is smooth in P. richmonili. 

Dimensions. — Largest male, length 84 mm., width 135 mm. 
Color. — Yellowish brown. 

Habitat. — Pozo Azul, 800 or 1,000 feet above the sea, two males (Nos. 
19048, 10049, type, U. S. K M.) collected by J. C. Zeledon, April 4, 1888; 
Eio Maria Aguilar, one male, collected by A. Lizauo, 
May 29, 1891 ; also one female (Xo. 19050, U. S. X. M.) 
collected by J. Fid. Tristan; Eio Torres, one male, 
collected by J. Fid. Tristan. 

This species is the largest of the known Pseudo- 

(Plate XXX, figs. 1-5.) 
smooth and shining, inconspicuously 

granulate near the lateral margins; grooves deep; 
branchial region nnich swollen in its anterior half. 
Front with a well-marked crest, which is rough with 
punctai but not tuberculate, and terminates at the 
orbital border just behind the insertion of the eye. 
margins with a prominent punctate ridge. Outer half of the superior 
orbital border finely crenulate ; inferior border crenulate. Anterolateral 
margin denticulate, and with two well-marked teeth behind the orbit. 

1 Compare fig. 1 in text with fig. 9, pi. lxxv, Vol. XVI, Proceedings U. S. National 

Fig. 3. 


About four times natural iiie. 

Lower and outer 



The sixth segment of the abdomen in the male is shorter than the 
seventh ; the seventh is very broad and obtuse. The appendages of tlie 
first segment (Plate XXX, figs. 3 and 4) are very different from those 
of any other species that I have seen. The character of the chelipeds 
is shown in Plate XXX, figs. 1 and 2. The carpus, propodus and 
dactylus are granulate. The ambulatory legs are spiuulous above; 
the propodal joints are spinulous below. 

Dimensions.— LQngi\^ of male, 18.7 mm. ; width, 30.8 mm. Length of 
female, 18 mm.; width, 29.9 mm. 

(7o/or.— Very dark brown; lower side and legs lighter. 

Jlrtftifrtt— "LaMina,"Eio Torres, north of San Jose, 1,130 meters 
above the sea. One male (No. 19047, U.S.N.M.) and one female, col- 
lected by J. Fid. Tristan, August 7, 1894. 

Plate XXIX. 
PseudotheJphusa 7nagna, male. Less than one-half uatiiral size. 

Plate XXX. 

Fig. 1. Pseudothelphusatrisfani,male. Natural size. 

2. Pseiidothel2)hH8a tristarii, male, large hand. Slightly enlarged. 

3. Psendothclphiisa instanl, male, right abdominal appendages, outer side. 

Three and one-half times natural size. 

4. PseudotMphusa tristani, male, left abdominal appendages, lower side. Four 

times natural size. 

5. Psetidothelphusa tristani, front. About two and one-half times natural size. 

6. Psetidothelphusa rkhmondi, front. About two and two-thirds natural size. 

7. Psetidothelphusa ma<j)ia, front. About one and one third natural size. 

8. Psetidothelphtisa magtia, abdomen of male. Slightly reduced. 

9. Psetidothelphtisa magna, male, tirst abdominal appendage of right side, outer 

view. One and one-half times natural size. 
10. Psetidothelphtisa magna, male, first abdominal appendage of right side, lower 
view. One and one-half times natural size. 



< 3 




Fresh-water Crabs of the Genus Pseudothelphusa 

For explanation of plate see page 379 


By Charles Torrey Simpson, 

Aid, Department of MoUmka. 

The material on wbicli this paper is based ^vas sent to the writer 
for examination by Prof. E. T. Dumble, State geologist of Texas.^ It 
was obtained irom the Dockum beds, an extensive formation which 
nnderlies all or nearly all the Staked Plains of Texas, and southeast- 
ern New Mexico, reaching farther back into that Territory northwest 
of the Plains, and having some extension under the Cretaceous area 
south of them in Texas. The limit of the plains on the east, north 
and west is marked by an escarpment, which is usually from 100 to 
200, and sometimes 300 or 400 feet high. The basal portion and occa- 
sionally nearly all of this escarpment is composed of what are believed 
to be Triassic beds. They usuaHy extend some 6 or 7 miles beyond the 
base of the great plain. ^ 

These beds are composed of horizontal strata of sandstone, conglom- 
erate and clay; and are overlaid in some places by Cretaceous, but 
more generally Tertiary strata, and underlaid by the rocks of the 
Permian period, whose lithological characters are so different from 
those believed to be Triassic that the latter can usually be recognized 
without trouble. The slight difference in dip, and the sudden change in 
lithological characters from the Triassic to the Permian, point conclu- 
sively to a break in the sedimentation of the two deposits. According 
to the evidence of the fossils and the characteristic material forming 
them, the Dockum beds seem to have been deposited in an inland, 
fresh-water basin. The vertebrates, as determined by Prof. E.D.Cope, 
were shallow fresh-water animals. 

A few fragments of bivalve shells were collected by Professor Cope 
in the valley of Gallinas Creek, New Mexico, associated with vertebrate 
remains, which latter led their discoverer to believe the formation was 

'The paper and the accompanying figures were prepared for the report of the 
Texas Geological Survey, but on account of the failure of the legislature of that 
State to provide funds for carrying on the investigation, the work of the Survey has 
come to a standstill. Through the kindness of Professor Dumble, I am permitted 
to publish the paper in the Proceedings of the United States National Museum. 

2 Third Ann. Rept. Geol. Survey of Texas, p. 227, 1891. 

Proceedings of the United States National Museiuu, Vol. XVIII — Xo. 1072. 



Triassic. Some of these fragments were described by Meek as Unios/ 
but they were iu such bad condition that even a generic determination 
coukl hardly be considered certain. As the shells on which this paper 
is based are, I believe, undoubted Uuios,and as it seems to be pretty well 
established that the strata in which they were found are Triassic, I 
think I need have little hesitation iu saying that these are the earliest 
authentic specimens known of this common and widely distributed 
genus. I may further add that in the opinion of Dr. Charles A. White ^ 
it is quite probable that the Gallinas Creek fossils belong to the 

Taken as a whole, these Unios closely resemble in form and are appar- 
ently nearly related to those of the Jurassic beds of Korth America, and 
to certain species of our Cretaceous and Tertiary formations. Thej^ can 
hardly be said to be very near relatives of any species at present living 
in the New World, though JJnio anodontoides and one or two other allied 
species from the Mississippi basin have characters in common with 
some of them. In Europe, however, the well-known Unto jjictorum and 
other somewhat similar species, as well as most of the forms found in 
Asia Minor, show a considerable resemblance to some of these species. 

It is remarkable that there has been so little change in the species 
of this genus from the time when they lived in this great Triassic lake 
to the present day. In some cases specific descriptions of these fossils, 
wbose age probably dates back well toward the beginning of the Meso- 
zoic, so far as all the characters which remain are concerned, would 
apply almost without change to species living in the Euro-Asiatic region 
to-day. And Dr. White has shown that the same persistency of char- 
acters is true of a number of the forms of the Laramie group of the 
Cretaceous, which iu all probability are the ancestors of some of our 
characteristic recent Mississippi Valley species, and which can hardly 
be separated from them.^ 

As he has pertinently remarked, these earliest types of Unios have 
continued almost unchanged until the present, while to-day there is 
not a single family of vertebrates in existence that lived in Triassic 
times. This wonderful persistence of JJnio forms, and the variety of 
cliaracters displayed in the species herein described, go to show that 
the genus must have been well established at the time the Dockum 
beds were deposited, and that it undoubtedly had its origin at a much 
earlier period, thus tending to overthrow the theory of Neumayr,^ that 
the Unionidie were derived from the genus Trigonia, which probably 
does not date back to a period earlier than that of the shells under 

' Unto cristonensis, Meek, Auu. Kept. Expl. and Siirv. West of One Hundredth Merid- 
ian, 1875, p. 83. 

"A Review of the Non-marine Fossil Mollusca of North America, p, 425, 1883. 

^A Review of the Non-marine Fossil Mollusca of North America, p. 428, 1883. 

^Sitzungsher. d. Ic. Akad. Wiss. Wien, Math.-uaturwiss. CI., XCVIII, 1889, Heft 
1-3, 1. Abth., p. 5. 






diameter, 25 mm. 

The theory advanced by W. Amalsky,i that the Naiades descended 
from the Anthracosida?, seems the more reasonable one, as the two fami- 
nes agree in many essential i)oints of shell structure, and the latter 
were probably inhabitants of the 
fresh waters of the Carboniferous 
and Permian periods. 


Shell rather large, somewhat 
triangular and compressed; 
growth lines strong and elevated ; 
dorsal region and posterior slope 
rounded ; beaks not very promi- 
nent; area of the lateral teeth 
strongly curved; cardinals 
rather wide, parallel, separated intemau.ew, 

by a narrow socket. Length, 85 mm. ; height, 57 mm. 
Locality. — Duck Creek, Dickens County, Texas. 

Of this line species only a single cast of a right valve of ferruginous 

clay conglomerate, and what is 
probably a right valve of the 
same, badly incrusted and buried 
in a limestone matrix, were 
received. The latter, on being 
carefully cleaned, shows the shell 
to have been of moderate thick- 
ness, and to have the curious, par- 
allel, cardinal teeth that charac- 
terize most of the Unios of the 
southern hemisphere to-day. The 
lateral teeth are shown plainly at 
their posterior end, but the hinge 
plate is so worn away and in- 
jured that they are not visible along the rest of it. 

UNIO DUMBLEI, new species. 

Shell elongated oval, widest at the region of the beaks, rounded before 
and behind; anterior end very short; posterior and anterior slopes ele- 
vated and almost ridgelike, with a flattened or slightly excavated area 
in the middle of the disc; dorsal margin rounded; base of the shell 
nearly straight or sometimes a little emarginate; beaks rather promi- 
nent; ligament small, but elongated; growth lines ratlier strong. 
Length, 55 mm.; height, 25 mm. ; diameter, 18 mm. 

Fig. 2. 


Cast from outskle of right valve. 

'Paleoutographica, XXXIX, p. 198, Stuttgart,1892. 



VOL. xvm. 

Locality. — Five miles iiortlieast of Dockiim, bead of Duck Creek, 
Dickeus County. Five j)airs, more or less perfect, were sent irom a 

gray sandstone near Dockum, and 
what are probably tliree or four 
heavily incrusted valves of tlie same, 
from clayey conglomerate from Duck 
Creek. They recall quite strongly 
young specimens of Z^nio dignatus 
from Assyria, and U. pictorum and 
tlie allied simple forms of Europe. 

Fig. 3. 


Fig. 4. 


UNIO GRACILIRATUS, new species. 

Shell small, oblong oval, rounded before and slightly biangular 
behind; dorsal region more curved than the base; growth lines mod- 
erate; surface generally, but especially the posterior region, more or 
or less sculptured with delicate, somewhat broken, and wavy narrow 
lin^. Length, 40 mm.; height, 23 mm.; diameter, 16 mm. 

Xoc«?/7i/.— South of spur. Headquarters 21, Dickens County, Texas; 
head of Duck Creek, Dickens County. 
Four left valves in a limestone matrix 
were sent from the former locality, 
and two left valves embedded in 
coarse granulated limestone from the 
latter. One right valve of what is 
probably this species was sent from 
the Dockum beds, at the southeast 
corner of Crosby County, Texas, with 
a number of U. docl-umensis. Six 
rather imperfect specimens from the Dockum beds, in the southeast 
corner of Garza County, Texas, 1 am inclined to refer to this sjiecies, 
though they are less elongated and nearly all of them destitute of the 
peculiar sculpture of the type. In some of the specimens of this spe- 
cies, the lir.T are quite distinct and regularly developed ; in others the 
surface is nearly smooth; while others show slight, somewhat elongated 
radiating nodules. 

UNIO DOCKUMENSIS, new species. 

Shell, oblong-oval, rounded before, somewhat pointed posteriorly; 
umbonal region quite prominent, sculptured with distinct, radiating 
ridges ; sides rather flattened ; ventral line straight or slightiy incurved 
about the middle of the shell ; ventral region rather prominent poster- 
iorly; growth lines strong; valves solid; pallial line deeply imi)ressed; 
interior bearing a ridge running diagonally from the cardinals toward 
the i)osterior l:)asal portion, in front of which the shell is much thicker; 
cardinal teeth short and rather stout, laterals solid. Length, 60 mm.; 
height, 35 mm. ; diameter, 25 mm. 



Some of the specimens are considerably smaller than the above 
measurements, a few are a little larger, and a number seem to have 
beeu somewhat distorted by i^ressure. Specimens AA'hich I believe to 
be females are fuller in the posterior 
part of the ventral region than others 
which may be males. Two casts were 
found the first year in which collec- 
tions were made from the . Staked 
riains, at a windmill three miles north 
of Dockum, and the name doelnimcnsis 
was applied to these by Mr. Cummins, 
though he did not describe the species. '^' 


On making clay casts of some of the 

valves sent, I was convinced that these types were the same as the 
more perfect specimens, and I have accordingly described the species 
from some of the latter. 

Locality. — Southeast corner of Garza County, Texas; windmill 3 
miles north of Dockum ; tank north of Double Mountain River; head 
of Duck Creek, Dickens County, Texas. 

An abundant and well-distributed as well as quite variable species, 
of which a large number of examples were sent, generally in fair con- 
dition, and composed for the most part of crystallized calcium carbonate. 

In form, the species very strongly resembles the European and west- 
ern Asiatic Unios of to-day, but it is remarkable in being sculptured 
with strong, radiating ridges on the umbonal area — a character pos- 
sessed by all the recent South American species, and somewhat imper- 
fectly by those of Australasia. The teeth, however, are very different 
from the teeth of these southern forms, and more nearly resemble those 
of the North American Jurassic and Cretaceous Unios. 

Specimens of what are perhaps two other species were sent, but they 
are not sufficiently well preserved to describe. 

To sum up, then, these Triassic Unios are evidently not the earliest 
members of the genus, since they show divergent characters, which 
are dominant in Avidely distributed and prominent groups of this genus 
found living at the present day. Thus Unto graciliratus in its some- 
what broken and radiating lines possesses characters now found in an 
assemblage of peculiarly sculptured species of eastern Asia, and the 
teeth of U. subplanatus have characters like those of all or nearly all 
the species of the southern hemisphere. The radial beak sculpture is 
unknown at the present day outside of South America and Australa- 
sia, while the forms of at least three of these species, as well as their 
interiors, where exhibited, bring to mind most strongly the species 
which now inhabit Europe and western Asia, and a small group belong- 
ing to the Mississippi area. 
Proc. N. M. 95 25 


Honorary Custodian of the Collection of Diptera. 

The present paper, which is entirely preliminary in its character, is 
based upon a study of the rich material contained in the collection of 
the United States National ^Museum, supplemented by my own collec- 
tion and the specimens received from several correspondents, notably 
from Dr. W. A. Nason, of Algonquin, Illinois; Annie Tinimbull Slosson, 
of New York City; Mr. Charles Robertson, of Carlinville, Illinois, and 
Prof. Howard Evarts Weed, of Agricultnral College, Mississippi. I 
desire in this place to thank all of those who by the gift or loan of 
specimens or in other ways have aided in the preparation of this paper, 
and especially the authorities of the United States National Museum, 
for the privilege of studying the fine series of specimens in the collection 
of that institution. Types of the new species, not jireviously possessed 
by the Museum, have been deposited with it. 

With all this material before me, however, there are still several spe- 
cies of which I have seen no representative, and in the tables which 
accompany this paper I have in several instances been compelled to 
make use of only those characters mentioned in the existing descrip- 
tions. These tables, despite these imperfections, have been very use- 
ful to me in identifying the species, and they are given in the hope that 
other students nmy find them equally helpful. Only those genera iu 
which new species are herewith described are tabulated in the present 
paper, which deals only with the North American forms. 

In Osten Sacken's Catalogue of the Described Diptera of North 
America, twenty-four genera of Empidie are credited to our fauna. The 
following observations on some of them may not be out of place here: 

Tachydromia. — The species catalogued under this genus belong to 

Tachypeza. — The species placed under this genus belong to Tachydro- 
viia. Macquart restricted the latter name to the present grouj) and 
applied the name PJatypalpus to the preceding group three years before 
Meigen proposed the name Tacliypeza for the jiresent group; conse- 
quently Macquart's name, being the earlier, must be retained. This 

Proceedings of tlio Uuited States National Museum, Vol. XVIII — Xo. 1073. 



course lias already been adopted by Dr. Schiner and the British ento- 

Synaniphotera. — This genus is not as yet known to occur in our fauna; 
in the single species, 8. bicolor, referred to it by Loew, the third vein is 
simple, and not forked; judging from the description, this species 
apparently belongs to the genus Sciodromia, Haliday, not heretofore 
reported as occurring in our fauna. 

Hemerodromia. — The species catalogued under this name are very 
heterogeneous, and in the present paper they are separated into three 
genera, viz: Mantipeza, Rondani, Hemerodromia., Meigen, and a new 
genus for which the name of Keoplasta is proposed. I have followed 
Eondani in restricting the genus Hemerodromia to those forms in which j 
the discal cell is united with one of the other cells, since this author ' 
appears to have been the first to dismember the old genus. i 

Since the publication of the above-mentioned catalogue, three new 
genera of Empidre have been proposed, viz, Miithicomyia, described by 
the writer,^ and Enoplempis and Megacyttartis, published by Bigot.'^ j 
JEnoplempis was known to the author in the male sex only. Specimens I 
of what is evidently the S])ecies described by him as Enoplempis cinerea^ 
were collected by the writer in southern California. The females do { 
not difier in any respect from typical species of Empis, and therefore 
should not be separated from it. Both Loew and Schiner have described t 
under Hmjris forms structurally identical with Enoplempis. I 

The genus Megacittarus, Bigot, was founded on a single female speci- 
men without antenna'; this is evidently the female of Rhampho my ia 
limbata, Loew, specimens of which are in the National Museum collec- i 
tion from the same locality (Colorado) as the type of Meg acittar us, and 
were evidently from the same collector (Morrison). As the male of , 
B. limbata does not difier in any respect from a typical Rhampliomyia, 
this proposed new genus must be regarded as being synonymous with 
the latter. 

In the following pages four new genera are established, viz : Neoplastay 
Empimorpluij Enliybtis and Neocota; and two or three genera not here- 
tofore known to occur ill our fauna have been recognized, viz : Manti- 
peza, Rondani, Sciodromia, Haliday (probably), and MegJiyperus, Loew. 

The genus Hilarimorpha, Schiner, has by some authors been placed 
in the present family, but it has much more aflinity with the Leptid;ie^ 
to which family it has already been referred by Osten Sacken. Besides i 
the analogies mentioned by this author as existing between Hilarimor- 
pha and the other genera of Leptida*,^ may be mentioned as a common 
character the entire eyes, as opposed to the eyes deeply emarginate: 
opposite the antennte, as they are in the Empida;. 

' Entomological News, IV, June, 1893, p. 209. 

2 Bulletin des Stances de la Soci^t6 Entomologique de France, 1880, p. 47. 

3Loc. cit., 1882, p. 91. 

< Berliner Entomol. Zeitschrift, 1890, XXXV, p. 303. 


The following table contains all tlie genera of Empida? at present 
known to occnr in North America: 


1. Third longitudinal vein forked , 2 

Third longitudinal vein simple, not forked 16 

2. Discal lell present, eoin]ilete 4 

Discjil eell united with one of the other eells 3 

3. With only two veins isstiiug from the discal cell, the anterior one forked 

Hemerodromia (p. liitl). 
With three veins issuing from the discal cell, the anterior one simple, not 

forked Neoplasia (p. 392). 

4 . Three veins issue from apex of discal cell 5. 

Two veins issue from discal cell, fourth vein forked, proboscis perpendicular 

Maniipeza (p. 392). 

5. Anterior branch of the third vein terminates in the costa (except in some 

species of Empis) 6 

Anterior branch of the third vein terminates in the second vein ; anal cell as 
long as the second basal, the vein at its apex perpendicular to hind 
margin of the wing Blepliaroprocta. 

6. Proboscis shorter or but slightly longer than heiglit of head 7 

Proboscis much longer than height of head; vein at apex of anal cell nearly 

parallel with the hind margin of the wing 12 

7. Vein closing the anal cell nearly perpendicular to the hind margin of the 

wing 8 

Vein closing the anal cell nearly parallel with the hind margin of the wing. 9 

8. Anterior branch of third vein connected with the second by a cross vein; 

veins 2 and 3 undulating; wings dotted over their entire surface 

Anterior branch of third vein not connected with the second; veins never 
undulating; wings not dotted over their entire surface; aluLe well 
developed Brachijsto7na (p. 393). 

9. .\ntenn;e three jointed 10 

AutenniB one-fifth as long as the head, apparently only two jointed, last 

joint ov<al; style thick, nearly half as long as the antennae; proboscis 
very short Jformopeza. 

10. Antenna! style nearly twice as long as the third joint ; proboscis soft, much 

shorter than the head 11 

Antennal style scarcely longer or shorter than the third joint; proboscis 

usually rigid Bilara (p. 394). 

11. Alulffi well developed (iloma. 

Alul.-B very small Clhiorrra. 

12. Proboscis directed downward or backward 13 

Proboscis directed forward ; arista of anteunu> very short Ite(tphUa. 

13. Face naked 14 

Face clothed witii bristly hairs Empinwrpha (p. 396). 

14. Hind legs longer than the others, hind femora scarcely or not at all thick- 

ened 15 

Hind legs not longer than the others, hind femora greatly thickened, eyes in 

both sexes widely separated I'achijmeria. 

15. Proboscis not or scarcely longer than height of head Hilara (p. 394). 

Proboscis considerably longer than heigiit of head Empis (p. 397), 


16. Auul cell preseut, sixtli vein uever wholly wanting 17 

Anal cell wholly wanting, only the vein at its apex sometimes present, 

sixth vein wholly Avauting, discal cell united with one of the other 
cells 31 

17. Discfil cell present, complete 18 

Discal cell united with one of the other cells 30 

18. Three veins issue from the discal cell, fourth vein always simple, never 

forked 19 

Two Aeins issue from the discal cell 23 

19. Vein at apex of anal cell nearly parallel with the hind margin of the wing, 

anal cell much shorter than the second hasal 20 

Vein at apex of anal cell not parallel with the hind margin of the wing, anal 

cell almost as long as or longer than the second hasal cell 22 

20. Prohoscis as long as or longer than height of head, antenuic distinctly three 

jointed 21 

Prohoscis shorter than height of head, antenna- a])pareutly two jointed 

Microphorus (p. 409). 

21. Face naked Bhamphornyia (p. 409). 

Face clothed with l)ristly hairs Neocota fp. 434). 

22. Second vein termiiuites in the costa, anal cell closed far from the wing 

margin Sciodrom /« . 

Second vein terminates in the first, anal cell reaches the wing margiu 

Ifythicomyia (p. 409). 

23. Fourth vein simple, not forked 24 

Fourth vein forked, anal cell as long as or longer than the second basal, 

the vein at its apex nearly perjiendicular to the hind margin of the 
wing Meyhyperus (p. 435). 

24. Vein at apex of anal cell nearly i)erpendicular to the hind margin of the 

wing 25 

Vein at apex of anal cell nearly parallel with the hind margin of the wing- 
Some females of Bhamphomyia (p. 409). 

25. Antennal arista apical 26 

Antennal arista subdorsal, third antennal joint oval, anal cell shorter than 

the second basal Ocydromia. 

26. Anal cell as long as or longer than the second basal 27 

Anal cell shorter than the second basal, origin of second vein from the 

first nearer to tlie humeral than to the small cross vein. Leptope:a (p. 435). 

27. Origin of the second veiu nearer the small cross vein than to tlie humeral, 

or midway between tlieui 28 

Origin of the second vein nearer the humeral than to the suiall cross \eiu 

Syueches (p. 436). 

28. Vein between first and second basal cells present 29 

Vein between first and second basal cells wanting Syndyas. 

29. Eyes in both sexes widely separated oi] the face, under side of first two 

joints of hind tarsi bearing short black spines Hyhos (p. 437). 

Eyes in both sexes contiguous ou the face, under side of hind tarsi destitute 

of stout black spines Euhybiis ( ii. 437). 

30. Middle femora sleuder, vein at apex of anal cell uearly parallel with the 

hind margin of the wiug Cyrloma. 

Middle femora greatly thickened, vein at apex of anal cell nearly perpen- 
dicular to the hind margin of the wing PUttypalpus (p. 438). 

31. Antennal arista apical 32 

Antennal arista dorsal or subdorsal 33 

32. Frout femora thickened Tachydromia (p. 439). • 

Front femora not thickened Brapel'i^. 

33. Palpi broad, front of an etjual breadth St)Ji>on. 

Palpi narrow, elongate - Phoueittisca. 


Genus HEMERODROMIA, Meigen. 

The occurrence in North America of H. precatoria, Meigen, rests on 
Walker's authority, and will re(|uire verifying- before being accepted. 
Our species are brought together in the following table: 


Anal cell, or at least the cross vein at its apex, present. 

Thorax and abdomen yellow defecla. 

Thorax and abdomen black alhlpes. 

Anal cell wholly absent. 

1. Thorax, or at least the pleura and sternum, red or yellowish 2 

Thorax wholly blaclc, no large tubercle on underside of front femora near the 

base captus (p. 391). 

2. With a medio-dorsal black vitta on the thorax, front femora destitute of a 

large tubercle on the under side near the base empiformia. 

With two black dorsal vitt;e on the thorax, front femora bearing a large, 

si)ine tipped tubercle on the under side near the base super stit'wsa. 

With no black A'itta on the thorax, front femora as in the preceding species 

nxjatoris (p. 392). 


Male. — Head black, white pollinose, depressed; antenna' and pro- 
boscis light yellow; proboscis rigid, slightly shorter than height of 
head, projecting obliquely backward; first antennal joint one-half as 
long as the second, the third two and a half times as long as the second 
and one and a half times as broad, broadlj^ oval but tapering to the 
apex, the apical third styliform; upper side of third joint short pilose; 
style robust, one-third as long as the third joint; eyes bare, widely 
separated. Thorax, scutellum, metaiiotum, pleura, and sternum black, 
opa(]ue grayish pollinose, bristles of thorax and of scutellum micro- 
scopic. Abdomen brownish black, the sides narrowly, front corners of 
each segment and the venter, yellow. Legs, including the cox.t?, light 
yellow, front femora not longer than the cox;e, greatly thickened, 
nearly three times as thick as the tibije, with small teeth below, as has 
also the tibia?. Base of front femora destitute of a tubercle on the 
inner side beyond apex of the folded tibiiie, the spine at this point 
springing directly from the surface. Wings hyaline, stigma wanting, 
as are also the discal and anal cells ; second basal cell exceeding the first 
by about twice the length of the cross vein at apex of the second; 
upper fork of fourth vein about equaling the length of the penultimate 
section of that vein. Hal teres light yellow. 

Type. — No. 3151, U.S.N.M.; length, 2 to 3 mm. Five specimens 
in the National Museum collection. 

Locality. — New York. 



The male differs from H. captus as follows : Tliorax, scutellum, metano- 
tum, pleura, and sternum light red. Abdomen in middle of dorsum 
brownish red, the seventh segment wholly light yellow; hypopygium 
large, projecting both above and below the abdomen, reddish brown. 
Middle and hind coxie light red; on the under side of each front femur 
near its base, and just beyond the tip of the folded tibia, is a rather 
large blunt tubercle, bearing at its summit a stout spine directed 
obliquely forward. 

Type.—^o. 3152, U.S.X.M.; length, 4 mm. A single specimen. 

Locality. — North Carolina. 

NEOPLASTA, new genus. 

Head somewhat depressed, eyes widely separated in both sexes; 
antenn:e much shorter than the head, three jointed, third joint oval, 
slightly longer than broad, pointed at the apex, thickly short pilose; 
style apical, robust, much shorter than the third joint; i)roboscis pro- 
jecting downward, snbequal in length to height of head; palpi small, 
nearly cylindrical. Front coxa^ two-thirds as long as the front femora, 
the latter nearly twice as thick as the other femora, which are slender; 
none of the tibi;e armed with a stout spur at the tip. Wings with the 
third vein forked, the discal cell present and sending three veins to the 
wing margin ; second basal cell united witli the discal, anal cell present, 
the vein at its apex nearly perpendicular to the hind margin of the wing. 

Type. — Hemerodromia scapuhiris, Loew, in the IMuseum of Compara- 
tive Zoology, Cambridge, Massachusetts. 

Genus MANTIPEZA, Rondani. 


1. Thorax largely yellow, abdomen and venter partly yellow 2 

Thorax and abdomen wholly ash-gray, stigma of wings yellowish brown, .valida. 

2. Lateral margins of thorax black, scutellum blackish , 3 

Lateral margins of thorax yellowish, scutellum light yellow paUoris (p. 392). 

3. Thorax with amedio-dorsal black vitta, stigma of wings ronnd, black notata. 

Thorax destitute of such a vitta, stigma very pale yellowish, scarcely visible 


Loew's three species of this genus were originally described under 


Male and female. — Head, black; face, cheeks, and lower part of front 
nearly to the lowest ocellus, yellow, densely white pollinose; antennre, 
proboscis, and palpi, light yellow. Thorax reddish yellow, marked 
with two slightly darker vitta^ and with a whitish stripe between them; 


pleura reddish yellow; scutelluiu light yellow, beariug two long apical 
and two much shorter lateral bristles; metanotum reddish brown; 
abdomen yellow, with a medio dorsal, indistinct brownish vitta; legs 
and halteres yellow; wings hyaline; stigma wanting. 

Types.— :Sos. 3153 and 3154, U.S.X.M.; length, 4 to 5 mm. Three 
males and one female. 

Locality. — New Hampshire. 

Genus BRACHTSTOMA, Meigen. 

The species described by Loew belong to BlepJiaroprocta, a genus 
which he founded for their reception. 


UfaJe. — Head black, grny pollinose; eyes separated as widely as the 
ui)i>er ocelli, facets of a uniform size; face naked, scarcely one-half as 
wide as the front; antenna' yellow, the third joint except at base, and 
the style, brown; first joint shorter tluin the second, the third lanceo- 
late, scarcely twice as long as broad, twice as long as the second; style 
terminal, curved, one-third longer than the third joint: proboscis yellow, 
thick, perpendicular, nearly two-thirds as long as height of head; palpi 
whitish, perpendicular. Thorax very shining black; pleura blackish, 
opaque light gray ])ollinose; metanotum and scutellum the same, the 
latter bearing two bristles ; no pile in front of halteres. Abdomen com- 
pressed, shining yellowish, a large dorsal blackish-brown spot on each 
segment; hypopygium large, ascending, each upper lamella j)roduced 
at the outer angles into a jiair of long, erect, cylindrical, brown pro- 
cesses; middle lamellae very large, each bearing at its tip a rather large 
curved process, in front of which is a small, pilose tubercle, while 
behind it is a smaller tubercle bearing a few long whitish bristles; the 
inner side of each middle lamella bears a long, cylindrical, brown-tipped 
process; filament slender, arcuate, proceeding from apex of the rather 
large lower lamella. Legs, including the coxte, yellow; front coxae not 
one-half as long as their femora; front and hind femora slender, the 
middle greatly thickened, nearly twice as thick as the front ones; their 
under sides thickly beset with very short black spines and with longer 
black bristles; inner side of middle tibiic also thickly beset with very 
short black spines; hind femora bearing a black bristle on front side 
before the apex, a similar one on outer side of hind tibia' near the base; 
all metatarsi nearly equally slender, the hind ones one-third longer than 
the others. Knob of halteres yellow. Wings nearly hyaline, stigma 
wanting, first basal cell slightly longer than the anal, which is a trifle 
longer than the second basal. 

Tyjye — Xo. 3155, U.S.X.M. ; length, 4 mm. Eeceived by the author 
from Mr. Charles Robertson. 

Locality. — Illinois. 


Genus HILARA, Meigen. 


1. Thorax liliick 3 

Thorax, femora^ and lialteres yellow 2 

Thorax aud abdomen metallic green viridis (p. 395). 

2. wholly brown, pile on inner side of nuddle tibi;e long testacea. 

Tarsi brown only at apex, elsewhere yellow, j)ile on inner side of middle 

tibia' short Udea. 

3. Femora black 10 

Femora yellowish 4 

4. Knob of lialteres yellowish 6 

Knob of halteres black 5 

5. AVings darker at apex than toward the base, scntellnm bearing six bristles; 

length, 5 mm umhrosa. 

Wings not darker at apex than elsewhere, scntellnm bearing only four 

bristles ; length, 3 mm (jrncilis. 

Wings gray ; length of body, 2 mm mUjraia. 

6. Abdomen wholly black 7 

Abdomen on basal half yellow, palpi yellow, stigma blackish brown basalis. 

7. Posterior legs and the stigma blackish pJeheja. 

Postei'ior legs largely or wholly yellow 8 

8. Palpi yellow, stigma blackish 9 

Palpi black, stigma obsolete iiuivroplera. 

9. Pile of thorax in rows, front metatarsi thickeued, ovate .scrkita. 

Pile not in rows, front metatarsi not thickened, anteuna^ of male eight times 

as long as the head joJutsoiti (p. 395). 

10. Knob of halteres black 12 

Knob of halteres yellowish, palpi black 11 

11. Stigma brownish black, knees yellow irivittala. 

Stigma obsolete, knees whitish lencoptera. 

12. Stigma brownish black 13 

Stigma obsolete, palpi black, front femora in both sexes very thick, knees, 

tips of front tibia' and their tarsi yellow femorata. 

13. Thorax grayish-black, never velvety 14 

Thorax aud head velvet black, scntellnm aud abdomen shining, palpi black, 

coxa> and legs wholly black veluiina. 

14. Abdomen shining or subshiuing 17 

Abdomen opaque, palpi, coxfe, and legs, excepting the knees, wholly black.. 15 

15. Front velvet black, wings blackish Iristis. 

Front grayish, not velvety ; wings hyaline or pale grayish 16 

16. Pile of abdomen largely yellowish, thorax marked with three blackish vitta- 

cuna (\t. 395). 
Pile of abdomen black, thorax not vittate miicolor. 

17. Palpi yellow 19 

Palpi black, coxse and legs, excepting the knees, black IS 

18. Thorax shining, not vittate atra. 

Thorax opaque gray pollinose, marked with three black vitta' tniiiabiUs. 

19. Front coxa» and base of front femora yellow, wings pale grayish nigrivetiiris. 

Front coxa' aud base of femora black, wings hyaline *. hrevipilu. 

Hilar a Iransfiuja, Walker, is too imperfectly described to admit of 
giving it a place in this table. 


HILARA JOHNSONI, new species. 

Male and fem(de. — Black; the palpi, balteres, coxie, femora and tibiae 
yellow. Eyes of male sei)arated over twice the width of the lowest 
ocellus. Head, thorax, aud scutellum opaque gray pollinose, that oii 
the thorax somewhat yellowish, their short pile and bristles black; 
scutelluiii bearing four bristles; abdomen subshining, its pile rather 
long, black. Wings hyaline, stigma dark brown. Proboscis of male 
slightly over one-half as long as, in the female fully as long as, height 
of head. Antennjc of female three times as long as the head, bat in 
the male excessively long, being tally eight times as long as the head, 
the third joint five times as loug as the first, the style three-fourths 
as long as the third Joint and coiled spirally toward its tip, a character 
not occurring in any other Empid known to me. 

Types. — Xos. 3156 and 3157, U.S.iSr.M. Three males aud one female; 
length, 3.5 to 4 mm. Collected by 3Ir. C. W. Johnson, of Philadelphia,, 
rennsylvania, after whom I take pleasure in naming this remarkable 

Locality. — l^ufanla, Alabama. 

HILARA CANA, new species. 

2Ialc. — Wholly black, including the palpi aud kiiees. Head opaque, 
gray pollinose, the pile black. First two antennal joints subequal in 
length, the third three times as long as the second, style nearly as long 
as the third joint. Proboscis as long as height of head. Eyes widely 
separated. Thorax opaque gray pollinose, marked with three brownish- 
black vitttv, pile and bristles black; pleura naked. Scutellum bearing- 
four black bristles. Abdomen and hypopygium opaque gray pollinose, 
the pile largely yellowish. Legs bearing rather long scattered pile, 
none of the femora unusually robust, front tibite more robust than the 
middle ones, front metatarsi greatly enlarged. Wings hyaline, stigma 

Fe))tale. — Like the male, except that the front tibitB are not thicker 
than the middle ones, and the front metatarsi are not enlarged. 

Ty2)es.—l^o». 3158 and 3159, U.S.X.M.; length, 3 to 4 mm. Twelve 
males and seven females collected by the writer in February aud March. 

Loccdity, — Southern California. 

HILARA VIRIDIS, new species. 

Male. — Shining metallic; green, the pleura largely black, antennre, 
proboscis, hypopygium, and legs yellowish brown ; eyes separated width 
of lower ocellus; proboscis slightly shorter than height of head ; halteres 
black; pile and bristles of entire body black; scutellum bearing only 
two bristles; wings hyaline, veins yellowish, anterior branch of third 
vein perpendicular to that veiu. 

Type. — Xo. 3160, U.S.N. M., a single specimen; length, 2.5 mm. Col- 
lected by Mr. T. D. A. Cockerell, November 3, 1892. 

Locality. — Kingston, Jamaica, West Indies. 


EMPIMORPHA, new genus. 

f^ame as Empix, except that tbe face is covered with long- bristly hairs; 
aiiteimal style apical, proboscis directed downward, longer than height 
of head; third vein forked; discal cell perfect, sending three veins to 
tlie wing margin ; anal cell shorter than the second basal, the vein at 
its apex nearly parallel with the hind margin of the wing. 

Tiipc. — Empimorpha comantis, new species, described below. 

Two species, both from California, occur in our fauna. 


Wiugs brown, costal cell reddish, pile iu front of halteres aud ou sides of abdo- 
nieu black harhaia. 

Wings, including the costal cell, hyaline or grayish, pile in front of halteres ;ind 
on sides of abdomen whitish comantis. 


Male. — Head bhick, gray pollinose ; pile of face mixed black and white; 
«yes narrowly separated, the space between them being narrower than 
ividth of lowest ocellus, the upi)er facets noticeably larger than the lower 
ones; an tenure black, the second joint reddish, slightly over oue-third 
as long as the tirst; third Joint sube(iual with the first, twice as long 
as broad; style slender, as long as the third joint; proboscis two and 
one-half times as long as height of head, projecting obliquely down- 
ward and backward; palpi slender, curving u]>ward, yellowish, the base 
brown, the pile black and white. Thorax black, shining, three vittte 
and the broad lateral margins opaque gray pollinose; pile of thorax 
very abundant, whitish, two longitudinal stripes of largely black pile 
on the dorsum; pleura black, gray pollinose, its pile whitish. Scutel- 
lum black, thickly whitish pilose, destitute of stout bristles. Abdomen 
shining black, depressed, twice as long as wide; its pile very abundant, 
on the tirst two segments and sides of the others largely whitish, on 
dorsum of remaining segments mostly black; hypopygium small, cen- 
tral filament hidden except at base. Legs rather robust, reddish yellow ; 
coxa^, under side of each femur, apex of each tibia, and of each tarsal 
joint, blackish ; legs simple, the pile abundant. Knob of halteres black. 
Wings hyaline, grayish toward the apex; veins, stigma, aud a spot above 
furcation of second and third veins, dark brown. 

Female. — Same as the male, except that the first abdominal segment 
and the bases of the second and third are opatjue gray pollinose. 

Types.— ^os. 31G1 and 3102, U.S.KM.; length, 11 mm. A male and 
female were received from Mr. (Charles Fuchs, of San Francisco, Cali- 

Locality. — Xorthern California. 


Genus EMPIS, Linnaeus. 

As stated oii a i)iecediiiii' page, Enoplempis mira, Bigot, and E. cin- 
erea, Bigot, both belong to Empis. However, as the name Empis 
cinerca is preoecui»ied for a European species. Bigot's description of 
E. cinerca should be canceled. 

Empis gcnicKhita, Kirby, is evidently a synonym of E. luctuosa, Kirby, 

Empis sociahilis, Williston, is described in the Kansas University 

Empis agasthus, Walker, is too imperfectly described to be admitted 
in the table given below; it is from Iludsous Bay; is black, the hal teres 
and legs yellowish, apices of femora, of tibite, and of tarsi blackish^ 
the wings colorless; length, 3 ram. 


1. Thorax, including the pleura, wholly black Iff 

Thorax, or at least the pleura, and also the femora, largely or wholly yel- 
lowish 2 

2. Knob of halteres yellowish 3 

Knob of halteres blackish, head black, thorax with a medio-dorsal black 

vitta h'ptogastra. 

3. Thorax yellowish, marked with four or five blackish vitt;e 4 

Thorax not vittate, or with a medio-dorsal vitta, or the entire dorsum gray- 
ish black 8 

4. Head grayish black 5 

Head and abdomen yellow ; hind femora black vittate, and in the male fur- 
nished with teeth-like processes on the under side near the apex ; hind 
tibi;e furnished with similar processes near the base mira. 

5. Abdomen, except sometimes at apex, wholly black, coxte black (> 

Abdomen yellow, base of each segment blackish, coxa- yellow, femora not 

vittate, hind femora and tibia' of male simple sordida, 

6. Front and middle femora black vittate, antenufe yelloAv except at tip, pro- 

boscis as long as the thorax eudamides. 

Front and middle femora destitute of black vittiTj 7 

7. Proboscis shorter than the body, antennse wholly black, dorsum of thorax 

never grayish, wings brownish olliiis. 

Proboscis nearly as loug as the body, first two joints of antennii? yellowish, 

dorsum of thorax grayish, wings hyaline abcirus. 

8. Head yellowish 9 

Head blackish 12 

9. Abdomen yellowish, unmarked 10 

Abdomen blackish, sides and hind margin of each segment yellow, eyes of 

male separated, hind legs furnished with teeth-like processes armipes. 

10. First two joints of antenna' yellow; length, 4 mm 14 

First two joints of antennae black; length, 6 mm colon ica. 

11. Anterior branch of third vein connected with the second by a cross vein, all 

cross veins bordered with brown pocciloptera. 

Anterior branch not connected with the second vein, cross veins not bor- 
dered pallida. 

iVol. II, p. 76 (1893). 


12. Abdomen, except sometimes the sides, wholly hlackish; autenuie black 14 

Abdomen yellowish; apex of each segment, and sometimes a median vitta, 

blackish ; doisnm of thorax grayish black 13 

Abdomen and thoiax yellow, unmarked; eyes of male snbcoutiguous; fila- 
ment of hypopyginm free, slender, arcuate riifescens. 

13. Abdomen with a medio dorsal black vitta, first two joints of antenna' black, 

pleura unmarked -• lougipes. 

Abdomen destitnte of a medio-dorsal vitta, first two joints of anteunai 
yellow, pleura marked with black, scutellum bearing four bris- 
tles 7ii(m;7e(p.403). 

14. Sides of thorax and of veuter not thickly pilose 15 

Sides of thorax and of veuter covered with long, abundant yellow pile, hmirentris. 

15. Tibiio wholly yellow, hind legs simple amijiis. 

Tibia black on apical part, hind ieniora near the apex and hind tibiie near 

the base furuished with teeth-like processes in the male; eyes widely 
separated, scntellum bearing two bristles loripedis (p. 400). 

16. Femora black or very dark brown 42 

Femora largely or wholly yellowish 17 

17. Knob of halteres yellowish 22 

Knob of halteres blackish 18 

18. Front and middle cox;tp black 19 

Front and middle cox;b yellow, anterior branch of third vein usually ending 

in the second, eyes of male contiguous, filament of hypopygium slen- 
der, hidden except on basal part; both sides of each femur and tibia, 
and upper side of front and hind metatarsi in the female ciliate with 
scales clauaa (p. 401). 

19. Pile of abdomen black, sparse; that of thorax sparse 20 

Pile on sides of abdomen white, abundant, thorax thickly pilose, scutellum 

pilose and bearing twelve marginal bristles, hind femora twice as thick 

as their tibiie, anteunal style as long as the third joint., comanfis (p. 402). 

20. Palpi yellow ; length, 7 to 9 mm 21 

Paljii black, apices of tibia- blackish, wings brownish, eyes of male contig- 
uous, filament of hypopygium hidden ; length, 4 mm spiloptera.' 

21. Sciatellum bearing ten marginal bristles, abdomen on first four segmeuts 

opaque gray pollinose, wiugs hyaline vnlentis (p. 402). 

Scntellum bearing only four bristles, abdomen shining, wings brownish gray, 

eyes of male separated, filament of hypopygium filiform., liumile (p. 403). 

22. Wings hyaline or grayish 24 

Wings brown 23 

23. Anteunal style almost one-half as long as the broad third joint, eyes of male 

widely separated itnehrosa (p. 404). 

Anteunal style less than one-fourth as long as the elongated third joint, eyes 

of male contiguous S2)ectahiUs. 

24. Abdomeu black or dark brownish 27 

Abdomen yellowish, sometimes marked witli black 25 

25. Dorsum of abdomeu not marked with black in the middle 26 

Dorsum of abdomen more or less black in the middle, eyes of male wideh' 

separated, filament of hypojiygium very thick at base, then suddenly 
attenuated ; length, 6^ mm loripedis (p. 400). 

26. With a long bristle on costa near its base, pile of abdomen black, stigma dis- 

tinct; length, 6 mm tersa (p. 404). 

Without such a bristle, pile of abdomen whitish, stigma wanting; length, 

31 mm compta (p. 405). 

27. Pile in front of halteres black 30 

Pile in front of halteres whitish ; length, 6 to 7 mm 28 


28. .Scntellum bearing at least sis bristles, under side of apical half of bind femora 

of female ciliate with scales ravida (p. 403). 

Scutelhim bearing only two bristles, both sides of middle and hind femora 

and tibi;t3 of female ciliate with scales captus (p. 405), 

.Scutellnm bearing four bristles, legs of female not ciliate. 29 

29. Wings grayish, stigma distinct avida (p. 405). 

Wings whitish, stigma wanting levicula (p. 406). 

30. Males 31 

Females 36 

31. Filament of liypopygium free, at least on lower half 32 

Filament hidden, eyes widely separated; hind femora on under side near the 

tip, and hind tibia' near the base, bearing teeth-like processes. .. poiilitea. 

32. Hind femora near the tip and hind tibi;c near the base destitute of teeth- 

like processes 33 

Hind femora and tibia' bearing stich processes, eyes separated marica (p. 406). 

33. Abdomen shining 34 

Abdomen opaque, eyes widely separated, hind trochanters produced at apex 

and ciliate with black spines; filament of hypopygium unusually 
thick at base 35 

34. Front coxfe black, eyes widely separated, scntellum bearing four bristles, wing 

veins brown ; length, 5 ram. ; antennal style one-third as long as the 
third joint otiosa (p. 407). 

Front coxa' black, veins brown, antennal style over one-half as long as third 

joint Immile (p. i03). 

Front coxiT> yellow, wing veins white ; length, 3 mm varipes. 

Front coxfe brown, scutellum bearing only two bristles, all femora not fur- 
nished with black spines on the under side, wing veins blackish ; length, 
4 mm distans. 

35. Hypopygium with a backwardly curving, lunate jirocess on its under side, 

wings pure hyaline, pollen of abdomen light gray reciproca, 

Hypopygium destitute of such a process, wings grayish, pollen of abdomen 

brownish nuda. 

36. Abdomen opaque 3g 

Abdomen shiuiug 37 

37. Front coxte yellow ; length, 3^ mm varipes. 

Front coxic black ; length, 6 mm otiosa (p. 407). 

38. Costa destitute of a long bristle near its base 39 

Costa bearing such a bristle, which equals the second joint of the front tarsi 

in length ; front and hind metatarsi subequal in length manca (p. 406). 

39. Metatarsi yellowish 40 

Metatarsi black, pollen of abdomen brownish nuda. 

40. Third antennal joint slender, elongate 41 

Third joint broad, short, scarcely twice as long as the style; second segment 

of abdomen bearing a fringe of long black bristles toward the sides 
near the hind margin gulosa (p. 408). 

41. Eastern species (New Hampshire) reciproca. 

Y/estern species (Colorado to Alaska) poplitea. 

42. Knob of halteres blackish 55 

Knob of halteres yellowish 43 

43. Males 44 

Females 5q 

44. Eyes contiguous, or nearly so 46 

Eyes distinctly separated 45 

45. Legs very slender, filament of hypopygium hidden, abdomen opaque; length, 

4 mm stenoptera. 

Legs very robust, filament free, abdomen shining, the last segment destitute 

of white pollen otiosa (p. 407). 


46. Veuter destitute of a bristly process in front of the hypopygium 47 

Venter furnished with two curved, bhxck, bristly processes in front of the 

hypopygium; filament of the latter hidden ; length, over 6 mm. .hevigata. 
Venter with a single large process bristly at the posterior cud; thorax sub- 
opaque gray pollinose, with three subshiuing black \ittx.. rirgaia (p. 408). 

47. Wings brownish; length, 3^ mm 48 

Wings hyaline 49 

48. Anterior branch of third vein straight and nearly perpendicular, fourth vein 

not reaching the wing margin. . lahiata. 

Anterior branch very oblique, filament of hypopygium very thick ohesa. 

49. Fourth vein reaches the wing margin; anterior branch of the third vein 

curved and very oblique, scutellum bearing four bristles; length, 5 to 
6 mm sociabilis. 

Fourth vein reaches the wing margin, scutellum bearing six or more bristles; 

length, 6 to 8 mm ravida (p. 403). 

Fourth vein not reaching the wing margin ; anterior branch of third vein 

straight and nearly perpendicular; length, nearly 4 mm distans. 

50. Posterior femora not ciliate with scales 52 

Posterior femora ciliate with nearly erect scales 51 

51. Anterior tibia; ciliate with scales distaus. 

Anterior tibia) not ciliate lahiata. 

52. Abdomen shining or subshiniug 53 

Abdomen opaque, light gray pollinose, legs slender, base of femora and of 

tibia? yellow; length, 4 mm stenoptera. 

53. Abdomen depressed, very robust, hind femora furnished with stout black 

spines on the under side ; length, 6 to 7 mm 54 

Abdomen compressed, slender, hind femora destitute of spines on the under 

side ; legs slender ; length, 5 to 6 mm sociabilis. 

54. Thorax opaque, costa of wing bearing a long bristle near its base, contact 

of the fourth posterior cell with the discal equal to the contact of sec- 
ond basal cell with the fourth posterior otiosa (p. 407)* 

Thorax wholly shining, costa of wings destitute of a long bristle, contact of 
fourth posterior cell with the discal nearly twice as long as the con- 
tact of the second basal cell with the fourth posterior lo'vigata. 

Thorax shining except four pollinose vittiB virgata (p. 408). 

55. Anterior branch of third vein terminates in the costa 56 

Anterior branch of third vein usually terminates in the second, this branch 

and the small and posterior cross veins bordered with brown, all 
femora and tibi;e of female ciliate with nearly erect scales. c?aitsa (p. 401). 

56. Legs of female not ciliate with scales 57 

Legs of female ciliate with nearly erect scales; scutellum bearing only two 

bristles ; length, 3 to 4 mm distans. 

57. Wings colorless; length, 4 mm corimis. 

Wings brownish ; scutellum bearing about twenty bristles, length 5 mm. . hictuosa. 

EMPIS LORIPEDIS, new species. 

Male. — Head black, gray pollinose ; eyes separated as widely as the 
posterior ocelli, facets of a uniform size; antenuse black, third joint 
somewhat over twice as long as the first, slender, tapering gradually to 
the middle, thence of an equal breadth ; style nearly one-third as long as 
the third joint; i)roboscis one and one-half times as long as height of 
head, palpi yellow. Thorax black, opaque gray pollinose, marked with 


four dark-brownisli vittiB, almost destitute of pile, the bristles black- 
pleura black, sometimes partly yellowish, bluish gray pollinose. pile 
iu frout of halteres black ; scutellum black, gray pollinose, bear- 
ing two bristles. Abdomen compressed, shining, black j the broad 
hind margin of each segment laterally yellow, sometimes extending to 
the anterior edges of the segment, dividing the black color into three 
vittas medio-dorsal and lateral; pile of abdomen sparse, black; venter 
yellow; hypopyginm rather large, ascending, abundant black pilose, 
middle lamelhie yellow, broadening to the tip; iilamcnt very thick at 
base, then suddenly attenuated and bristle-like, arcuate. Legs, includ- 
ing the coxne, light yellow; apical half of front tibi* and extreme apex 
of the others, front tarsi wholly, apex of iirst two joints and the whole 
of the remaining joints on the middle and hind tarsi, usually but not 
always dark brown ; all tibiie and tarsi furnished with numerous long 
bhick pile; on the under side of each hind femur before its apex is an 
irregular, three-pronged process, and on the inner side of each hind tibia 
near its base are two processes, one behind the other; just before the 
basal process the tibia is hollowed out; front metatarsi nearly twice as 
long and three times as thick as the middle ones, hind metatarsi one- 
half thicker and one-third longer than the middle ones. Knob of hal- 
teres light yellow. Wings dark gray, stigma slightly darker, veins 
dark brown. 

Female. — Like the male, except that the hind femora and tibiae are 
destitute of processes, the front metatarsi are not thicker than the 
middle ones, while the hind metatarsi are much thicker than and fully 
as long as the front ones; abdomen tapering to the apex. 

Types.— Nos. 3163 and 31G1, U.S.N.M.; length, G to 7 mm. Five 
males and five females were received from Mr. Charles Eobertson and 
Prof. H. E. Weed. 

Locality. — Illinois and Ohio. 

EMPIS CLAUSA, new species. 

Male. — Head black, subshining, eyes contiguous, upper facets much 
larger than the lower ones; antennte black, the third joint quite short, 
rather broad at base; style two-thirds as long as the third joint; pro- 
boscis two and one-half to four times as long as height of head, palpi 
brown. Thorax, iDleura, and scutellum black, opaque, gray pollinose, 
pile in front of halteres black; scutellum bearing two bristles. Abdo- 
men black, su.bshining, toward the base more or less tinged with yel- 
lowish, its pile black; hypopygium very small, porrect; filament slender, 
yellow, hidden except on basal half. Legs simple, slender, the middle 
and hind femora and all the tibiae furnished with many very long black 
pile; coxoe yellow, the hind ones brown; femora yellow, the hind ones, 
except at base, blackish ; tibiae and tarsi blackish, extreme base of each 
tibia 5'ellowish; hind tibiae greatly dilated toward the tip, bowing 
inward at the middle; front metatarsi nearly t^vice as thick as the 
Proc. N. M. 95 20 


middle ones, liind metatarsi nearly as tliick and slightly longer tlian 
the front ones. Knob of halteres blackish. Wings hyaline, stigma 
and a broad border to the anterior branch of the third vein and on the 
small and the posterior cross veins, dark brown ) veins brown, fonrth 
vein obliterated before reaching the wing margin, anterior branch of 
third vein nsually ending in the second vein, closing the first submar- 
ginal cell; contact of discal and fourth posterior cells much longer than 
that of the third and fourth posterior cells. 

Female. — Differs from the male in that the legs are wholly brown, 
compressed, and the upper and under sides of all the femora, outer 
and inner sides of all the tibire, and upper sides of the front and hind 
metatarsi, ciliate with long, nearly erect scales. Base of abdomen 
never tinged with yellow. 

Types.— Bo&. 3165 and 31G6, U.S.N.M. ; length, 4 m